APUSH Unit 8 (Depression – WWII)

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Election of 1928

Al Smith: indicated growing power of the city, mixed Irish-German ancestry. Urban Democrat, Catholic. Wanted to end Prohibition. Represented political machine. Herbert Hoover: Protestant, old-stock American, efficiency and individualism. Hoover won Democrats’ support. Won old-line Democrat support who feared Tammany Hall and Catholics. Both were self-made men, believed in freedom, mobility. New Democratic electorate was emerging, consisting of Catholics and Jews, Irish and Italians, Poles, and Greeks. Task: unite traditional Democrats of South and West with Northeast and Midwest.

Al Smith

Governor of New York four times, and was the Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. He was the first Roman Catholic and Irish-American to run for President as a major party nominee. He lost the election to Herbert Hoover.

Herbert Hoover

Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.

Agricultural Marketing Act

Established the first major government program to help farmers maintain crop prices with a federally sponsored Farm Board that would make loans to national marking cooperatives or set up corporations to buy surpluses and raise prices. This act failed to help American farmers.

Federal Farm Board

Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture; it offered farmers insurance against loss of crops due to drought; flood; or freeze. It did not guarantee profit or cover losses due to bad farming.

Hawley-Smoot Tariff

1930 – charged a high tax for imports thereby leading to less trade between America and foreign countries along with some economic retaliation, HIGHEST EVER

Black Tuesday

October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed. Lead to the Panic of 1929

overproduction and under-consumption

cars, refrigeratots, clothes dryers, etc, so high in demand, were eventually over produced


Because of buying on margin, the stock market gets an artificial boost

Buying on margin

Purchasing stock with a little money down with the promise of paying the balance at sometime in the future


consumers are not purchasing everything that is produced, leading to companies losing money, laying off workers, who then have no money to purchase with

Stock Market Crash

Another leading component to the start of the Great Depression. The stock became very popular in the 1920’s, then in 1929 in took a steep downturn and many lost their money and hope they had put in to the stock.

monetarist school

a school of macroeconomic thought that holds that changes in the money supply are the primary cause of fluctuations in real GDP and the ultimate cause of inflation. believes economy is self-regulating. assumes monetary policy is not eratic and pace of money growth is steady

Normal business cycle

theory that the economy should go through a rolling cycle of high points and low "recessions", at first used to explain the Depression, until it went on for too long

Rugged Individualism

The belief that all individuals, or nearly all individuals, can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal. Popularly said by Herbert Hoover.

Hoover’s response to Depression

The response that he "did nothing". Hoover established several new agencies and also funded public works projects in the hope of stimulating the economy and getting the nation back to work.

Hoover Dam

project as part of a massive public-works program; brought much needed employment to Southwest

Muscle Shoals Bill

Was a proposal to dam up the Tennessee River in order to make a lake to create hydroelectric electricity as well as a recreation area. Was opposed by Hoover because he didnt like that the government would be selling electricity and competing against its citizens. Was a classic example of Hoover’s fear of a socialist government

Reconstruction Finance Corporation

RFC was an independant agency of the United States government. It granted over 2 billion dollars to the local and state governments. It was charted under the Herbert Hoover administration.

Norris-LaGuardia Act

Act that guarantees workers’ right to organize and restricts issuance of court injunctions against nonviolent union activity such as strikes, picketing, and boycotts.

Good Neighbor Policy

Franklin D. Roosevelt policy in which the U.S. pledged that the U.S. would no longer intervene forcefully in the internal affairs of Latin American countries, but would use its economic influence. This reversed Teddy Roosevelt’s Big Stick Policy.

Effects of the Depression

US economic prosperity had sustained the world economy. When the US economy weakened, the whole world’s economy weakened. Trade between nations dropped, and unemployment shot up, government became more involved in the economy, renewed interest in marxist doctrines, and it led people to follow political leaders who promised quick and easy solutions to the problem

1930 mid-term elections

the people showed their disapproval of Hoover’s policies by voting Democrats into the House and Senate

Bonus Army

WWI veterans who marched on Washington demanding their $1,000 bonus pay before the 1945 due date, many of them refused to go home as they had no homes, camped out within sight of the White House and eventually were removed by the army.

Franklin Roosevelt

the 32nd president of the United States. He was president from 1933 until his death in 1945 during both the Great Depression and World War II. He is the only president to have been elected 4 times, a feat no longer permissible due to the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution.

Eleanor Roosevelt

FDR’s Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women

forgotten man speech

FDR promised to uphold the rights of the working-class "forgotten man", made him very popular

Democratic Platform

repeal of prohibition, a 25% cut in government spending, unemployment aid, and a "new deal" for America.

New Deal

President Franklin Roosevelt’s precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insureance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state’s intervention in U.S. social and economic life.

Election of 1932

the Republican nominee Herbert Hoover and the Democratic nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Republican platform included higher tariffs, keeping the gold standard, and continuation of Hoover policies. Roosevelt won with 472 electoral votes and all but 6 states. His victory paved the way for his "New Deal’ policies and optimism in the country "nothing to fear but fear itself (Inauguration speech)."

lame duck period

Period of time when the new president is already elected, but the previous president is still in office. Roosevelt shortened it by taking office in January, rather than March

Bank Crisis

Weaknesses were apparent by 1930 and a growing wave of failures followed. chain reaction: contraction of the money supply. With less money in circulation, the purchasing power of consumers was sharply reduced. attempted to entice consumers by dropping prices on their goods — didn’t work. Unable to move their merchandise, factories and stores then resorted to scaling back production and cutting the work force.

FDR’s 1st Inaugural

nothing to fear but fear itself, new deal for america, got everyone very excited about the new president

bank holiday

FDR closed all banks until gov. examiners could investigate their financial condition; only sound/solvent banks were allowed to reopen

Hundred Days

the special session of Congress that Roosevelt called to launch his New Deal programs. The special session lasted about three months: 100 days.

Relief, recovery, reform

These were the categories into which the New Deal was split. Relief defined by the acts implemented in the area of aid to the unemployment. Recovery put forth measures that would help aid in the speedy recovery of areas hit hardest by the depression. Reform tried to recreate areas that seemed faulty

Emergency Banking Relief Act

Recovery: March 9, 1933; closed insolvent banks, reorganized strong banks, aided banks overall; 5000 banks inspected and reopened; examiners inspected banks; gave president power to regulate transactions in credit, currency, gold, silver, and foreign exchange

Fireside chats

The informal radio conversations Roosevelt had with the people to keep spirits up. It was a means of communicating with the people on how he would take on the Depression.

managed currency

FDR took the country off the gold standard and then inflated the currency by buying gold at higher prices. To relieve the misery of the debtor.

20th Amendment

reduced the lame duck period

21st Amendment

repeal of prohibition

brain trust

Many of the advisers who helped Roosevelt during his presidential candidacy continued to aid him after he entered the White House. A newspaperman once described the group as "Roosevelt’s Brain Trust." They were more influential than the Cabinet, reform-minded intellectuals who authored much of FDR’s legislation

Glass Steagall Banking Reform Act

Reform: It separated banks into different categories. The banks couldn’t gamble with the investments, so the investments were kept safe; protected bank depositors; forced a separation between commericial banking and investment banking

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

An independent federal agency created by Glass-Steagall Reform Act. It insures up to $100,000 for bank deposits, thus helping put faith back into the banks.

Civilian Conservation Corps

Relief: (CCC) March 31, 1933; reduced poverty/unemployment, helped young men and families; young men go to rural camps for 6 months to do construction work; $1/day; intended to help youth escape cities; concerned with soil erosion, state/national parks, telephone/power lines; 40 hr weeks, most of their paychecks went directly to their families

Home Owners Loan Corporation

As part of the Hundred Days that understood the nation’s tragedy of foreclosed mortgages, the HOLC refinanced American home mortgages. This effort allowed one-fifth of all U.S. mortgages to become refinanced which would prevent another Great Depression

Farm Credit Administration

provided low-interest farm loans and mortgages to prevent forclosures on the property of indebted farmers

Federal Emergency Relief Act

The Act was the first direct-relief operation under the New Deal, and was headed by Harry L. Hopkins, a New York social worker who was one of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s most influential advisers, law provided money for food and other necessities for the unemployed

Harry Hopkins

A New York social worker who headed the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and Civil Works Administration. He helped grant over 3 billion dollars to the states wages for work projects, and granted thousands of jobs for jobless Americans.

Tennessee Valley Authority

A New Deal agency created to generate electric power and control floods in a seven-U.S.-state region around the Tennessee River Valley . It created many dams that provided electricity as well as jobs.

Grand Coulee Dam

-convert the power of the Columbia River into cheap electricity -irrigate previously uncultivated land -stimulate the economic development of the Pacific Northwest

Public Works Administration

(FDR) , 1935 Created for both industrial recovery and for unemployment relief. Headed by the Secretary of Interior Harold L. Ickes, it aimed at long-range recovery and spent $4 billion on thousands of projects that included public buildings, highways, and parkways.

Harold Ickes

Secretary of the interior who headed the Public Works Administration, which aimed at long-range recovery by spending over $4 billion on some 34,000 projects that included public buildings, highways, and parkways, was fired by Truman because he was a New Dealer (Truman considered New Dealers to be "crackpots and the lunatic fringe.")

Federal Securities Act

(FDR) 1933, 1934, , required promoters to transmit to the investor sworn information regarding the soundness of their stocks and bonds

Securities and Exchange Commission

Government agency having primary responsibility for enforcing the Federal securities laws and regulating the securities industry. It protected investors, listened to complaints, issued licenses and penalized fraud.

Civil Works Administration

November 9, 1933- Harry L. Hopkins was put in charge of the organization. The CWA created construction jobs, mainly improving or constructing buildings and bridges. In just one year, the CWA cost the government over $1 Billion and was cancelled. So much was spent on this administration because it hired 4 million people and was mostly concerned with paying high wages.

American Liberty League

a conservative anti-New Deal organization; members included Alfred Smith, John W. Davis, and the Du Pont family. It criticized the "dictatorial" policies of Roosevelt and what it perceived to be his attacks on the free enterprise system.

Charles Coughlin

Catholic priest who used his popular radio program to criticize the New Deal; he grew increasingly anti-Roosevelt and anti-Semitic until the Catholic Church pulled him off the air.

Huey Long

As senator in 1932 of Washington preached his "Share Our Wealth" programs. It was a 100% tax on all annual incomes over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes in excess of $5 million. With this money Long proposed to give every American family a comfortable income, etc., would have threatened FDR’s second campaign as a 3rd party candidate, but he was assassinated before the campaigning began

Dr. Francis Townsend

Advanced the Old Age Revolving Pension Plan, which proposed that every retired person over 60 receive a pension of $200 a month (about twice the average week’s salary). It required that the money be spent within the month in order to pump it back into the economy.

Frances Perkins

was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition

Mary McLeod Bethune

Mary McLeod Bethune was a leader in the struggle for women’s and black equality. She founded a school for black students that eventually became Bethune-Cookman University. She also served as an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt

National Youth Administration

(FDR) , (NYA)1935, provided education jobs counseling and recreation for young people. part time positions at schools for students allowed for aid in h.s. college and grad school. part time jobs for drop outs

Margaret Mead

American anthropologist, spread anthropology into modern culture, reported on the sexual ideas of Polynesian Cultures, wrote "Coming of Age in Samoa"

National Industrial Recovery Act

(FDR) 1933, focused on the employment of the unemployed and the regulation of unfair business ethics. The NIRA pumped cash into the economy to stimulate the job market and created codes that businesses were to follow to maintain the ideal of fair competition and created the NRA, established Public Works Administration and National Recovery Administration to help economic recovery from Great Depression; NRA was ruled unconstitutional in Schechter Poultry v. US

Schecter v. US

Court declared NRA unconstitutional, also struck down laws preventing farm mortgage foreclosures and pensions for railroad workers, violated NRA code provisions; too much power to executive branch when regulating interstate commerce

Agricultural Adjustment Act

Recovery: (AAA); May 12, 1933; restricted crop production to reduce crop surplus; goal was to reduce surplus to raise value of crops; farmers paid subsidies by federal government; declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in US vs Butler on January 6, 1936

Butler v. US

(1936) declared the AAA unconstitutional because it attempted to regulate and control agricultural production, which was to be reserved for the states; also said that its tax benefitted one specific sector of society

Dust Bowl

western Kansas and Oklahoma, northern Texas, and eastern Colorado and New Mexico; long periods of drought and destructive farming methods ruined farming in the region

Resettlement Administration

April 30, 1935- Tugwell, who held positions in the United States Department of Agriculture, convinced Roosevelt to form an agency that would relocate struggling urban and rural families to communities planned by the federal government. Roosevelt was in control.

Federal Housing Administration

A federal agency established in 1943 to increase home ownership by providing an insurance program to safeguard the lender against the risk of nonpayment. Currently part of HUD.

Indian Reorganization Act

a U.S. federal legislation which secured certain rights to Native Americans, including Alaska Natives. These include a reversal of the Dawes Act’s privatization of common holdings of American Indians and a return to local self-government on a tribal basis. The Act also restored to Native Americans the management of their assets (being mainly land) and included provisions intended to create a sound economic foundation for the inhabitants of Indian reservations.

John Collier

He founded the American Indian Defense Association in 1923. Appointed commissioner of Indian affairs in 1933 he translated into policy his vision of a renewed tribal life. Collier cadged funds from the CCC, PWA, and WPA to construct schools, hospitals, and irrigation systems on Indian reservations. sought to reverse forced-assimilation programs

Social Security Act

guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health

Revenue Act, 1935

"soak the rich" tax, a tax reform bill that increased estate and corporate taxes and instituted higher personal income tax rates in the top brackets, very controversial

Farm Security Administration

1937-Replaced Resettlement Admin. Made low-interest loans allowing tenant farmers to buy family sized farms. Established network of well-run camps: clean, sanitary shelter, medical services to migrant farm workers.

Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938

law authorized payments to farmers who withdrew land from production and practiced conversion, also authorized the Department of Agriculture to limit the amount of specific crops that could be brought to market each year

Second New Deal

a new set of programs and reforms launched by FDR in 1935; changed American life even more than the hundred days.

Works Progress Administration

headed by Harry L. Hopkins. Provided jobs and income to the unemplyed but couldn’t work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.

Federal Writers’, Theatre, and Arts Projects

part of Federal Project Number One – theatre, writers, art, music, historical records. goal – to employ various artists

National Labor Relations Act

A 1935 law, also known as the Wagner Act, that guarantees workers the right of collective bargaining sets down rules to protect unions and organizers, and created the National Labor Relations Board to regulate labor-managment relations.


National labor Relations Board: (established by Wagner Act) Greatly enhanced power of American labor by overseeing collective bargaining; continues to arbitrate labor-management disputes today

John L. Lewis

President of the United Mine Workers, combined with seven other American Federation of Labor organizations to form the Committee for Industrial Organization. Wanted to bring together all of the unskilled workers together to mass-production industries

Congress of Industrial Organizations

Orginially began as a group of unskilled workers who organized themselves into effective unions. As their popularity grew they came to be known for the revolutionary idea of the "sit-down strike", there efforts lead to the passage of the Fair Labor Standard Act and the organization continued to thrive under the New Deal.

Walter Reuther

In 1936, he mapped a campaign to unionize General Motors, where hostility to organized labor ran deep. Also, he preformed "sit-downs."

sit-down strikes

Type of strike in which striking workers refuse to leave the factories so that owners cannot replace them

Memorial Day Massacre

Happened on Memorial Day 1937 when striking workers gathered for a picnic and demonstration – they were marching toward plant peacefully and police opened fire – 10 killed

Women’s Emergency Brigade

a militant expression of the United Auto Workers (UAW) Women’s Auxiliary movement, on 24 hour alert for picket duty, with red berets and armbands played key role in rest of strike, played a crucial role in a battle that enabled UAW members to seize control of the plant that produced all General Motors engines, "We will form a line around the men, and if the police want to fire then they’ll just have to fire into us."

United Automobile Workers

they successfully ran a "sit-down" strike against General Motors, afterward General Motors recognized the UAW followed by other auto manufacturers expect Ford who held out until 1941. UAW membership increased for 88,000 to 400,000.

Fair Labor Standards Act

June 25, 1938- United States federal law that applies to employees engaged in and producing goods for interstate commerce. The FLSA established a national minimum wage, guaranteed time and a half for overtime in certain jobs, and prohibited most employment of minors in "oppressive child labor," a term defined in the statute. The FLSA is administered by the Wage & Hour Division of the United States Department of Labor.

Election of 1936

FDR (Democratic) reelected b/c of his New Deal programs and active style of personal leadership. Running against FDR was Alf Landon (Republic nominee)

Alf Langdon

Republican candidate in 1936, "poor man’s Hoover"

Democratic Coalition

disaffected moderate Republicans, pro-choicers, African Americans, labor unions, intellectuals, people with lower incomes, city dwellers, non-Cuban Latinos, feminists, Jewish people, environmentalists

FDR’s 2nd Inaugural

"one third of a nation ill-hioused, ill-clad, ill-nourished" are you happy, and are you better off than you were four years ago = continue with more new deal-type programs

Supreme Court Reform Plan

FDR wanted to add one justice for every justice over the age of seventy who refused to retire, was met with outrage, "packing" the court in his favor. "the switch in time that saved nine", Justice Roberts and Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes switched sides in 1937 and, in National Labor Relations Board v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation, upheld the National Labor Relations Act, which gave the National Labor Relations Board extensive power over labor relations across the United States.

Constitutional Revolution of 1937

Court shifted from engaging in judicial activism to protect property rights, to a paradigm which focused most strongly on protecting civil liberties

Hugo Black

A judge of the twentieth century; he served on the Supreme Court from 1937 to 1971. Black was a strong defender of the civil liberties of the individual against intrusion by the state, said that the First Amendment protects all publications, no matter how obscene the content

Felix Frankfurter

wrote defense for sacco and vanzetti, later became a Supreme Court Justice, history of liberty is history of procedural guarantees, believed that the "due process" clause should be decided on a case-by-case basis.

Roosevelt Recession

When FDR started to take away some of the new deal programs recession started back up again. This proved that the new deal programs didnt "cure" the depression, they only "stopped the bleeding".

John Maynard Keynes

British economist who argued that for a nation to recovery fully from a depression, the government had to spend money to encourage investment and consumption

Hatch Act

Federal statute barring federal employees from active participation in certain kinds of politics and protecting them from being fired on partisan grounds.

1938 mid-term elections

Republicans got seats in the Senate and House

Impact of the New Deal on women and minorities

largely neglected in nonunionized labor industries

black cabinet

group of African Americans FDR appointed to key Government positions; served as unofficial advisors to the president, led by Mary McLeod Bethune, William Hastie, and Robert Weaver, they pushed for economic and political opportunities for African Americans in the 1930s and 1940s.

Marian Anderson

One of the greatest concert singers of her time. First African-American to perform at the Whitehouse. The DAR refused her use of Constitution Hall for a concert, so Eleanor Roosevelt set her up to perform at the Lincoln Memorial.

Scottsboro Boys

Nine young black men between the ages of 13 to 19 were accused of of raping two white women by the names of Victoria Price and Ruby Bates. All of the young men were charged and convicted of rape by white juries, despite the weak and contradictory testimonies of the witnesses

Mexican-American Repatriation

a forced migration that took place between 1929 and 1939, when as many as one million people of Mexican descent were forced or pressured to leave the US. (The term "Repatriation," though commonly used, is inaccurate, since approximately 60% of those driven out were minor dependents born in the U.S. and citizens under current interpretation.)The event, carried out by American authorities, took place without due process. The Immigration and Naturalization Service targeted Mexicans because of "the proximity of the Mexican border, the physical distinctiveness of mestizos, and easily identifiable barrios."

social realism vs. escapism

social realism depicts social and racial injustice, economic hardship, through unvarnished pictures of life’s struggles; often depicting working class activities as heroic. The movement is a style of painting in which the scenes depicted typically convey a message of social or political protest edged with satire. escapism had an element of emancipation in its attempt to figure a different reality

’30’s radio

’30’s movies

John Dos Passos

a novelist who wrote of WWI and its impacts on art and civilization. He was a conservative, pessimistic and had disillusion to post-war urban America, suggested us split to two nations one rich, one poor, considered to be part of the Lost Generation and wrote "Three Soldiers" and "Manhattan Transfer". He disliked FDR.

John Steinbeck

United States writer noted for his novels about agricultural workers, poverty and misfortune are key themes

Richard Wright

United States writer whose work is concerned with the oppression of African Americans (1908-1960)

William Faulkner

An author in the 1930s who wrote about the history of lthe deep south, he told the story in an imaginative, fictional way. He wrote "The Sound and the Fury" and "As I Lay Dying".

Cultural Nationalism

A process of protecting, either formally (with laws) or informally (with social values), the primacy of a certain cultural system against influences (real or imagined) from another culture.

Jacob Lawrence

An African American painter who chronicled the experiences of the Great Migration north through art

Edward Hopper

A twentieth-century American artist whose stark, precisely realistic paintings often convey a mood of solitude and isolation within common-place urban settings. Among his best-known forks are Early Sunday Morning and Nighthawks.

Dorothea Lange

Sent out by the government to record the Great Depression by taking pictures, she took the picture "Migrant Mother".

Margaret Mitchell

She wrote Gone with the Wind. The novel let readers leave their own troubles behind and imagine the "moonlight and magnolia" days of the Old South

Grant Wood

U.S. painter noted for works based on life in the Midwest; his most famous painting is American Gothic (the farmer & his wife with pitchfork)

Thomas Hart Benton

United States artist whose paintings portrayed life in the Midwest and South

escapism in film

legacy of the New Deal

The Federal Government has a role to play managing big business & labor The New Deal stopped the bleeding, & eased the pain of millions of people, but it alone did not end the Great Depression, set precedent for greater federal regulation

London Economic Conference

Consisting of 66 nations meeting in the summer of 1933, it revealed how thoroughly Roosevelt’s early foreign policy was subordinated. The delegates hoped to organize a coordinated international attack on the global depression. Because of a message that Roosevelt sent to the conference that scolded the conference, the delegates adjourned empty-handed. The collapse of the London Conference strengthened the global trend toward extreme nationalism.

Tydings-McDuffie Act

1934, provided for the drafting and guidelines of a Constitution for a 10-year "transitional period" which became the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines before the granting of Philippine independence, during which the US would maintain military forces in the Philippines.

Soviet recognition

Roosevelt thought it was foolish to continue to withhold recognition from a regime that was stable. Maxim Litvinov from the SU and Roosevelt reached an accord that formalized relations between the two countries

Good Neighbor Policy

Franklin D. Roosevelt policy in which the U.S. pledged that the U.S. would no longer intervene in the internal affairs of Latin American countries. This reversed Teddy Roosevelt’s Big Stick Policy.

Cordell Hull

The Secretary of State who believed that trade was a two-way street, that a nation can sell abroad only as it buys abroad, that tariff barriers choke off foreign trade, and that trade wars beget shooting wars. He was one of the main contributors to the reciprocal trade policy of the New Dealers. (P.802)

Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act

designed in part to lift American export trade from the depression doldrums, this enlightened measure was aimed at both relief and recovery; it activated the low-tariff policies of the New Dealers; avoided the dangerous uncertainties of a wholesale tariff revision; merely whittled down the most objectionable schedules of the Hawley-Smoot law by amending them; landmark piece of legislation


a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)

Emperor Hirohito

emperor of Japan during WWII. his people viewed him as a god, forced people to surrender after Nagasaki

Manchurian Incident

Situation in 1931 when Japanese troops, claiming that Chinese soldiers had tried to blow up a railway line, took matters into their own hands by capturing several southern Manchurian cities, and by continuing to take over the country even after Chinese troops had withdrawn.

Rape of Nanking

In late 1937, Japan defeated the Chinese city of Nanking. Chinese civilians were brutalized and thousands were killed. The event shocked Western powers and contributed to sanctions against Japan.

Benito Mussolini

head of the Italian Fascist party. Mussolini was known as Il Duce and was leader of Italy, the first Fascist regime, during World War II.


A system of government characterized by strict social and economic control and a strong, centralized government usually headed by a dictator. First found in Italy by Mussolini.


Policy by which Czechoslovakia, Great Britain and France agreed to Germany’s annexation of the Sudetenland in agreement for not taking any additional Czech territory.

Nye Report

Report by US Senate. Supported US neutrality, by stating that US banks and corporations hoping to profit had tricked them into entering WWI.

merchants of death

Liberal isolationists’ term for companies which manufactured armaments. They felt that the companies were undermining national interests by assisting agressor nations.

Neutrality Acts of 1935, 36, 37

During isolationist time after WWI, Laws passed to keep US out of foreign conflicts

Spanish Civil War

In 1936 a rebellion erupted in Spain after a coalition of Republicans, Socialists, and Communists was elected. General Francisco Franco led the rebellion. The revolt quickly became a civil war. The Soviet Union provided arms and advisers to the government forces while Germany and Italy sent tanks, airplanes, and soldiers to help Franco.

Franciso Franco

Spanish General; organized the revolt in Morocco, which led to the Spanish Civil War. Leader of the Nationalists – right wing, supported by Hitler and Mussolini, won the Civil War after three years of fighting.

Quarantine Speech

The speech was an act of condemnation of Japan’s invasion of China in 1937 and called for Japan to be quarantined. FDR backed off the aggressive stance after criticism, but it showed that he was moving the country slowly out of isolationism.


Region between Germany and France demilitarized by Treaty of Versailles; Hitler occupied and fortified the region

Adolf Hitler

mass-murdering ****head


Hitler’s plan to unite all German peoples into one country by occupying Austria


a region of Czechoslovakia where many Germans lived; itler demanded in 1938 to have control of this land; when Czechs refused, Hitler threatened war

Munich Pact

Signed in 1938 between Great Britain, Gemany, and France that gave part of Czechoslovakia to Germany; Chamberlain said it guaranteed "peace in our time"

Josef Stalin

was general secretary of the Communist party, became the leader and dictator of Russia after Lenin’s death. He brought Russia out of recession and made Russia the second leading industrial superpower during the Second World War Followed Lenin, pragmatist, socialism in one country, forced rapid industrialization, Great Purges, collectivization. 1927-1953

Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact


phony war

cash and carry policy

Maginot Line

Miracle of Dunkirk

Vichy France

Winston Churchill

Battle of Britain

destroyers for bases deal

peacetime draft

Election of 1940

Wendell Willkie

Henry Stimson

Lend Lease Act

America First Committee

Atlantic Charter

arsenal of democracy

undeclared naval war with Germany

Greater E. Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

Tripartite Pact

Hideki Tojo

Pearl Harbor

Japanese American Internment

Executive Order 9066

Korematsu v. US

War Production Board

Office of Price Administration


National War Labor Board

Smith Connolly Anti-Strike Act


bracero program

Rosie the Riveter

A. Philip Randolph

Executive Order 8802

Fair Employment Practices Commission


Double V campaign

Zoot Suit Riots

Office of Scientific Research and Development

Revenue Acts

Office of Strategic Services

Office of Censorship

Office of War Information

European Theater

George Marshall

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Operation Torch

Casablanca Conference

Erwin Rommel

Battle of Stalingrad

Operation Husky

George S. Patton

Battle of the Atlantic

Allied Bombing Raids

Tehran Conference

Operation Overlord


Battle of the Bulge


The St. Louis

War Refugee Board

1942 elections

Election of 1944

Harry Truman

Yalta Conference

VE Day

Pacific Theater

Douglas MacArthur

Bataan Death March

Battle of the Coral Sea

Battle of Midway

island hopping


Battle of Leyte Gulf

kamikaze attacks

Iwo Jima


Office of Scientific Research and Development

Albert Einstein

Manhattan Project

J. Robert Oppenheimer

Postsdam Declaration


VJ Day

legacy of WWII

Bretton Woods Agreement

World Bank


Dumbarton Oaks Conference

United Nations

Nuremburg Trials

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