Anth 2200 Exam 3 C-State

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The principle of faunal succession was created by:

William Smith

The study of what happens to the remains of an organism is called:


Rapid evolutionary change during long, static periods is known as:

punctuated equilibrium

Before the formation of the seven continents of the world, there was a supercontinent called:


According to Bishop Ussher, when was Earth created?

6,000 years ago

The law of superposition created by Nicolaus Steno helped lay the foundations for:

relative dating

All of the following are relative methods of dating EXCEPT:

raidocarbon dating

All of the following are absolute methods of dating EXCEPT:

cultural dating

Which of the following elements can be used in radiometric dating?

all of these are correct

To calculate the numerical age of a fossil specimen that you believe dates to about 2 mya, which of the following methods would you choose?

fission-track dating

Your professor is planning to undertake chemical isotope analysis for her latest paleoanthropology project. When you ask her for more details, she invites you to guess the topic of her project based on this fact alone. You suggest that her project may be about

any of these are correct

A volcanic eruption on the coast of Japan in 1850 deposits a layer of ash on top of a layer of red clay, and the ash is covered by a layer of silt in a tsunami in 1902. Archaeologists find a coin between the ash and silt, and they find a small pot between the ash and clay. Given this sequence of events, which of the following is true?

the pot is older than the coin

While studying for your physical anthropology midterm, your classmate tells you that the bones of Lucy, a famous australopithecine specimen that dates to about 3.2 million years ago, were dated based on carbon-14 analysis. You note that this is incorrect because

all of these are correct

5,730 years is the ______________ of the carbon-14 radioisotope.


The molecular clock indicates that humans and chimpanzees diverged about ____ mya.


You want to undertake a project to study the past environment in which the Inuit lived in Greenland. Your professor suggests that you think about climate, specifically that you:

test microorganisms in the ocean to estimate temperature fluctuations

The era in which we are living is the:


A team of paleoanthropologists has concluded based on skeletal anatomy that the new species they found, Oreopithecus, lived in an arboreal habitat. This conclusion may have been based largely on the apes’:

long arm bones

For fossilization to occur, bones should meet the following taphonomic requirement(s).

The bones must remain in an anoxic environment

Fossils are most commonly found in

sedimentary rock

Which of the following is NOT an ideal environment for fossilization?

acidic soil (as in a jungle)

Cultural dating can be used to date:


What is the most important feature of climate?


The original continent that existed about 200 mya, from which the modern continents ultimately emerged, is called:


Chemical analysis of the _________ can provide information on diets and habitats.

bones and teeth

The molecular clock has been useful to determine the phylogenetic relationships of species based on the assumption that:

a species accumulates genetic differences over time at a constant rate.

If fossil species A is consistently recovered from geological deposits beneath layers containing fossil species B, then A is considered older than B. This relative dating technique is based on the principle of:


What is the basic difference between relative and absolute dating?

the use of an actual number of years

Stratigraphic correlation is:

matching strata by chemical composition and color from several sites across distances.

Taphonomy is the study of:

the processes that affect an organism after death.

The study of fossils is called:


A mummy is discovered whose tomb includes cloth, food, and other organic remains. What dating method might be used to date the tomb?

carbon 14

Coinciding with the appearance of early hominins about 5-10 mya, the climate was:

dry and seasonal

Fission track dating can provide dates when used on which type of material?

igneous rock

Most of the fossils discovered in Africa come from the eastern and western parts of the continent. Why is this?

These areas provided better preservation.

Which dating method would be most appropriate for establishing the age of a volcanic ash layer from an early hominid site in eastern Africa?

potassium-argon dating

The three eras that make up earth history are:

Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic.

In the 1600s Nicolaus Steno proposed:

the law of superposition

Igneous rock can be dated with which of the following methods?

raidopotassium dating

A layer of stratigraphy in one location overwhelmingly represents one species, while the same species is discovered in a similar stratigraphic layer fifty miles away. What method is used to provide an estimate of age for this layer and this species?


The earth’s age is:

4.6 billion years

During crucial periods of human evolution, the Pleistocene was characterized by:

massive glaciation, then warm interglacials.

Studies of temperatures during the Cenozoic era suggest that:

temperatures have fluctuated, sometimes greatly, over time

Fluorine dating is an example of what type of dating method?


Eras are:

divisions in geologic time divided into periods and epochs.

A hearth is discovered with bone fragments in it. What method might be used to date the bone?

amino acid method

The arboreal hypothesis of primate origins explains that:

grasping hands and feet were necessary for living in trees

As a corollary to the idea that primates emerged as an adaptation to an arboreal environment, Matt Cartmill proposed that:

catching small prey was more important in primate evolution than living in the trees

Robert Sussman’s angiosperm radiation hypothesis is based on the finding that:

fruit was a newly available food source in the Cenozoic era

Euprimates, the first true primates, consisted of the following two groups:

Omomyids and Adapids

Higher primates most likely evolved from:


The Fayum primates in the Oligocene epoch were the:

All of these are correct

Which of the following is NOT a hypothesis for how anthropoids got to South America?

African ancestors reached South America by using the Bering Strait between Asia and North America.

While flipping through the channels, you stop on a television program about primate evolution. The host says that there is a 6-million-year gap in the fossil evidence between the latest Oligocene catarrhines and the earliest Miocene proconsulids, which could mean that primates disappeared from Earth and evolved anew some time later. Your roommate comes running when you start yelling at the television,

"The resemblance between the Fayum catarrhines and the Miocene proconsulids in skull form and dentition suggests an evolutionary relationship, even if the direct fossil evidence isn’t there!"

Which of the following is unique to hominins?

precision grip

The first primate fossil to be described by a scientist was recorded by:

Georges Cuvier.

A valid criticism of the idea that anthropoids evolved independently in Africa and South America is that:

there are striking similarities between Old and New World primates not only in phenotype but also in genotype.

Eocene primates differ from Paleocene primates in the following way(s):

All of these are correct

The common ancestor of all later catarrhines, Old World monkeys, and hominins was likely:


From 12 to 8 mya, Dryopithecids were found in _____________ while Sivapithecids were found in _____________.

Europe; Asia

The largest primate that ever lived, named for its massive size, was:

None of these is correct

A valid criticism of the arboreal hypothesis of primate origins is that:

the opossum is also an arboreal mammal but did not develop uniquely primate traits

Your classmate, whose part-time job entails reorganizing the paleoanthropology lab on campus, asks you to take a look at a skeleton that she thinks is from a primate. After noting the absence of a postorbital bar, nails, and an opposable thumb, you tell her that:

she should label this skeleton as a plesiadapiform rather than as a primate

While walking across campus, you overhear a guy telling his girlfriend that the origin of every human ancestor was in Africa. You stop him and explain that he is not completely correct because:

based on the current fossil evidence, Asia could equally likely be the place where higher primates originated.

Your biology instructor says in class that the fossil remains of primates from the Eocene demonstrate that they were nothing like the primates of today. After class, you argue with him, noting that:

a variety of primate traits, such as convergent eyes, grasping digits, and a large brain, are common to both Eocene primates and those of today.

The short calcaneus bone of Eosimias demonstrates that:

all of these are correct.

This skull indicates Plesiadapis was not a true primate because:

all of these are correct

This anthropologist is sweeping away layers of sand to:

search for fossils in the Fayum Depression, Egypt.

The skeletal anatomy of Proconsul indicates it can be classified as:

an ape

The majority of primate species alive today reside in:

the southern hemisphere.

If you are examining the fossil remains of the genus Dryopithecus, they are most likely from where?


Paleocene organisms that may have been the first primates were:


Chororapithecus is considered the:

common ancestor of African apes and hominins.

Comparisons of tooth wear in living apes and extinct Miocene apes suggest that some extinct species of apes ate:

leaves, nuts, and fruits.

The evolution of apes began in Africa and continued into:

Asia and South America.

The northern African fossil primate called Biretia may be an early anthropoid, based on the morphology of its:

lower premolar tooth.

Apes went extinct in southern Europe (including France, Spain, Italy, and Greece) during the late Miocene, probably as a result of:

climate change.

Two genera of propliopithecids include:

Propliopithecus and Aegyptopithecus.

The visual predation hypothesis proposes that:

primate traits arose as adaptations to preying on insects and small animals.

The space between the canine and the first premolar in the lower jaw of some primates is a(n):

mandibular gap.

Basal anthropoids are:

Eocene primates that are the earliest anthropoids.

Plesiadapiforms are also called:


Which two genera may be the ancestor to the orangutan?

Gigantopithecus and Sivapithecus

The similarity of the foot bones between _________ and the living anthropoids makes it the likely first true primate.



stood ten feet tall and weighed 660 pounds.

The arboreal hypothesis proposes that defining primate characteristics were adaptations to life in the trees, such as:

grasping hands and feet, developed vision, and greater intelligence.

Monkeys underwent massive__________in the Pliocene and Pleistocene.

adaptive radiation

Euprimates represent the:

first true primates.

During the Miocene epoch of the Cenozoic era, there was an adaptive radiation of which kind of primate?


The shift from the Miocene, which had greater diversity of ape species and fewer monkey species, to a living assemblage with greater diversity of monkey species and fewer ape species may be the result of:

differences in ability to exploit the habitats that resulted after a change in global climate.

The most likely contender for the common ancestor of all later catarrhines is:


The most distinctive feature of ape dentition, which clearly distinguishes apes from Old World monkeys, is:

a Y-5 molar pattern.

The angiosperm radiation hypothesis proposes that:

certain primate traits were responses to the acquisition of fruit during the Cenozoic.

The Fayum desert has yielded fossils of these three primates:

Oligopithecus, Apidium, and Aegyptopithecus.

Canadian primate paleontologist David Begun proposes that climate changes in Europe prompted late Miocene apes to:

move from Europe back to Africa following food sources.

A species that is adapted to a wide range of environments, climates, and diets is:

biologically diverse.

Humans differ from apes because

humans use spoken language

The _____________ fossil, mistakenly thought of as the missing link between humans and apes, had a large cranial capacity but ape-like dentition.


The _____________ hypothesis about hominin bipedalism states that energy-efficient walking on two legs arose so that hominins could search for food that was dispersed as a result of climatic changes at the end of the Miocene.

patchy forest

Bipedalism’s advantages over quadrupedalism include:

All of these are correct

Bipedalism has disadvantages to quadrupedalism, including:

development of arthritis and back injuries.

The oldest pre-australopithecine, or a fossil link between late Miocene apes and australopithecines, found to date is:

Sahelanthropus tchadensis.

The oldest australopithecine species is:

Au. anamensis.

The best-known australopithecine, represented by hundreds of fossils and dozens of individuals found mostly at Laetoli and Hadar, is:

Au. afarensis.

Robust australopithecine species include:

Au. aethiopicus.

Robust australopithecines differ from earlier australopithecines in their:

All of these are correct.

The genus Australopithecine includes hominins that lived about:

4 – 1 mya.

The Oldowan tool complex is attributed to __________________, making that hominin species the first to use tools.

Au. garhi

______________ arose around 3.5 mya and gave rise to at least two branches of hominins – later australopithecines and the genus Homo.

Au. afarensis

Kamoya Kimeu, a Kenyan whose excavation team has found numerous fossil remains, worked primarily with:

Richard Leakey.

Your old roommate is in Australia on a one-year study abroad program. She excitedly skypes you and says her Aborigine friend mentioned an australopithecine skull he discovered while on "walkabout" in the desert. The skull has a small brain and wear on the tip of the canines. You respond that:

there is no evidence that australopithecines ever left Africa.

While walking through a natural history museum, your little cousin points out the skull of an australopithecine with a large crest on the top and asks you what its purpose was. To simplify a complicated evolutionary trait, you tell your cousin that:

these hominins had muscles to eat hard foods such as nuts.

In an argument with your parents, they claim that the only difference between australopithecines and early Homo species is a bigger brain in the latter. You argue that there are other differences, such as:

in addition to a larger brain, early Homo species have a smaller face and smaller teeth.

Your mom has started complaining to you about her varicose veins and is thinking about surgery. You try to convince her not to by noting that:

people might not mind varicose veins as much if they realized they were a direct consequence of bipedality.

Charles Darwin hypothesized that bipedalism arose so that hominins would have two free hands to create and carry weapons. The fossil evidence that now refutes this hypothesis includes:

the small brain and large canines of Ardipithecus.

These footprints found in the ash at Laetoli show that hominins had which of the following characteristics of bipedalism?

All of these are correct.

Humans use their molars for:


The Laetoli footprints demonstrate that the foot of Australopithecus afarensis was humanlike in having:

all of the above

The earliest australopithecines first show up in the fossil record more than:Based on the morphology of the hand phalanx, Orrorin tugenensis lived in a:


Based on the morphology of the hand phalanx, Orrorin tugenensis lived in a:

forest environment

The Oldowan Complex includes tools like:

choppers, cobbles, flakes, and bone tools.

The discovery of Kenyanthropus platyops was important mainly because:

it showed diversity in the hominin fossil record 3.5 mya.

Australopithecus garhi may be the ancestor of:

Homo habilis.

Two types of australopithecines were using two different types of locomotion in East Africa:

one was a climber and the other a biped.

In an ape, the space between the upper lateral incisor and the canine that accommodates a large, projecting lower canine is a:


The Patchy Forest hypothesis proposes that:

forests became patchy and food more dispersed.

Along with other distinct traits robust australopithecines had __________ adapted for grinding food.

large premolars and molars and large temporalis muscles and a sagittal crest

An increased ability to see greater distances is one of the adaptations to:


Fossils attributed to Australopithecus garhi were found at the Bouri site, in Ethiopia, along with:

animal bones with cutmarks

Australopithecus robustus was likely the longest-surviving species of australopithecine in South Africa. It had:

large molars, a big face, and a sagittal crest.

Evidence indicating that Orrorin tugenensis was bipedal comes mainly from which part of the skeleton?

femur (thighbone)

Thick dental enamel in__________ helps with crushing food.


Which of the following is a derived trait of Sahelanthropus tchandensis?

nonhoning chewing complex

Hominins have canines that are:

small, blunt, and nonprojecting, with no diastema.

Beginning more than 3 mya, at least two lineages of hominin evolution emerged, one that led to the genus Homo and one that:

included the now extinct descendents of Au afarensis.

The Oldowan Complex is a part of the:

Lower Paleolithic.

Ecological evidence from the site where Ardi was found shows that:

early hominins lived in a forest.

You find a fossil that you are sure shows evidence of bipedalism. You know this because which of the following anatomical traits is present?

thighbones that angle in toward the knees

Which of the following is an adaptive characteristic of bipedalism?

longitudinal arch in the foot

The adaptive radiation of the australopithecines after their split from the lineage that led to early Homo seems to have focused on _________.


Ardi was adapted to life in trees and:

on the ground.

Layers of rock, representing various periods of deposition:


Rock formed when the deposition of sediments creates distinct layers, or strata:


Major divisions of geologic time that are divided into periods and further subdivided into epochs:


The first major era of geologic time, 570-230Êmya, during which fish, reptiles, and insects first appeared:


The second major era of geologic time, 230-66Êmya, characterized by the emergence and extinction of dinosaurs:


The era lasting from 66Êmya until the present, encompassing the radiation and proliferation of mammals such as humans and other primates:


Divisions of periods (which are the major divisions of eras) in geologic time:


Refers to various structures on Earth’s surface, such as the continental plates:


The principle that the lower the stratum or layer, the older its age; the oldest layers are at the bottom, and the youngest are at the top:

Steno’s law of superposition

The process of matching up strata from several sites through the analysis of chemical, physical, and other properties:

stratigraphic correlation

A relative (chemical) dating method that compares the accumulation of fluorine in animal and human bones from the same site:

fluorine dating

Dating methods that use predictable chemical changes that occur over time:

chemical dating

A relative dating method that uses the associations of fossils in strata to determine each layer’s approximate age:

biostratigraphic dating

Fossils that are from specified time ranges, are found in multiple locations, and can be used to determine the age of associated strata:

index fossils

Relative dating methods that are based on material remains’ time spans:

cultural dating

The earliest stone tools, in which simple flakes were knocked off to produce an edge used for cutting and scraping:

pebble tools

A chronometric dating method that uses a tree-ring count to determine numerical age:


The radiometric dating method in which the ratio of 14C to 12C is measured to provide an absolute date for a material younger than 50,000 years:

radiocarbon dating

Two or more forms of a chemical element that have the same number of protons but vary in the number of neutrons:


The time it takes for half of the radioisotopes in a substance to decay; used in various radiometric dating methods:


Rock formed from the crystallization of molten magma, which contains the radioisotope 40K; used in potassium-argon dating:


An absolute dating method based on the measurement of the number of tracks left by the decay of uranium-238:

fission track dating

An absolute dating method for organic remains such as bone or shell, in which the amount of change in the amino acid structure is measured:

amino acid dating

A kind of light used in amino acid dating because it allows amino acid changes to be observed and measured:

polarized light

The chemical reaction resulting in the conversion of L amino acids to D amino acids for amino acid dating:


An absolute dating method based on the reversals of Earth’s magnetic field:

paleomagnetic dating

An absolute dating method that uses microwave spectroscopy to measure electrons’ spins in various materials:

electron spin resonance dating

A relative dating method in which the energy trapped in a material is measured when the object is heated:

thermoluminescence dating

Marine protozoans that have variably shaped shells with small holes:


Plants that take in carbon through C3 photosynthesis, which changes carbon dioxide into a compound having three carbon atoms; tending to be from more temperate regions, these plants include wheat, sugar beets, peas, and a range of hardwood trees:

C3 plants

Plants that take in carbon through C4 photosynthesis, which changes carbon dioxide into a compound with four carbon atoms; these plants tend to be from warmer regions with low humidity and include corn, sugarcane, millet, and prickly pear:

C4 plants

The proposition that primates’ unique suite of traits is an adaptation to living in trees:

arboreal hypothesis

The proposition that unique primate traits arose as adaptations to preying on insects and on small animals:

visual predation hypothesis

The proposition that certain primate traits, such as visual acuity, occurred in response to the availability of fruit and flowers following the spread of angiosperms:

angiosperm radiation hypothesis

Paleocene organisms that may have been the first primates, originating from an adaptive radiation of mammals:


A separate order of early primate ancestors from the Paleocene, such as the plesiadapiforms:


The first true primates from the Eocene: the tarsierlike omomyids and the lemurlike adapids:


Euprimates of the Eocene that were likely ancestral to modern lemurs and possibly ancestral to anthropoids:


Eocene euprimates that may be ancestral to tarsiers:


A genus of one of the largest adapids from the Eocene:


A genus of adapids from the Eocene:


A plesiadapiform genus from the Paleocene, probably ancestral to the Eocene euprimates:


A parapithecid genus from the Oligocene, possibly ancestral to anthropoids:


A later basal anthropoid genus found in the Fayum, Egypt, that may be ancestral to anthropoids:


The earliest anthropoid ancestors in the Oligocene, found in the Fayum, Egypt:


Anthropoid ancestors from the Oligocene, found in the Fayum, Egypt:


Anthropoid ancestors from the Oligocene, found in Africa:


A genus of later parapithecids from the Oligocene, found in the Fayum, Egypt:


Oligocene propliopithecid genus:


A propliopithecid genus from the Oligocene, probably ancestral to catarrhines; the largest primate found in the Fayum, Egypt:


An early catarrhine Oligocene genus from a group of primates that gave rise to later catarrhines:


A South American genus from the Oligocene, ancestral to platyrrhines:


Early Miocene apes found in East Africa:


A genus of very small pro-consulids from the Miocene, found in Africa:


A genus of early Miocene proconsulids from Africa, ancestral to catarrhines:


A genus of dryopithecid apes found in southern France and northern Spain:


Early Miocene apes found in various locations in Europe:


Early Miocene apes found in Asia:


A genus of Miocene sivapithecids, proposed as ancestral to orangutans:


A genus of Miocene apes from Asia, likely ancestral to orangutans:


A genus of Miocene pongids from Asia; the largest primate that ever lived:


Miocene apes that were found in Europe:


A genus of oreopithecids found in Italy that was extinct within a million years of its appearance:


A genus of Miocene dryopithecids found in Greece:


Miocene primates from Africa, possibly ancestral to Old World monkeys:


A genus of fossil and living Old World monkeys found in Africa; it was more diverse in the past than it is today and was one of the first monkey genera to appear in the evolutionary record:


The earliest pre-australopithecine species found in central Africa with possible evidence of bipedalism:

Sahelanthropus tchadensis

A pre-australopithecine species found in East Africa that displayed some of the earliest evidence of bipedalism:

Orrorin tugenensis

An early pre-australopithecine species from the late Miocene to the early Pliocene; shows evidence of a perihoning complex, a primitive trait intermediate between apes and modern humans:

Ardipithecus kadabba

A later pre-australopithecine species from the late Miocene to the early Pliocene; shows evidence of both bipedalism and arboreal activity but no indication of the primitive perihoning complex:

Ardipithecus ramidus

The oldest species of australopithecine from East Africa and a likely ancestor to Au. afarensis:

Australopithecus anamensis

An early australopithecine from East Africa that had a brain size equivalent to a modern chimpanzee’s and is thought to be a direct human ancestor:

Australopithecus afarensis

One of the most significant fossils: the 40% complete skeleton of an adult female Au. afarensis, found in East Africa:


An australopithecine from East Africa that had a unique flat face and was contemporaneous with Au. afarensis:

Australopithecus (or Kenyanthropus) platyops

A late australopithecine from East Africa that was contemporaneous with Au. africanus and Au. aethiopicus and was the likely ancestor to the Homo lineage:

Australopithecus garhi

The stone tool culture associated with H. habilis and, possibly, Au. garhi, including primitive chopper tools:

Oldowan Complex

The oldest part of the period during which the first stone tools were created and used, beginning with the Oldowan Complex:

Lower Paleolithic

An early robust australopithecine from East Africa, with the hallmark physical traits of large teeth, large face, and massive muscle attachments on the cranium:

Australopithecus aethiopicus

Formerly known as Zinjanthropus boisei; a later robust australopithecine from East Africa that was contemporaneous with Au. robustus and Au. africanus and had robust cranial traits, including large teeth, large face, and heavy muscle attachments:

Australopithecus boisei

A gracile australopithecine from South Africa that was contemporaneous with Au. aethiopicus, Au. garhi, and Au. boisei and was likely ancestral to Au. robustus:

Australopithecus africanus

A robust australopithecine from South Africa that may have descended from Au. afarensis, was contemporaneous with Au. boisei, and had the robust cranial traits of large teeth, large face, and heavy muscle attachments:

Australopithecus robustus

A late species of australopithecine from South Africa that may have descended from Au. africanus, was a contemporary of Au. robustus, and expresses anatomical features found in Australopithecus and in Homo:

Australopithecus sediba

The earliest Homo species, a possible descendant of Au. garhi and an ancestor to H. erectus; showed the first substantial increase in brain size and was the first species definitively associated with the production and use of stone tools:

Homo habilis

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