BIO 101 Chapter 8

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Asexual and sexual reproduction differ in that sexual reproduction _____.

can produce great variation among the offspring

In bacterial cells, binary fission involves __________.

distribution of a copy of the single parental chromosome to each daughter cell

Within one chromosome, what is the relationship between the sequence of bases in DNA of one sister chromatid compared to the other?

The sequences are identical.

Which of the following statements correctly describes the timing of DNA synthesis?

DNA is synthesized in the S phase of interphase.

What would be the immediate consequence of destroying a cell’s centrosomes?

The mitotic spindle would not form.

During mitosis, the chromosomes move because _____.

they attach to a dynamic, precisely regulated mitotic spindle

A cell is treated with a drug that prevents the formation of vesicles. Which of the following processes depends on the formation of vesicles and would therefore be blocked?

cytokinesis in a plant cell

In the laboratory, cancer cells fail to show density-dependent inhibition of growth in cell culture. What is one explanation that could account for this?

Cancer cells continuously secrete growth factors into the cell culture medium.

When examining cells in the laboratory, you notice that a particular cell has half as much DNA as the surrounding cells. This observation can be explained if this cell’s cell cycle halted at checkpoint _____.


A benign and a malignant tumor differ in that _____.

cells of a benign tumor remain within the tumor, whereas cells of a malignant tumor can spread to other body tissues

In many organisms, including humans, chromosomes are found in homologous pairs. Homologous chromosomes _____.

are identical in the arrangement of their genes, but some versions of the genes may differ between the chromosomes

At the conclusion of meiosis I, the daughter cells are _____.

haploid and the sister chromatids are joined

In meiosis II, _____.

sister chromatids are separated

The M phase of mitosis and M phase of meiosis both occur after interphase. However, the two processes differ in the arrangement and behavior of their chromosomes. How?

The pairing up of homologous chromosomes and crossing over only occur during meiosis.

An example of a cell that is 2n is a __________.

somatic cell

During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes form a tetrad and crossing over occurs. What is the outcome of crossing over?

Crossing over creates new combinations of genes present on a single chromosome.

Although in humans there are 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes, only three different chromosomal trisomies are commonly seen in newborns. Of the remaining 19 autosomes, many trisomies have not been seen in newborns. Why not?

Trisomy for the other autosomal chromosomes is often lethal, and the affected embryos are miscarried.

In theory, when a nondisjunction for chromosome 18 occurs during meiosis I, four gametes can be produced. If these gametes are fertilized with unaffected gametes from the second parent, what observations would you make concerning the resulting embryos?

Two of the embryos will be trisomic for chromosome 18, and two will contain a single copy of chromosome 18.

Trisomy for most autosomes is fatal, yet trisomy or even tetrasomy (four copies) of the X chromosome is not. What is the explanation for this difference?

Only one copy of the X chromosome is functional, regardless of the total number of X chromosomes.

You suspect that a serious developmental disorder is due to a chromosome abnormality and prepare a karyotype from an affected individual. In analyzing the karyotype, how could you distinguish trisomy from a chromosome structural defect such as a duplication?

In trisomy there would be one extra chromosome; in a duplication, the number of chromosomes would be normal, but one chromosome would have two copies of a portion of the chromosome.

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