APUSH UNIT 8

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The Affluent Society

John Kenneth Galbraith’s novel about America’s post-war prosperity as a new phenomenon. Economy of scarcity –> economy of abundance.

Submerged Lands Act (1953)

signaled that president favored local over federal control. Who controlled off shore oil land

Federal Housing Administration Levittown

Serviceman’s Readjustment Act (1944)

The G. I. Bill of Rights or Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 provided for college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as GIs or G. I.s) as well as one-year of unemployment compensation. It also provided loans for returning veterans to buy homes and start businesses.

Federal Highway Act of 1956

This act, an accomplishment of the Eisenhower administration, authorized $25 billion for a ten- year project that built over 40,000 miles of interstate highways. This was the largest public works project in American history.

Sputnik (1957)

was the world’s first Earth-orbiting artificial satellite. It circled the earth in 96.2 minutes. Launched into a low altitude eliptical orbit by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957, it was the first in a series of satellites collectively known as the Sputnik program. The unanticipated announcement of Sputnik 1’s success precipitated the Sputnik crisis in the United States and ignited the Space Race within the Cold War

National Defense Education Act (1958)

law that authorized the use of federal funds to improve the nation’s elementary and high schools; inspired by Cold War fears that the United States was falling behind the Soviet Union in the arms and space race, it was directed at improving science, math, and foreign-language education.

suburbs

Residential areas surrounding a city. Shops and businesses moved to suburbia as well as people.

Betty Friedan

1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique".

The Feminine Mystique (1963)

Best-selling book by feminist thinker Betty Friedan. This work challenged women to move beyond the drudgery of suburban housewifery and helped launch what would become second-wave feminism. (945)

Norman Vincent Peale

Reverend and founder of the Guideposts (mag) that burnt down. He believed positive thoughts would overcome obstacles.Wrote the book, "The Power of Positive Thinking" in 1952. Guideposts had a formula for real-life stories about people who "walked up to adversity and kicked it."

Fulton J. Sheen

The Lonely Crowd

Book written by David Riesman that criticized the people of the 50s who no longer made decisions based on morals, ethics and values; they were allowing society to tell them what is right and wrong.

Organization Man

a term coined by sociologist William H. Whyte in 1956 that described the basic, B-average, college graduate man who joined clubs and worked in a large corporation. Such a job required subordination of all personal tastes and interests to the company

Man in the Grey Flannel Suit

In White Collar

The Power Elite

a book written by the sociologist, C. Wright Mills. Mills called attention to the interests of the leaders of the military, corporate, and political elements of society and suggested that the ordinary citizen was a relatively powerless subject of manipulation by those entities.

Jonas E. Salk

American immunologist; developed polio vaccine using a killed virus; man in the white coat; opened Salk institute in California

teenager

a juvenile between the onset of puberty and maturity

Elvis Presley

United States rock singer whose many hit records and flamboyant style greatly influenced American popular music (1935-1977)

Chuck Berry

United States rock singer (born in 1931)

Marlon Brando

A twentieth century American actor. He first gained fame on Broadway in 1947 in Tennessee Williams’ A Streetcar Named Desire. He transfered his brooding portrayal of Stanley Kowalski to film in 1951 and thereafter concentrated on making motion pictures, including On the Waterfront, The Godfather, and the controversial Last Tango in Paris.

James Dean

United States film actor whose moody rebellious roles made him a cult figure (1931-1955)

Golden Age of Television

late 1940s-1958, consisted of genres + programs w/ radio success, "liveness", anthology dramas, aimed at urban audiences/urban themes, ad agencies = program providers, single sponsorship, ended w/ Quiz Show Scandals

The Hidden Persuaders (1957)

Best selling book in 1950s persuaded more criticism of advertisement by revealing advertising techniques

Jack Kerouac

United States writer who was a leading figure of the beat generation (1922-1969)

Allen Ginsberg

United States poet of the beat generation (1926-1997)

John Foster Dulles

United States diplomat who (as Secretary of State) pursued a policy of opposition to the USSR by providing aid to American allies (1888-1959)

U-2 incident (1960)

American spy plane caught in Russian skies; ruined Krushchev and Eisenhower’s intent to become friendlier

Suez Crisis (1956)

Ike prevents war between Egypt, Israel and Britain over the nationalizing of this thing by condemning his allies

Indochina

a peninsula of southeastern Asia that includes Myanmar and Cambodia and Laos and Malaysia and Thailand and Vietnam

military-industrial complex

Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.

John F. Kennedy

president during part of the cold war and especially during the superpower rivalry and the cuban missile crisis. he was the president who went on tv and told the public about hte crisis and allowed the leader of the soviet uinon to withdraw their missiles. other events, which were during his terms was the building of the berlin wall, the space race, and early events of the Vietnamese war.

New Frontier

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

an independent agency of the United States government responsible for aviation and spaceflight

Bay of Pigs (1961)

failed invasion of Cuba in 1961 when a force of 1,200 Cuban exiles, backed by the United States, landed at the Bay of Pigs (p. 823)

Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

Cuba becomes allies with Russia, Russia puts nukes in Cuba, US discovers this when a U-2 spy plane detects missiles, for 13 days Kennedy Admin debates what to do Hawks-air strikes Doves negotiation Time constraint- Kennedy admin needed to deal with the situation before the Russians activated their missiles Deal- Russians pulled their missiles out of Cuba, US pulled their missiles out of Turkey SIGNIFICANCE- closest US and USSR came to a nuclear war JFK assassinated in November 1963

Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963)

the US, Soviet Union, and Great Britain signed this treaty to end the testing of nuclear bombs in the atomsphere and underwater

Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)

U.S. civil rights organization that played a pivotal role in the Civil Rights Movement of the 20th century. Membership in CORE is stated to be open to "anyone who believes that ‘all people are created equal’ and is willing to work towards the ultimate goal of true equality throughout the world."

Jackie Robinson

United States baseball player

Ralph Bunche

United States diplomat and United Nations official (1904-1971), frist African American to receive the Nobel Peace Prize; helped legitimize the United Nations; Medal of Freedom from Kennedy

Charlie Parker

United States saxophonist and leader of the bop style of jazz (1920-1955)

bebop

a form of jazz characterized by fast tempos and improvisation based on harmonic structure rather than melody. It was developed in the early and mid-1940s. It first surfaced in musicians’ argot some time during the first two years of the Second World War.

Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

Overruled Plessy v Ferguson. Blacks wanted access to regular white schools because "separate" is inherently unequal

Little Rock, Arkansas (1957)

September 3rd 1957 – 9 Black students attempted to attend a formally white school, but were stopped by national guard

Montgomery, Alabama bus boycott

the first organized movement by african americans to fight segregation was

Rosa Parks

United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)

Martin Luther King, Jr.

U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)

Southern Christian Leadership Council

Greensboro, North Carolina sit-in

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

Involved in the American Civil Rights Movement formed by students whose purpose was coordinate a nonviolent attack on segregation and other forms of racism.

Civil Rights Act of 1957

Primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation enacted by Republicans in the United States since Reconstruction.

Freedom Ride

Bus trips taken by both black and white civil rights advocates in the 1960s. Sponsored by the Congress of Racial Equality, freedom rides in the South were designed to test the enforcement of federal regulations that prohibited segregation in interstate public transportation.

James Meredith

He was a civil rights advocate who spurred a riot at the University of Mississippi. The riot was caused by angry whites who did not want Meredith to register at the university. The result was forced government action, showing that segregation was no longer government policy.

Letter From a Birmingham Jail

A letter written by Martin Luther King Jr. after he had been arrested when he took part in a nonviolent march against segregation. He was disappointed more Christians didn’t speak out against racism.

March on Washington (1963)

200,000 came to Washington D.C. to call for "jobs and freedom"

Lyndon Baines Johnson

36th President of the United States

Civil Rights Act of 1964

This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.

Malcolm X

1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims’ most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality

Black Muslims

Developed by the black Muslim Leader Elijah Muhammad who preached black nationalism, separatism, and self-improvement. The movement attracted thousands of followers.

Voting Rights Act of 1965

1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap

Jones Act of 1917

granted Puerto Ricans US citizenship and gave them the right to elect both houses of their legislature, Puerto Rico is now a commonwealth of the US

National Congress of American Indians

Created in 1944 because of the struggle against termination and the principle of Native American organization. In 1961, more than 400 members of 67 tribes gathered in Chicago and issued the Declaration of Indiana Purpose, which stressed the "right to choose our own way of life" and the "responsibility of preserving our precious heritage."

U.S. v. Wheeler

declared that termination was unconstitutional

Immigration and Nationality Act (1952)

Immigration and Nationality Act (McCarren-Walter Act) created one comprehensive statue from the previous immigration related laws, eliminating race as a basis of exclusion, but retained the racist national-origins quota system. For countries outside the western hemisphere the annual quota was set at 1/6th of one percent of the number of persons of that ancestry living in the U.S. as of 1920 (mainly benefiting the United Kingdom, Ireland and Germany), and a quota for skilled workers.

Immigration and Nationality Act (1965)

abolished the national-origins quotas and providing for the admission each year of 170,000 immigrants from the Eastern Hemisphere and 120,000 from the Western Hemisphere

Vietnam

a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States

Tonkin Gulf Resolution (1964)

passed by Congress in reaction to supposedly unprovoked attacks on American warships off the coast of North Vietnam; it gave the president unlimited authority to defend US forces and members of the SEATO

credibility gap

The gap between the Johnson Administration and the American public support

flower children

Hippies who were unified by their rejection of traditional values and assumptions of Western society.

"Summer of Love"

refers to the summer of 1967 when as many as 100,000 people converged on the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood of SF creating a phenomenon of cultural and political rebellion; SF was the center of the hippie revolution and became a defining moment in the 1960s as the hippie counterculture movement came into public awareness (also, social experimentation in methods of living—communal living, sharking, free love)

Timothy Leary

United States psychologist who experimented with psychoactive drugs (including LSD) and became a well-known advocate of their use (1920-1996)

Woodstock (1969)

In August 1969, 400,000 young people gathered for the Woodstock festival in New YOrk’s Catskill Mountains to celebrate their vision of freedom and harmony. For 3 days and nights they reveled in rock music and openly shared drugs, sexual partners, and contempt for the Establishement. The counterculturue heralded teh festival as the dawning of an era of love and sharing, the Age of Aquarius.

The Greening of America

book written by Charles Reich praising the counterculture; developed Conscious III

War on Poverty

Lyndon Johnson declared war on poverty in his 1964 State of the Union address. A new Office of Economic Opportunity oversaw a variety of programs to help the poor, including the Job Corps and Head Start.

The Other America

1964 book stating that 1/5 the population was living below poverty line

The Great Society

Series of domestic initiatives announced in 1964 by LBJ to "end poverty and racial injustice." They included the Voting Rights Act of 1965, est of the Dept of Housing and Urban Development, Head Start, job-training programs, Medicare and Medicaid expansion, and various community action programs

Office of Economic Opportunity

oversaw many programs dealing w/ improving life in inner cities (ex: Job Corps: education and job training program for at-risk youth), Set guidelines for equal hiring and education practices (started "quotas")

Tet Offensive (1968)

series of Communist attacks on 44 South Vietnamese cities; although the Viet Cong suffered a major defeat, the attacks ended the American view that the war was winnable and destroyed the nation’s will to escalate the war further.

Stokely Carmichael

a black civil rights activist in the 1960’s. Leader of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee. He did a lot of work with Martin Luther King Jr.but later changed his attitude. Carmichael urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing black power. He was known for saying,"black power will smash everything Western civilization has created."

Black Power

the belief that blacks should fight back if attacked. it urged blacks to achieve economic independence by starting and supporting their own business.

National Organization for Women

Founded in 1966, the National Organization for Women (NOW) called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women. NOW also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution.

women’s liberation

The phrase "Women’s Liberation" was first used in the United States in 1964 and first appeared in print in 1966.[30][31] By 1968, although the term Women’s Liberation Front appeared in the magazine Ramparts, it was starting to refer to the whole women’s movement.[32] Bra-burning also became associated with the movement, though the actual prevalence of bra-burning is debatable.[33] One of the most vocal critics of the women’s liberation movement has been the African American feminist and intellectual Gloria Jean Watkins (who uses the pseudonym "bell hooks") who argues that this movement glossed over race and class and thus failed to address "the issues that divided women." She highlighted the lack of minority voices in the women’s movement in her book Feminist theory from margin to center (1984)

Stonewall Riot (1969)

gay bar in NYC, police arrested, harassed, and created lists of "homosexuals" –> queer movement

Spanglish

Combination of Spanish and English, spoken by Hispanic-Americans.

American Indian Movement

led by Dennis Banks and Russell Means; purpose was to obtain equal rights for Native Americans; protested at the site of the Wounded Knee massacre

Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee

a book made by Brown Indian’s right to choose their own way of life

election of 1968

1968; McCarthy challenged LBJ, who was politically wounded by the Tet Offensive and the Vietnam War; LBJ stepped down from the running, and Kennedy and McCarthy were left on the Democratic ballot; but Americans turned to Republican Nixon to restore social harmony and end the war

Richard M. Nixon

He was a committee member of the House of Representatives, Committee on Un-American Activities (to investigate "subversion"). He tried to catch Alger Hiss who was accused of being a communist agent in the 1930’s. This brought Nixon to the attention of the American public. In 1956 he was Eisenhower’s Vice-President.

Hubert H. Humphrey

The democratic nominee for the presidency in the election of 1968. He was LBJ’s vice president, and was supportive of his Vietnam policies. This support split the Democratic party, allowing Nixon to win the election for the Republicans.

George C. Wallace

Governor of Alabama for four terms (1963-1967, 1971-1979 and 1983-1987). He ran for U.S. President four times, running officially as a Democrat three times and in the American Independent Party once. He is best known for his Southern populist[1] pro-segregation attitudes during the American desegregation period, convictions he abandoned later in life.

Henry A. Kissinger

Nixon had him as his national security advisor. Kissinger saw Vietnam as a mistake and pushed for disengagement. Not long into his term, Nixon announced a new policy of Vietnamization to gradually withdraw the more than 500,000 American soldiers from Vietnam and return control of the war to the South Vietnamese ARVN.

Vietnamization

President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces

Kent State University (1970)

Massacre of four college students by National Guardsmen on May 4, 1970, in Ohio. In response to Nixon’s announcement that he had expanded the Vietnam War into Cambodia, college campuses across the country exploded in violence. On May 14 and 15, students at historically black Jackson State College in Mississippi were protesting the war as well as the Kent State shooting when highway patrolmen fired into a student dormitory, killing two students. (1005)

"the China card"

Communist China and the Soviet Union do not like each other; Nixon wants to get these 2 to fight each other; Nixon goes to communist China – US become friends with them (cultural exchanges, trade agreements); concerns the Soviets that US and China become friends

Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (1972)

Treaty involving US and Soviet Union on the issue of armament reduction control, which aimed at freezing numbers of long-range nuclear missiles for five years (arranged between Nixon and Brezhnev)

Pentagon Papers

A 7,000-page top-secret United States government report on the history of the internal planning and policy-making process within the government itself concerning the Vietnam War.

Watergate

1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down

stagflation

During the 60’s and 70’s, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation of its industrial growth.

Sunbelt

The southern and southwestern states, from the Carolinas to California, characterized by warm climate and recently, rapid population growth

Gerald R. Ford

Only President to have not been voted into office-nixon appointed him as vp, so he became president when Nixon resigned

Jimmy Carter

President who stressed human rights. Because of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, he enacted an embargo on grain shipments to USSR and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow

feminization of poverty

the trend of women making up an increasing proportion of the poor

Three Mile Island

1979 – A mechanical failure and a human error at this power plant in Pennsylvania combined to permit an escape of radiation over a 16 mile radius.

Silent Spring (1962)

Rachel Carson’s highly influential book, ___________ awakened the public to threats of pollution and toxic chemicals and spawned "modern" environmentalism

Environmental Protection Agency

an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment

New Right

opposed ERA, focused on social, cultural, and moral problems, opposed gevernment paying for daycare

Moral Majority

political organization of the United States which had an agenda of evangelical Christian-oriented political lobbying. Formed by Jerry Falwell. Organization made up of conservative Christian political action committees which campaigned on issues its personnel believed were important to maintaining its Christian conception of moral law. This group pressured for legislation that would ban abortion and ban the states’ acceptance of homosexuality.

Roe v. Wade (1973)

Established national abortion guidelines; trimester guidelines: no state interference in 1st, state may regulate to protect health of mother in 2nd, state may regulate to protect health of unborn child in 3rd. Inferred from right of privacy estab. in Griswald v. Conn.

Me Decade

The years 1969-1978 are often described as the "______________".

Panama Canal Treaty (1978)

Gave Panama more control over the canal.

Camp David Accords (1978)

Peace treaty between Egypt and Israel; hosted by US President Jimmy Carter; caused Egypt to be expelled from the Arab league; created a power vacuum that Saddam hoped to fill; first treaty of its kind between Israel and an Arab state

"malaise speech" (1979)

National address by Jimmy Carter in July 1979 in which the President chided American materialism and urged a communal spirit in the face of economic hardships. Although Carter intended the speech to improve both public morale and his standings as a leader, it had the opposite effect and was widely perceived as a political disaster for the embattled president. (1026)

iran Hostage Crisis (1979-1981)

incident in which Iranian radicals, with government support, seized 52 Americans from the U.S. embassy and held them for 444 days; ostensibly demanding the return of the deposed Shah to stand trial, the fundamentalist clerics behind the seizure also hoped to punish the United States for other perceived past wrongs.

Ronald Reagan

first elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.

Reaganomics

The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth.

Strategic Defense Initiative

Popularly known as "Star Wars," President Reagan’s SDI proposed the construction of an elaborate computer-controlled, anti-missile defense system capable of destroying enemy missiles in outer spaced. Critics claimed that SDI could never be perfected.

Iran-Contra Scandal

Although Congress had prohibited aid to the Nicaraguan contras, individuals in Reagan’s administration continued to illegally support the rebels. These officials secretly sold weapons to Iran in exchange for the release of American hostages being held in the Middle East. Profits from these sales were then sent to the contras.

Silicon Valley

a region in California south of San Francisco that is noted for its concentration of high-technology industries

George H.W. Bush

republican, former director of CIA, oil company founder/owner, foreign policy (panama, gulf war), raised taxes eventhough said he wouldnt, more centrist than his son, NAFTA negotiation

Persian Gulf War (1990-1991)

conflict between iraq and a coalition of countris led by the US to remove iraqi forces from kuwait which they have invaded in hopes of controlling the oil supply. A very one sided war with the US coalition emerging victorious

Bill Clinton

42nd President advocated economic and healthcare reform; second president to be impeached

North American Free Trade Agreement

Agreement entered into by Canada, Mexico, and the United States in December 1992 and which took effect on January 1, 1994 to eliminate the barriers to trade in, and facilitate the cross-border movement of goods and services between the countries.

Contract with America

(WJC)Gingrich, President can delete specific items passed by the Congress, proposed constitutional amendment to limit the term of office was ignore, imposed federal mandates on states without providing the money

Welfare Reform Act (1996)

abolished aid to families with dependent children, find work within two years or be cut off, lifetime limit of five years (waiver attainable), prohibited aliens from receiving assistance

election of 2000

Reported that gore had won the crucial state of florida but polls were still open. In the morning FL went to Bush. Netweorks said it was so close that a recount was neccesary. Bush’s chief attorney Mark Rosco.

George W. Bush

republican, neo-conservative, foreign policy dominated by war on terror, No child left behind, tax cuts, high deficits, major economic problems, proposed privatizing social security, opposed stem cell research/pro-life/carbon reductions/ international law, but wanted more domestic drilling to alleviate oil dependence, major contributions to HIV/AIDs

September 11, 2001

terrorist attacks on the united states that killed thousands of people at the twin towers and the pentagon

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