Bio 101-Exam 4-part 2

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Which of these bee dances communicates ONLY the information that a food source is nearby?

round dance

Which of these bee dances communicates information about the direction and distance to a food source?

waggle dance

In the waggle dance, distance to a food source is indicated by the speed of the dance and by the _____.

number of waggles

If you teach your dog to sit by giving him a treat for every correct response, this is an example of

operant conditioning

After eating at the new restaurant in town, you develop a mild case of food poisoning. Consequently, you never go back to that restaurant again. This is an example of

trial-and-error learning

In a classic experiment from the 1930s, a biologist conducted selective breeding experiments involving maze-running behavior in rats. He repeatedly bred together males and females that made the fewest mistakes, and he also bred together males and females that made the most mistakes. After eight generations, all mice that descended from "maze-smart" parents were better at running the maze than all mice that descended from "maze-dumb" parents. This study indicates that

trial-and-error learning in rats appears to have a genetic component

Martha McClintock found that the menstrual cycles of female college roommates became synchronous after 6 months of living together. She also found that armpit odors from one group of women affected the menstrual cycles of other women who sniffed the odors. These findings might indicate that

pheromones are involved in menstrual synchrony

Pheromones are species specific. True or False?


When city dwellers fail to respond to ordinary traffic sounds, it is an example of


When walking your male dog, you notice that he urinates on every vertical object in his path. His urine is used to "mark" his territory and serves as a chemical signal to other dogs. What does the urine contain?


A bird flashing white patches underneath its wings is an example of ________ communication

active visual

What is the function of the dominance hierarchy within a group of animals?

Minimize aggression

What is the advantage of play?

Play is a chance to practice skills such as hunting, fleeing, and social behaviors

Which of the following is a disadvantage for animals living in groups?

Increased chance of being spotted by predators

Honeybees will sting a bear that is robbing their hive even though the bees will die after they sting the bear. This is an example of


"Kin selection" refers to

an animal promoting the survival of the genes of its close relatives

Smiling when happy seems to be an expression common to all human societies, suggesting that this behavior is probably

genetic in origin.

Studies of identical human twins have shown that

their genes appear to have a great deal of influence on their behaviortheir genes appear to have a great deal of influence on their behavior

What makes the Wild Dolphin Project unique?

It is the longest running underwater study of its kind.

You are a marine biologist interested in how dolphins navigate through the oceans. Which of the following sounds should you focus on?


Which of the following animals finds prey using the same technique as dolphins?

Bats by using echolocation

Which of the following has been a large part of Dr. Denise Herzing’s research?


You wish to develop a machine to decode sounds that dolphins make that humans are unable to hear. What type of sound will your invention detect?

ultra-high frequencies


antagonistic behavior, normally members of the same species, that often results from competition for resources.


a behavior that benefits other individuals while reducing the fitness of the individual that preforms the behavior.


any observable activity of a living animal


act of producing a signal that causes a receiver, normally another animal of the same species, to change its behavior in a way that is, on average, beneficial to both signaler and receiver.

dominance hierarchy

a social structure that arises when the animals in a social group establish individual ranks that determine access to resources; ranks are usually established through aggressive interactions.


the study of animal behavior


a type of simple learning characterized by a decline in response to a repeated stimulus.


type of learning in which an animal acquires a particular type of information during a specific sensitive phase of development


inborn;instinctive; an innate behavior is performed correctly the first time it is attempted.

insight learning

type of learning in which a problem is solved by understanding the relationships among the components of the problem rather through trial and error.

kin selection

type of natural selection that favors traits that enhance the survival or reproduction of an individuals relatives, even if the traits reduce the fitness of the individuals bearing them.


process by which behavior is modified in response to experience.

operant conditioning

laboratory training procedure in which an animal learns to preform a response (such as pressing a lever) through reward or punishment.


chemical produced by an organism that alters the behavior or physiological state of another member or the same species.


defense of an area in which important resources are located.


type of learning in which behavior is modified in response to the positive or negative consequences of an action.

waggle dance

symbolic form of communication used by honeybee foragers to communicate the location of a food source to their hive mates.

An ideal habitat with unlimited resources is associated with

Exponential growth.

The maximum population a habitat can support is its

Carrying capacity

Logistic growth involves

Population growth slowing down as the population approaches carrying capacity.

In exponential growth

Population size grows faster and faster as the population gets bigger

Which of the following would NOT cause population size to decrease?

Increased birth rate

Which of these species typically has a mortality rate that remains fairly constant over an individual’s life span?


Oyster populations are primarily, if not exclusively, composed of _____.


Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of oysters?


Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of humans?


Which of these was the first of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population?

the advent of agriculture

Which of these was the second of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population?

the Industrial Revolution

Which of these was the third of the major events that stimulated an increase in the size of the human population?

the discovery of vaccines and the discovery of antibiotics

Currently, how large is the worldwide population of humans relative to Earth’s carrying capacity for humans?

There is insufficient information to answer this question

The population of Greece is expected to _______.


Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more children than reproductive-age individuals.


Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more children than elderly members of the population


Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more reproductive-age individuals than children.


Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Greece will have more elderly than reproductive-age individuals


Greece had more females than males in 2000. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this?

Males generally have a shorter life span than females

The population of Colombia is currently _______.


Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more children than reproductive-age individuals.


Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more children than elderly members of the population.


Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more reproductive-age individuals than children.


Assuming the current trend continues, in 30 years Colombia will have more elderly than reproductive-age individuals.


The study of how organisms interact with one another and with their nonliving environment is


The different species within an ecosystem that interact in various ways make up a(n)


All members of a species that reside within an ecosystem make up a(n)


Which species has the highest biotic potential?

A fungus that produces thousands of reproductive spores every day

The United States has the lowest replacement-level fertility (RLF) of the developed countries. True or False?


At present, Earth’s human population is

increasing expontentially

age structure diagram

graph showing the distribution of males and females in a population according to age groups.


ecosphere; all life on earth and the nonliving portions of earth that support life

biotic potential

max rate at which a pop is able to increase, assuming ideal conditions that allow a max birth rate and a min death rate.

birth rate

number of births per individual in a specified unit of time, such as a year.

boom-and-bust cycle

pop cycle characterized by rapid exponential growth followed by a sudden massive die-off, seen in seasonal species, such as many insects living in temperate climates, and in some populations of small rodents, such as lemmings.

carrying capacity

max population size that an ecosystem can support for a long period of time without damaging the ecosystem;determined by the availability of space,nutrients, water, and light.

clumped distribution

of organisms based on distribution of resources, most common type of distribution; individual are clustered into gorups


competition among members for food, water, mates, nesting sites increases with increasing population size; interaction among individuals who attempt to utilize a resource that is limited relative to the demand.

constant-loss population

relatively constant death rate, constant loss populations have a roughly linear suvivorship curve.

contest competition

type of competition in which dominant individuals deny other individuals access to a limited resource

demographic transition

a generalized description of the changing pattern of mortality, fertility and growth rates as societies move from one demographic regime to another. The term was first coined by the American demographer Frank W. Notestein in the mid-twentieth century, but it has since been elaborated and expanded upon by many others.


any factor, such as predation, that limits pop size to an increasing extent as the pop density increases.


an factor, such as floods, or fires, that limits a populations size regardless of its density.

developed country

such as US, Japan, Australia, and those in Europe whose residents have relatively high avg standards of living and good access to education, technology, and medical care.

early loss population

high birth rate, high death rate among juveniles, and lower death rates among adults; early loss pop have a concave survivorship curve


study of interrelationships of organisms with each other and with their nonliving environment


all the organisms and their nonliving environment within a defined area.


migration of individuals out of an area

environmental resistance

any factor that tends to counteract biotic potential, limiting population growth and the resulting population size.

exponential growth

continuously accelerating increase in population size; this type of growth generates a curve shaped like the letter "J"

growth rate

measure of the change in population size per individual per unit time


prey organism on or in which a parasite lives, host is harmed by the relationship.


migration of individuals into an area

interspecific competition

competition among individuals of different species

intraspecific competition

competition among individuals of the same species


growth curve of an exponentially growing population in which increasing numbers of individuals join the population during each succeeding time period

late-loss population

pop in which most individuals survive into adulthood; late-loss pop have a convex survivorship.

logistic population growth

characterized by early exponential growth phase, followed by slower growth as the population approached its carrying capacity, and finally reaching a stable population at the carrying capacity of the environment, this type of growth generates a curve shaped like a stretched out letter "S"

natural increas

difference between births and deaths in a population. this # will be positive if the population is increasing a negative if its is decreasing


organism that lives in or on a larger organism(a host), harming the host but usually not killing it immediately

population cycle

regularly recurring, cyclical changes in population size


an organism that eats other organisms


organisms that are eaten, and often killed by another organism(predator)

random distribution

characteristic of populations in which the probability of finding an individual is equal in all parts of an area

replacement level fertility (RLF)

avg # of offspring per female that is required to maintain a stable population

scramble competition

free for all scramble for limited resources among individuals of the same species


consists of an initial period of exponential growth, followed by a decreasing growth rate, and finally, relative stability around a growth rate of zero.

suvivorship curve

results when the # of individuals of each age in a population is graphed against their age, usually expressed as a percentage of their max life span.

suvivorship table

data table that groups organisms born at the same time and tracks them throughout their life span, recording how many continue to survive in each succeeding year. Parameters include: gender, socioeconomic status, etc

uniform distribution

distribution characteristic of a population with a relatively regular spacing of individuals, commonly as a result of territorial behavior.

A human eats a deer. Which of these terms applies to the relationship between the human and the deer?


Humans and sharks both eat fish. Which of these terms applies to the relationship between the human and the shark?


Humans who have pets tend to be healthier than humans who do not have pets. Which of these terms applies to the relationship between a human and a pet?


Which of these terms applies to the relationship between a dog and a blood-sucking tick?


Which of these is a starting point for primary succession?

a surface exposed by a retreating glacier

What does the y-axis show?

percentage of landscape occupied by a forest stage

What does the red graph line represent?

thinning stage

During which period were forest fires most extensive?


In 1770, how much of the landscape did the thinning stage occupy?


Which of the following best describes the Yellowstone Plateau landscape in 1900?

More than half of the landscape was occupied by forests in which shade-tolerant trees were becoming established.

Is this statement supported or not supported by the graph?
Between 1700 and 1985, the dominant forest stage on the Yellowstone Plateau progressed from establishment stage to old-growth forest, in a pattern typical of secondary succession.


After the 1988 fires, scientists made careful observations of the changes on the Yellowstone Plateau. (The data they collected is not shown on this graph.) Given the historical data concerning succession and disturbance (fires), predict how the landscape in 2000 compared to the pre-1988-fire landscape.
Which statement is most likely to have described how the landscape changed in the 12 years after the 1988 fires?

The percentage of the landscape in old-growth stage forest decreased.

In an open and grassy pine savannah, fires _____.

prevent the development of a hardwood forest

Which of the following is a result of the prescribed burning of an open and grassy pine savannah?

less-intense natural wildfires

In a grassy pine savannah, a longer interval between prescribed burns typically leads to _____.

bigger woody species

What component of weather is watched most closely when determining when to conduct a prescribed burn?

relative humidity

Which one of the following statements about prescribed burns is true?

Some species of pine trees require fire to reproduce.

The biologist who studies interactions at the community level investigates interactions among

organisms of more than one species.

The process by which two interacting species act as agents of natural selection on one another is called


The concept that two species cannot occupy the same ecological niche at the same time is called

the competitive exclusion principle.

Two families of feral cats move into the same barn. One family preys on the mice; the other preys on the pigeons. This behavior is an example of

resource partitioning.

Humans contract bacterial infections such as tuberculosis or syphilis. What is this ecological relationship called?


A species that plays a major role in determining the structure of its ecological community is

a keystone species.

A species that is a mimic may

have behavior similar to that of another species.

wo species that have a high degree of niche overlap will

compete intensely.


nonliving; abiotic portion of an ecosystem includes soil, rock, water, and the atomshpere

acid deposition

deposition of nitric or sulfuric acid, either in rain (acid rain) or in the form of dry particles, as a result of the production of nitrogen oxides or sulfur dioxide through burning, primarily of fossil fuels.


underground deposit of fresh water, often used as a source for irrigation


literally "self feeder"; normally a photosynthetic organism; a producer

biological magnification

increasing accumulation of a toxic substance in progressively higher trophic levels


total weight of all living material within a defined area.

carbon cycle

biochemical cycle by which carbon moves from its reservoirs in the atmosphere and oceans through producers and into higher trophic levels and then back into reservoirs.


meat eater; secondary producer;feeds on herbivores or on other carnivores

climate change

long lasting change in weather patterns, which include significant changes in temperature, precipitation, timing of seasons, and the frequency and severity of extreme weather events.


organism that eats other organisms; heterothroph


organism, usually fungus or bacterium, that digests organic material by secreting digestive enzymes into the environment, in the process liberating nutrients into the enviornment


excessive cutting of forests. has occurred recently primarily in rain forests in the Tropics, to clear space for agriculture.

denitrifying bacteria

bacteria that break down nitrates, releasing nitrogen gas into the atmosphere.


one of a diverse group of organisms, ranging from worms to vultures, that live off the wastes and dead remains of other organisms

energy pyramid

graphical representation of the energy contained in succeeding trophic levels, with max energy at the base (primary producers) and steadily diminishing amounts at higher levels.

food chain

linear feeding relationship in a community using a single representative from each of the trophic levels

food web

representation of the complex feeding relationships within a community, including many organisms at various trophic levels with many of the consumers occupying more than one level simutaneously

fossil fuel

fuel, such as coal, oil, natural gas, derived from the remains of the ancient organisms

greenhouse effect

process in which certain gas such as carbon dioxide and methane trap sunlight energy in a planets atmosphere as heat; the glass in a greenhouse causes similar warming effect. result: global warming that causes climate change, is being enhanced by the production of these gases by humans.

greenhouse gases

gas such as carbon dioxide or methane, that traps sunlight in the earths atmosphere as heat


plant eater; organism that feeds directly and exclusively on producers; primary consumer


other feeder, organism that eats other organisms, a consumer

hydrologic cycle

biogeochemical cycle by which water travels from its major reservoir, the oceans, through the atm to reservoirs in fresh water lakes, rivers and groundwater, and back into the oceans. this cycle is driven by solar energy, nearly all the water remains as water throughout the cycle


a nutrient required by an organism in relatively large quantities


a nutrient required by an organism in relatively small quantities

net primary producer

the energy stored in the autotrophs of an ecosystem over a given time period

nitrogen cycle

biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen moves from its primary reservoir of nitrogen gas in the atmosphere via nitrogen-fixing bacteria to reservoirs in soil and water, through producers and into higher trophic levels and then back to reservoirs

nitrogen fixation

process that combines atmospheric nitrogen with hydrogen to form ammonia


substance acquired from the environment and needed for the survival, growth, and development of an organism.

nutrient cycle

the pathways of a specific nutrient (such as carbon, phosphorus, or water) through the living and nonliving portions of an ecosystem; also called a biogeochemical cycle


organism that consumes both plants and animals

phosphorus cycle

the biogeochemical cycle by which phosphorus moves form its primary reservoir (phosphate rich rock) to reservoirs of phosphate in soil and water, through producers and into higher trophic levels, and then back to is reservoirs


photosynthetic protists that are abundant in marine and freshwater environments

primary consumer

organism that feeds on producers, a herbivore


a photosynthetic organism, an autotroph


major source and storage site of a nutrient in an ecosystem, normally in the abiotic portion

secondary consumer

organism that feeds on primary consumers, a type of carnivore

tertiary consumer

a carnivore that feeds on other carnivores (secondary consumers)

trophic level

"feeding level" categories of organisms in a community, and the position of an organism in a food chain, defined by the organisms source of energy includes producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and so on.


nonphotosynthetic protists that are abundant in marine and freshwater environments

Which of these provides your body with energy?


Plants use _____ as a source of energy.


What element is found in all organic compounds?


Where do plants get the carbon they use to make organic molecules?

carbon dioxide

What is the name of the process by which organisms convert the carbon in organic compounds into carbon in carbon dioxide?

cellular respiration

Which of these is NOT an organic molecule?

minerals; thus carbs, proteins, glucose and lipids are organic

_____ are secondary consumers.


Approximately _____% of the energy at one trophic level is passed on to the next highest trophic level.


10,000 kcal of producer could support approximately _____ kcal of tertiary consumer.


Which of these are the two major sources of nitrate pollution in rivers?

animal wastes and fertilizers

Aquatic nitrate pollution can result in _____.

an algal bloom that, when the algae die and are decomposed by bacteria, leads to hypoxia and the death of fish

What name is given to the process by which detritivores return carbon to the atmosphere?


Which of these removes carbon from the atmosphere?

algae (Photosynthetic organisms, such as algae, remove carbon from the atmosphere.)


is the conversion of organic molecules into inorganic molecules, results in the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

Detritus is composed of _____.

dead organic matter and excreted wastes

Which of these would NOT contribute to a global increase in temperature?

planting trees; Trees remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere than they release into the atmosphere. By removing carbon dioxide, they reduce the greenhouse effect and this would contribute to a reduction in global temperature.

Switching from fossil fuels to _____ energy would significantly decrease the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

solar, nuclear, and geothermal; All of these energy sources would decrease the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. However, the use of nuclear reactors is associated with other problems.

What information is presented on the y-axis of the graph?

global surface warming, in °Celsius

What does the yellow line represent?

today’s World: The amount of global warming that is likely to occur if CO2 emissions cease immediately and CO2 concentrations continue at their current level.

Which line is not a computer-generated forecast?

the black line representing 20th century data

How did the global surface temperature change between 1900 and 2000?

It increased by about 0.7 °C.

According to the Business as Usual scenario, how will the global surface temperature change in the century between 2000 and 2100?

It will increase by about 3.5 °C.

Which prediction has the greatest degree of certainty?

Today’s World

Which of the following statements is supported by the graph?

All of the computer-generated forecasts predict some global warming, but reducing the level of CO2 emissions will significantly slow the rate of increase.

The ultimate source of energy for every living organism on Earth is

the sun

The amount of life that an ecosystem can support is determined primarily by the

number of producers and their efficiency.

Which level of the energy pyramid has the greatest biomass?


The amount of energy captured by plants and made available to consumers in an ecosystem is called

net primary productivity.

The hydrologic cycle is different from other nutrient cycles in that

the biotic part of the cycle plays only a small role.

Phosphate fertilizers have increased the amount of phosphate in lakes and other bodies of water. What effect does this increase have on the phytoplankton in the water?

It stimulates their growth.

The three major reservoirs of carbon are

oceans, the atmosphere, and fossil fuels.

aggressive mimicry

evolution of a predatory organism to resemble a harmless animal or a part of the environment, thus gaining access to prey.


terrestrial ecosystem that occupies an extensive geographical area and is characterized by a specific type of plant community; for example deserts.


coloration and/or shape that renders an organism inconspicuous in its enviornment

climax community

a diverse and relatively stable community that forms the endpoint of succession

ecological niche

the role of a particular species within an ecosystem, including all aspects of its interaction with the living and nonliving environments.


a situation which a species has evolved to resemble something else, typically another type of organism


a symbiotic relationship in which both participating species benefit


an organism is among the first to colonize an unoccupied habitat in the first stages of succession

primary succession

succession that occurs in an environment, such as bare rock, in which no trace of a previous community is present

resource partitioning

coexistence of two species with similar requirements each occupying a smaller niche than either would if it were by itself; means of minimizing the species’ competitive interactions.

secondary succession

succession that occurs after an existing community is disturbed- for example, after a forest fire, secondary succession is much more rapid than primary succession

startle coloration

a form of mimicry in which a color pattern (in many cases resembling large eyes) can be displayed suddenly by a prey organism when approached by a predator


a community in which succession is stopped before the climax community is reached; it is maintained by regular disturbance- for example, a tall grass prairie maintained by periodic fires.


structural change in a community and its nonliving environment over time. during succession, species replace one another in a somewhat predictable manner, until a stable, self-sustaining climax community is reached.

warming coloration

bright coloration that warns predators that the potential prey is distasteful or even poisonous

Which of the following statements about tropical atmospheric circulation is true?

As warm air rises, air at the top of the atmosphere is pushed poleward and cools.

Which location on Earth receives the most solar radiation per unit area?

Equator, because sunlight arrives perpendicular to the Earth’s surface there.

True or false. Rain shadows are wet regions on the windward side of mountain ranges.

False; Rain shadows are dry regions on the leeward side of mountain ranges that result when an air mass releases its moisture on the windward side of the range and then is carried by winds to the leeward side.

Which of these is characteristic of the photic zone of a freshwater biome?

the presence of algae; "Photic" means light, and light encourages the growth of photosynthetic organisms.

The benthic zone of aquatic environments is defined as the _____.

substrate at the bottom of the body of water

The _____ biome is the largest of Earth’s biomes.


A(n) _____ is a region where fresh water and salt water mix.


What are the two major factors determining the distribution of terrestrial biomes?

temperature and rainfall

Which of these biomes is characterized by little rainfall?

desert; Deserts are characterized by levels of rainfall less than 30 cm per year.

Which of these is the largest terrestrial biome on Earth?

coniferous forest; However, as a result of logging, they are disappearing at a very rapid rate.

Which biome is characterized by an extensive canopy that allows little light to penetrate to the ground and by the presence of epiphytes?

tropical rain forest

Which biome is characterized by the presence of permafrost?

tundra; Permafrost, permanently frozen subsoil, is a characteristic of tundra.

What is the role of the ozone layer?

It reduces the amount of UV light that reaches Earth’s surface.

A(n) ________ is an area that is very dry because the air in that region has passed over a mountain and lost most of its moisture.

rain shadow

In a tropical rain forest, the majority of animals are found

in the towering treetops.

Which of the following North American biomes has been almost completely destroyed by agricultural use?


What is the dominant vegetation of the savanna?


The striking dissimilarities in plant communities among different biomes that have the same average yearly amount of rainfall can be explained by the fact that

temperature and rainfall interact to influence plant communities

If global warming makes the southeastern United States warmer but does not change the amount of rainfall, we might expect to see a shift from the present temperate deciduous forest biome to

tropical deciduous forest.

Which biome probably contains the largest number and most diverse group of large mammals?


Thick, water-storing leaves and stems and shallow, spreading roots are adaptations to


What are the major limiting factors that determine the distribution of organisms in aquatic ecosystems?

Light and nutrients

The ________ is the zone near the shore of a lake where a diverse group of organisms lives and where light and nutrients are abundant.


Oligotrophic lakes are characterized by

low nutrient levels, and clear water with deep penetration of light.

In the unique seafloor vent community, the primary producers are

sulfur bacteria.

Why is the human-caused damage to coral reefs of particular concern?

Reefs provide food and shelter for the world’s most diverse collection of marine invertebrates and fish

aphotic zone

the region of the ocean below 200 meters where sunlight does not penetrate


diversity of living organisms; measured as the variety of different species, the variety of different alleles in species’ gene pools, or the variety of different communities and nonliving environments in an ecosystem or in the entire bioshpere.


a biome located in coastal regions, with very low annual rainfall; is characterized by shrubs and small trees.


process of oxidizing inorganic molecules, such as hydrogen sulfide, to obtain energy. Producers in hydrothermal vent communities, where light is absent, use chemosynthesis instead of photosynthesis.


patterns of weather that prevail for long periods of time (from years to centuries) in a given region

coral reef

an ecosystem created by animals (reef-building corals) and plants in warm tropical waters


biome in which less than 10 inches (25 cm) of rainfall each year; characterized by cacti, succulents, and widely spaced, drought-resistant bushes


process by which relatively dry, drought-prone regions are converted to desert as a result of drought and overuse of the land, for example by overgrazing or cutting trees.


wetland formed where a river meets the ocean; the salinity is quite variable, but lower than in seawater and higher than in fresh water.

eutrophic lake

a lake that receives sufficiently large inputs of sediments, organic matter, and inorganic nutrients from its surroundings to support dense communities especially of plants and phytoplankton; contains murky water with poor light penetration


a biome, located in the centers of continents, that primarily supports grasses; also called a prairie


roughly circular pattern of ocean currents, formed because continents interrupt the flow of the current; rotates clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere

hydrothermal vent community

a community of unusual organisms, living in the deep ocean near hydrothermal vents, that depends on the chemosynthetic activities of sulfur bacteria

kelp forest

a diverse ecosystem consisting of strands of tall brown algae and associated marine life. Kelp forests occur in oceans worldwide in nutrient-rich cool coastal waters.

intertidal zone

an area of the ocean shore that is alternately covered by water during high tides and exposed to the air during low tides

limnetic zone

the part of a lake in which enough light penetrates to support photosynthesis

littoral zone

the part of a lake, usually close to the shower, in which the water is shallow and plants find abundant light, anchorage, and adequate nutrients.

nearshore zone

region of coastal water that is relatively shallow but constantly submerged, and that can support large plants or seaweeds; includes bays and coastal wetlands.

northern coniferous forest

a biome with long, cold winters and only a few months of warm weather; dominated by evergreen coniferous trees; also called taiga.

oligotrophic lake

a lake that is very low in nutrients and hence supports little phytoplankton, plant, and algal life; contains clear water with deep light penetration

open ocean

part of the ocean in which the water is so deep that wave action does not affect the bottom, even during strong storms.

ozone hole

region of severe ozone loss in the stratosphere caused by ozone-depleting chemicals; max loss occurs from September to early October over antartica

ozone layer

ozone-enriched layer of the upper atmosphere (stratosphere) that filters out much of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation


a permanently frozen layer of soil, usually found in tundra of the Arctic or high mountains.

photic zone

the region of an ocean where light is strong enough to support photosynthesis


microscopic organisms that live in marine or freshwater environments; includes phytoplankton and zooplankton

profundal zone

part of a lake in which light is insufficient to support photosynthesis

rain shadow

local dry area, usually located on the downwind side of a mountain range that blocks the prevailing moisture-bearing winds.


biome that is dominated by grasses and supports scattered trees; typically has a rainy season during which most of the year’s precipitation falls, followed by a dry season during which virtually no precip occurs

temperate deciduous forest

biome having cold winters and warm summers, with enough summer rainfall for trees to grow and shade out grasses; characterized by trees that drop their leaves in winter (deciduous trees) , an adaptation that minimizes water loss when the soil is frozen

tropical deciduous forest

biome warm all year round, with pronounced wet and dry seasons; characterized by trees that shed their leaves during the dry season (deciduous trees) an adaptation that minimizes water loss.

temperate rain forest

temperate biome with abundant liquid water year-round, dominated by conifers

tropical rain forest

biome with evenly warm, evenly moist conditions year-round , dominated by broadleaf green trees; the most diverse biome

tropical scrub forest

biome warm all year-round, with pronounced wet and dry seasons (drier conditions that in tropical deciduous forests) characterized b short, deciduous, often throrn-bearing trees with grasses growing beneath them.


biome with severe weather conditions (extreme cold and wind, and little rainfall) that cannot support trees.


upward flow that brings cold, nutrient-laden water from the ocean depths to the surface


a region ( sometimes called a marsh, swamp, or bog) in which the soil is covered by, or saturated with, water for a significant part of the year

What percent of the plant species found on Madagascar are unique to that island?

80; This despite Madagascar’s having only 2% of the land area of Africa.

The human population of Madagascar doubles about every _____ years.

25; On Madagascar, the average woman has more than five children

What is a lemur?

a primate only found on Madagascar; Lemurs were once widespread in Europe, Africa, and America; however, now they are found only on Madagascar.

Much of the original forest cover on Madagascar has been destroyed primarily as a result of _____.

burning for agricultural purposes; the traditional farming method was to burn a region of the forest and then plant crops. Crops would be grown in this region for several seasons, after which it would be abandoned to revert to forest. As the human population increased, the need for agricultural land increased, land was burned more frequently, soil become infertile and easily eroded, and neither crops nor forest could be supported.

What is the cause of the red color of the waters about Madagascar?

soil that has washed into the ocean; Agricultural practices have produced easily eroded soil that is washed into the ocean.

According to the data in Step 1, by how much would solar have to grow to match the current level of hydroelectric power?

about 60 times

According to the data in Step 2, which source represents 32% of renewables?

none of them; (geothermal, solar, wind, nor tide)

Which energy source’s annual growth rate is about four times greater than that of tidal power?


Assuming that renewable energy sources will contribute more and more to power generation in the future, do you expect the growth rates for these renewable energy sources to increase or decrease over the next 30-year period (2000 to 2030)?

These growth rates are relative to small absolute numbers. They will most likely decrease as the total contribution by renewables increases.

Which projection has nonrenewables comprising roughly 50% of our energy production in 2050?

Projection 2

Assume that the depletion of nonrenewables requires renewables to account for more than 30% of our energy production by 2040. What annual growth rate of renewables must be achieved in order to meet that goal?

at least 15% annual growth rate

The water reuse system on the campus of Georgia Southern University __________.

conserves water by using treated city wastewater instead of city tap water for irrigation; In places like the southwestern United States, where water supplies are very limited, using treated wastewater in this way can make a big difference.

The bioenergy garden at Georgia Southern University is used to show plants that can be used __________.

as biofuels that will not add any extra carbon dioxide into the atmosphere; Corn is one of the most common biofuels in the world. Grains are commonly used to generate ethanol, which can be added to gasoline or used directly to power internal combustion engines like those in cars.

LEED standards in the construction of new buildings establishes criteria that __________.

conserve energy and water and improve indoor air quality; LEED certification of buildings is increasing in the United States.

One common way to increase the sustainability of a food system is to buy and consume __________.

foods that are grown locally; in addition to promoting environmental sustainability, farm markets help the local economy

What environmental problem is being addressed by the use of bio swales, large vegetated ditches or depressions, on the campus of Georgia Southern University?

the pollution of streams by oily runoff water from parking lots; In addition to reducing the pollution of local streams, bio swales and large runoff ditches help to prevent surges of water into these local systems. Large surges of water can lead to local flooding and erosion problems after a heavy downpour.

________ takes into account both the biotic (living) communities and the abiotic (nonliving) environments on which the communities depend.

Ecosystem diversity

Which of the following is NOT an example of how plant communities continue to support healthy ecosystems?

Plants increase levels of CO2, by releasing CO2 as a byproduct of photosynthesis; ones that ARE include: Leafy trees provide shade, thereby reducing temperatures.,Plants prevent flooding by absorbing water through their extensive root systems.,Plant roots stabilize soil and prevent erosion.,

Deforestation impacts the climate in what way?

increasing the levels of carbon dioxide

Why is it important to preserve the genes of the wild relatives of crop plants?

Beneficial genes from the wild relatives may be transferred into crop plants.

Comparison of the human ecological footprint to Earth’s biocapacity suggests that

the human population cannot sustain its current level of resource usage.

The leading cause of extinction, by human activities, worldwide is

habitat fragmentation

An introduced species is "invasive" if it

outcompetes native species in its new habitat.

Unsustainable farming practices include

using herbicides and pesticides.

The transition zone of a Biosphere Reserve is an area where

there are many human residents, and the goal is sustainable development.


est of the sustainable resources and waste-absorbing capacity actually available on Earth. Biocapacity calculations are subject to change as new technologies change the way people use resources.

Biosphere Reserve

designed by the United Nations, is a region intended to maintain biodiversity and evaluate techniques for sustainable human development while maintaining local cultural values.

conservation biology

application of knowledge from ecology and other areas of biology to understand and conserve biodiversity

core reserve

natural area protected from most humans uses that encompasses enough space to preserve most of the biodiversity of the ecosystems in that area.

critically endangered species

species that faces extreme risk of extinction in the wild in the immediate future

ecological economics

branch of economics that attempts to determine the monetary value of ecosystem services and to compare the monetary value of natural ecosystems with the monetary value of human activities that may reduce the services that natural ecosystems provide.

ecosystem services

processes through which natural ecosystems and their living communities sustain and fulfill human life. ecosystem services include purifying air and water, replenishing oxygen, pollinating plants, reducing flooding, providing wildlife habitat and many more

ecological footprint

area of productive land needed to produce the resources used and absorb the wastes (including carbon dioxide) generated by an individual person, or by an average person of a specific part of the world (example an individual country) or of the entire world, using current technologies

endangered species

species that faces a high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future

habitat fragmentation

process by which human development and activities produce patches of wildlife habitat that may not be large enough to sustain minimum viable populations.

keystone species

species whose influence on community structure is greater than its abundance would suggest

mass extinction

relatively sudden extinction of many species, belonging to multiple major taxonomy groups, as a result of environmental change. The fossil record reveals 5 mass extinctions over geologic time

minimum viable population (MVP)

smallest isolated population that can persist indefinitely and survive likely natural events such as fires and floods


method of growing crops that leaves the remains of harvested crops in place, with the next year’s crops being planted directly in the remains of last year’s crops without significant disturbance of the soil


hunting or harvesting natural populations at a rate that exceeds those populations’ ability to replenish their numbers

sustainable development

human activities that meet current needs for a reasonable quality of life without exceeding nature’s limits and without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.

threatened species

all species classified as critically endangered, endangered, or vulnerable

vulnerable species

species that is likely to become endangered unless conditions that threaten its survival improve

wildlife corridor

a strip of protected land linking larger areas. Wildlife corridors allow animals to move freely and safely between habitats that would otherwise be isolated by human activities

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