BIO Chapter 7 DNA Structure and Replication

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Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

the molecule of heredity, common to all like forms, that is passed from parents to offspring.


a single, large DNA molecule wrapped around proteins. chromosomes are located in the nuclei of most eukaryotic cells


the building blocks of DNA. each nucleotide consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a base. the sequence of nucleotides (As, Cs, Gs, and Ts) along a DNA strand is unique to each person

Double Helix

the spiral structure formed by two strands of DNA nucleotides bound together

DNA Profile

a visual representation of a person’s unique DNA sequence

DNA Replication

the natural process by which cells make an identical copy of a DNA molecule


fitting together; two strands of DNA are said to be complementary in the A always pairs with T, and G always pairs with C

DNA Polymerase

an enzyme that "reads" the sequence of a DNA strand and helps to add complementary nucleotides to form a new strand during DNA replication


DNA replication is said to be semiconservative because each newly made DNA molecule has one original and one new strand of DNA

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

a laboratory technique used to replicate, and thus amplify, a specific DNA segment


one complete set of genetic instructions encoded in the DNA of an organism

Short Tandem Repeats (STRs)

sections of a chromosome in which DNA sequences are repeated

Gel Electrophoresis

a laboratory technique that separates fragments of DNA by size

Which of the following is not a nucleotide found in DNA?

uracil (U)

If the sequence of one strand of DNA is AGTCTAGC, what is the sequence of the complementary strand?


In addition to the base, what are the other components of a nucleotide?

phosphate and sugar

The ________ chromosomes in a human cell from inside the cheek are found in the ________.

46; nucleus

Each chromosome contains

DNA and proteins

DNA replication is said to be semiconservative because a newly replicated, double-stranded DNA molecules consist of

one strand and one new strand

Which of the following statements about PCR is true?

DNA polymerase is the enzyme that copies DNA in PCR

Which STR will have migrated farthest through an electrophoresis gel?

GAAG repeated twice

An individual’s STR may vary from the same STR of another individual by

the number of times a particular sequence is repeated

Which of the following represents genetic variation between individuals?

the sequence of nucleotides along the length of each chromosome

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