AP Gov Chapter 8 Exam Review

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The ____ is the departments, agencies, and offices within the executive branch that perform the functions of government.


Max Weber identified which of the following as a characteristic of bureaucracy?

task specialization

The civil service system was introduced following passage of what law?

the Pendleton Act

Under the spoils system, who was awarded jobs in the federal bureaucracy?

those who helped candidates win election

What proportion of the total economy did the government consume in 2012?


the largest organizational unit in the federal bureaucracy is a(n) _____.


_____ refers to the authority of administrators in the federal bureaucracy to make choices concerning the best way to implement policies.


The _____ was one of the first executive branch departments in the US government.

Treasury Department

Cabinet secretaries are appointed by _____ and confirmed by _____.

the president; the Senate

Political appointees in the federal bureaucracy _____.

may remain in office until a new president is elected

What is implementation?

the process by which a law or policy is put into practice

The Hatch Act prohibits federal employees from engaging in what activity?

running for elected office

Under our constitutional system, the president has the authority to _____.

make changes in an agency’s annual budget proposals

What function is the National Labor Relations board carrying out when it settles disputes between labor and management on federal labor laws?

adjudicating/engaging in quasi-judicial process

Which of the following is an example of Max Weber’s merit principle?

agencies hiring people based on their performance on entrance exams

Before 1883, how were government jobs awarded?

Jobs were awarded bases on applicant’s loyalty to the party in power

Which of the following is a function of departments and agencies within the federal bureaucracy?

implementing public policies

How does the president exercise control over agencies and departments in the federal bureaucracy?

by nominating federal appointees

Which of the following is an example of an independent executive agency?

the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Which of the following is an example of a government corporation?

the Tennessee Valley Authority

Congress’s watchdog over executive branch spending is _____.

the General Accountability Office (GAO)

How did the Pendleton Act reform the system of hiring and firing federal employees?

it required hiring and firing decisions to be based on merit rather than partisan loyalty

What is the main purpose served by government corporations?

providing services not fully trusted to the private sector

Which of Max Weber’s characteristics of bureaucracy is illustrated by a government agency in which of the greatest authority resides with the agency head?

hierarchy/chain of command

One of the formal tools used by Congress for oversight of the bureaucracy is…

authorization of spending

What is the major purpose of an independent regulatory commission?

to regulate commerce

Which statement best describes the quasi-judicial decisions made by government agencies?

these decisions can be appealed to federal courts

What role is the Environmental Protection Agency taking when it sets limits on air pollution from power plants?


According to Figure 8.1, when did the largest growth in the federal workforce occur?

during WW II

How did Americans’ attitudes about the role of government change as a result of the Great Depression and Roosevelt’s New Deal

People became more accepting of the federal government’s role in economic policy

Congress and the president share which of the following powers over agencies and departments in the federal bureaucracy?

the power to influence budgets

How do departments differ from independent agencies?

Department heads are part of the president’s cabinet; agency heads are not

How do government corporations differ from private companies?

Government corporations perform activities that private companies cannot

How are independent regulatory commissions similar to independent executive agencies?

both operate outside of executive department control

Which of the following statements best describes the president’s influence over agency budgets?

the president influences the initial budget proposals, but depends on Congress for appropriations of federal money.

How do independent regulatory commissions differ from independent agencies?

Commissions are more difficult to remove from office than agency heads

What was the purpose of the Hatch Act?

to prohibit federal employees from engaging in partisan political activity

What is a goal common to both the Pendleton Act and the Hatch Act?

reducing the influence of partisan politics on the federal bureaucracy

How are Cabinet secretaries similar to independent agency administrators?

both are appointed by president

Which of the following is currently a major concern about the federal workforce?

the large number of workers who will soon be eligible to retire

While the president has the authority to appoint an remove agency heads and other top bureaucrats, Congress has the authority to _____.

refuse to appropriate funds for certain programs

Which of the following was a consequence of the spoils, or patronage, system?

the federal bureaucracy was staffed with people who lacked expertise

Under what circumstance are bureaucrats most likely to exercise discretion?

when an agency is implementing a law that contains ambiguity

How has the government spending changed over the past fifty years?

the government now pays for a lager portion of its spending by borrowing

What event served as a catalyst for the creation of the Pendleton Act?

the assassination of James Garfield in 1881

When the law requires an agency to conduct a formal hearing before issuing rules, what effect does this have on the agency’s rule-making procedure?

the courts tend to give greater deference to agency decisions

Which circumstance creates a challenge to the implementation of federal laws?

when Congress passes a law that contains ambiguity

What factor contributed to the growth of federal bureaucracy during the twentieth century?

increased demands upon government during the Great Depression

Under what circumstance might a president set up a policy coordinating committee (PSC)?

when various agencies need to work together to ensure consistent policies

Why was the spoils system ultimately replaced by the civil service system?

due to growing concerns about a poorly functioning federal bureaucracy

When would Congress be most likely to allow a federal agency significant discretion in rule-making?

following the passage of a law dealing with specialist issues

What factor was influential in driving expansion of the federal bureaucracy in the post-Civil War era?

a series of poor harvests and agricultural distribution problems

Which of the following is a member of the White House Staff?

the national security advisor

In the process and structure of public policymaking, "iron triangle" refer to the …

networks of congressional committees, bureaucratic agencies, and interest groups that strongly influence the policy process

Which of the following best describes the primary role of the attorney general?

serving as the chief executive officer of the department of justice

When independent regulatory agencies make rules, enforce those rules, and adjudicate disputes arising under those rules, they risk violating the constitutional concept of

separation of powers

The role Congress plays in ensuring that executive branch agencies are carrying out their legislated responsibilities is known as

legislative oversight

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