Anth 2200 Exam 4 C-state

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This early researcher’s scientific approach to the origin of humans, searching for fossils to test his hypothesis rather than comparative animal anatomy, helped create the discipline of paleoanthropology:


Homo habilis differs from earlier australopithecines because it:

had a larger brain

The first hominin species to disperse from Africa, where it originated, was:

H. erectus

H. erectus’s change in limb proportions, to a body with short arms and long legs, indicates:

fully modern bipedal locomotion

Fossils of H. erectus have been found at which of these sites in Ethiopia?

All of these are correct

The rapid spread of H. erectus out of Africa can be attributed in part to:

material culture and tool use

Evidence of fire use at Wonderwerk Cave included:

All of these are correct

The main reason that H. erectus increased in stature and body size over H. habilis is:

access to animal protein

Evidence of tool use in H. habilis includes:

All of these are correct.

It is possible that australopithecines went extinct and Homo flourished because of:

habitat changes.

A H. erectus specimen from Turkey dating to about 500,000 yBP demonstrates the antiquity of _______________, a disease still prevalent today.


__________ H. erectus were more robust than ___________ H. erectus.

African; Asian

H. erectus’s brain increased about ________ compared to H. habilis’s.


If a fully clothed Nariokotome boy were walking down the streets of New York City, which feature would indicate that he was NOT a modern human?

None of these is correct.

H. erectus was originally known as:

All of these are correct.

Your roommate, a staunch vegetarian, argues that eating meat is unhealthy. You counter this argument by noting that the latest research in paleoanthropology suggests that:

we might not be the tall, big-brained humans we are today had our hominin ancestors not eaten meat.

You come across a website that states Homo rudolfensis was a slightly larger version of Homo habilis found in Canada in the eighteenth century. Based on your knowledge of physical anthropology, though, you know that this website is bunk because:

All of these are correct.

Paleoanthropologists have found stone tool marks on Homo erectus bones, and this bit of information has been spun on TV as "cannibal hominins." A valid criticism of this sensationalistic conclusion is that:

the tool marks only indicate that flesh was removed, not whether it was consumed.

If you wanted to know what the landscape was like when Homo erectus walked Earth a million years ago, you might try to find evidence by studying:

All of these are correct.

Paleoanthropologists know that Acheulian hand axes were used to butcher animals because:

the wear patterns on ancient tools are similar to those that can be replicated experimentally.

An evolutionary argument for why women today need assistance in giving birth may be that:

the large brains of Homo sapiens infants necessitate a different pattern of childbirth events than seen in earlier hominins and primates.

During excavations at this site in China, researchers found the fossil remains of over 40 hominins.


These stone tools made by H. erectus belong to the ___________ tool complex.


This skull shows some of the characteristics of H. erectus, including a long cranium, low forehead, large brow ridges, and:

a sagittal keel.

An animal bone such as this one may provide evidence that Homo erectus scavenged for meat if:

puncture holes from carnivore teeth are found beneath cuts made by manufactured tools

During a lab session in your physical anthropology class, you are asked to look at this tooth under magnification and state the importance of its morphology. A valid answer would be:

the ridges on the enamel can be used to figure out how quickly the tooth formed.

The first hominid to migrate out of Africa was:

Homo erectus.

Based on height calculations of Homo erectus fossils, physical anthropologists estimate that their average height was:

tall, with males about five feet nine and females about five feet three.

The controlled use of fire by hominids:

contributed to geographical expansion and food production techniques in positive ways.

Homo erectus skull morphology includes:

all of the above

The original name for Homo erectus was:


The Acheulean complex:

emerged around 1.5 mya.

Modern anatomical features of the Nariokotome Boy include:

relatively short arms and long legs.

Intermediate forms in the fossil record include:

all of the above

Anatomical evidence from fossilized hand bones suggests that the precision grip needed to make and use stone tools was present:

in Homo habilis and some australopithecines.

Homo rudolfensis is morphologically similar to:

Homo habilis.

Homo habilis had traits that include:

short legs.

Stone tools were more common from archaeological sites of:

Homo habilis.

A central theme of human evolution is:

an increasing adaptive flexibility.

Homo erectus fossils date to:

1.8 mya-300,000 mya.

The earliest fossil evidence for Homo erectus in Western Europe dates from:

1.2 mya, from Sima del Elefante.

Greater body size and facial gracility documented in Homo erectus are likely related to:

changes in tool technology and increasing access to meat and other proteins.

Some Homo erectus specimens had very large and robust bones while others:

were gracile.

The discoverer of Homo erectus was:

Eugène Dubois.

Compared to earlier hominids the increased body size in Homo erectus is likely due to:

increased protein in the diet.

Southern and eastern African sites dating to 2.5 mya show habitats indicating:

a more frequent use of tools for the digging and processing of roots and tubers.

Relative to Oldowan tools, Acheulean stone tools:

required more learning and skill to produce.

Homo habilis experienced a major shift to new environments that was characterized by:

tool use for obtaining and processing food.

The many stone tools, fragmentary animal bones, and teeth found at Gran Dolina, Spain, indicate that hominids there:

processed and consumed animals and other hominids.

The earliest fossil evidence of Homo erectus in Western Europe dates to about:

1.2 mya.

What are the differences between Homo habilis and Homo erectus?

Homo erectus shows a reduction in the size of the face relative to the brain case.

The first evidence of modern human traits, including increasing brain size and dependence on material culture shows up in:

Homo habilis.

The Nariokotome Boy discovered at Lake Turkana (Homo erectus) has modern human traits such as:

shorter arms and longer legs than those of earlier hominids.

Compared to australopithecines, Homo habilis is characterized by:

all of the above

Fossil evidence of cut marks made with stone tools at early hominid sites suggests that:

meat eating started before Homo erectus but increased with more advanced technology.

Homo erectus’s high degree of adaptive success is evidenced by its:

both a. and b.

The Homo erectus fossil from Sangiran, Java, dates to:

1.8-1.6 mya.

Modern H. sapiens differ from the archaic form in having:

All of these are correct.

Fossils found in a cave at Gran Dolina, Spain, show evidence of:


Neandertal remains from Shanidar cave in northern Iraq provide the first evidence of:

care for the injured.

The Out of Africa model of modern human origins states that modern humans:

spread from Africa and replaced all other populations with no gene flow.

The Multiregional Continuity model of the origin of modern humans states that:

gene flow is the key to evolution, turning archaic H. sapiens into modern humans in various parts of the world.

The Assimilation model of the origin of modern humans states that:

modern humans evolved in Africa and spread to Europe and Asia, where they interbred with Neandertals.

Early modern humans moved into North and South America because of:

All of these are correct.

The earliest modern humans in Australia, dating to 50 – 40,000 yBP, were found at:

Lake Mungo.

Modern humans likely migrated to the Americas via:

walking across the Bering land bridge.

Modern humans migrated into North America around:

15,000 yBP.

One of the tools of modern humans in the Americas was the:

Folsom fluted point.

The "Hobbit" skeleton found on the Indonesian island of Flores has been interpreted as:

a new species based on the morphology of the wrist bones.

Neandertals differed from archaic H. sapiens in their:

None of these is correct.

During your internship with the Medical Examiner’s Office, you observe the ME attempt to identify an unknown individual based on skeletal remains. The ME asserts confidently that the deceased was of Asian or Native American ancestry. How does she know this, based only on the skeleton?

The individual has shovel-shaped incisors, a heritable trait often found in East Asians and their descendants.

A valid critique of the Out of Africa model of human evolution based on recent research is that:

there was gene flow between Neandertals and modern Homo sapiens.

While watching a television program on Neandertal origins, you hear molecular geneticist Matthias Krings state that mtDNA analysis found that two dozen base pairs were different between Neandertals and anatomically modern humans, indicating we are not related to Neandertals. Your roommate asks you if this is true, and you reply that:

the mtDNA analysis is true, but testing of nuclear DNA has found some similarities between Neandertals and modern humans.

A valid critique of the Multiregional Continuity model of the origin of modern humans can be found in the fossil record, which shows that:

modern variation originated in Africa based on the Herto skeleton.

When they were first found, Neandertals were depicted as stupid, hairy, knuckle-dragging brutes. Evidence that refutes this depiction includes:

All of these are correct.

The wear pattern on the teeth of this Shanidar 1 Neandertal indicates:

All of these are correct.

This cave wall in Chauvet, France, shows:

that early modern Homo sapiens were creating art as early as 30,000 years ago.

Which of these tools indicates that H. sapiens began eating a new type of food?


Some people think the reconstruction of Kennewick Man’s skull looks a bit like Patrick Stewart, the actor who played Captain Picard on Star Trek. The cranial morphology of Kennewick Man, however, shows:

a robust face and jaws that are not found in modern European men.

Based on this map of the location of important archaic Homo sapiens fossils, you could say that:

All of these are correct.

Painted perforated shells are evidence that Neandertals:

used body ornaments.

Broken Hill, Dali, and Atapuerca are sites where specimens of _________ have been discovered.

archaic Homo sapiens

Anatomically modern human fossils were discovered in the European Upper Paleolithic site of:

Cro-Magnon, France.

The Denisova fossils likely:

share a common ancestor with Neandertals.

The best fossil evidence to suggest that Neandertals could produce a language like that of modern humans comes from which bone(s) collected at Kebara, Israel?

the hyoid

Early Native Americans used which distinctive fluted spear points to hunt large-bodied Ice Age mammals?

Folsom points

To date, the majority of Neandertal fossils have been found in:


Traits of anatomically modern humans include:

an average cranial capacity of 750 cc.

The earliest archaeological evidence of humans in Australia is from _________, dating to _________.

Lake Mungo; 40,000 yBP

The Herto skulls from Ethiopia:

have a combination of archaic and modern features.

The most distinctive traits about the cold adaptation complex of Neandertals are:

the body and the length of the arms and legs.

In Atapeura 5, early archaic Homo sapiens and Neandertal specimens show heavy wear on the incisors and canines, indicating:

the use of the front teeth for gripping materials.

Human beings first arrived in the Americas approximately:

15,000 yBP.

Neandertals’ cold-adapted traits include:

a projecting midface.

Compared to modern Homo sapiens, archaic Homo sapiens have:

both b. and c.

A distinctive trait of people from East Asia and the Americas is:

shovel-shaped incisors.

Allen’s and Bergmann’s rules are perfect examples of natural selection working to bring about anatomical adaptations to environments in mammals. These include:

all of the above

According to John Relethford, the most likely reasons for modern humans to have migrated out of Africa during the late Pleistocene include:

both b. and c.

The Neandertals’ disappearance after 30,000 yBP likely resulted from:

their assimilation.

Sub-Saharan Africans show the largest genetic diversity of any human population. This is likely to have resulted from:

the accumulations of genetic mutations over time.

Archaic Homo sapiens:

shows a mixture of Homo erectus and Homo sapiens traits.

The Middle Paleolithic prepared-core stone tools that are associated with Neandertals are called:


Analyses of modern human genetic variation indicate that Homo sapiens may have evolved approximately:

200,000 yBP.

The Multiregional Continuity hypothesis supposes that:

the transition to modernity took place regionally and without involving replacement.

The European archeological period that is marked by a great increase in technology and various kinds of art starting about 35,000 yBP is called the:

Upper Paleolithic period.

A hominid fossil that has a long, low skull, projecting face and occipital bone, and large nasal aperture is likely:

to be classified as having archaic characteristics.

The discovery of modern/archaic hybrid fossils supports which model of modern human origins?


The transition to fully modern Homo sapiens was completed globally by about:

25,000 yBP.

Neandertals’ cold-adapted traits include:

a projecting midface.

The oldest Neandertal site dates to __________, at __________.

130,000 yBP; Krapina, Croatia

Modern humans have misaligned teeth because of:

All of these are correct.

Domesticated C3 plants include all of the following EXCEPT:


Plant domestication brought with it the invention of:


One of the advantages of the invention of agriculture for human adaptation is:

the ability to feed a larger number of people.

Disadvantages of the invention of agriculture for human adaptation include:

an increase in interpersonal violence.

Modern human evolution has been marked by a(n) ______________ in the size of the face and jaw and a(n) ______________ in cultural complexity.

decrease; increase

You find a cache of skeletons from an agricultural site in the United States. What would you expect to see in the cross section of the femur?

More information about the geographic location of the site would be helpful because different kinds of food production can lead to either an increase or a decrease in the size.

Which of these locations is most likely to have people suffering from a variety of infectious diseases?

closely packed slums

Diseases that continue to plague modern humans because of overcrowding include all of the following EXCEPT:


An increase in dental caries in North America came about because of the increase in consumption of:


Compared to hunter-gatherers, agriculturalists have higher rates of:

All of these are correct.

With all the disadvantages to farming, why did humans continue to do so?

It allowed women to bear more children.

Iron-deficiency anemia can result from:

Both (a) and (b) are correct.

The treponematoses are a category of disease that include:


The shift from foraging to farming is associated with the time period called the:


You are interested in tracking the spread of maize agriculture throughout the eastern United States, so your professor suggests that you might want to study human skeletons and look into:

All of these are correct

Your mother points out to you a magazine article that says that better nutrition is the reason modern Americans are taller than Americans of two centuries ago. You tell her that:

while this is true, other factors such as a reduction in infectious diseases also contribute to the increase in height.

In a biology class, your friend had to read Jared Diamond’s essay The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race, which details the drawbacks of sedentary life and agriculture. Your friend wants to know why humans continued to farm in the face of disease and other issues. You reply that:

having reliable access to food and being able to produce more calories per unit of land available led to population increase.

Many of the bones from the prehistoric Cowboy Wash site in Colorado show evidence of cannibalism. Dr. Larsen suggests that environmental stresses may have led to a reduction in agricultural yields, causing a surge in interpersonal conflict over land. This is certainly not the only explanation for cannibalism, however, because:

evidence of cannibalism is found long before the advent of agriculture.

While reading an article for your archaeology class, you come across a section in which the author lays out a claim for the dolichocephalic Mesolithic foragers being replaced by the brachycephalic agriculturalists in Nubia. This claim that "short-headed" people came in and replaced all the "long-headed" people is likely false because:

craniofacial changes can be attributed to long-term changes in diet rather than to wholesale population replacement.

The defects shown in these teeth are called ________________, which tell anthropologists that the individual underwent stress episodes, likely caused by nutritional deficiencies or diseases.


These lumbar vertebrae illustrate _____________, a common problem resulting from physically demanding activity.


While washing bones at your internship in the physical anthropology lab, you come across these vertebrae. In your notes, you write that:

All of these are correct.

Based on the archaeological record from various areas, what was the initial effect of agriculture on height?

Height decreased.

Dental caries increased at the same time that populations were producing:


A symptom of anemia where spongy bone invades the eye sockets is called:

cribra orbitalia.

The archaeological record suggests that farming began in southeastern Turkey by:

10,500 yBP.

Bone comparisons from hunter-gatherers to later agriculturalists to modern peoples show:

decline in size

Some cases of anemia, which cause red blood cell production to increase in response to iron deficiency or blood loss, may lead to:

cribra orbitalia in eye orbits.

__________ iron is found in some foods that provide all the amino acids humans require in their diet:


Tooth size and jaw size have reduced in the last:

10,000 yBP.

Hunter-gatherers’ skeletons tend to show:

higher levels of activity.

Common types of plants exist mostly in areas of the world with temperate climates and they include a range of crops and their wild ancestors such as:

both a. and c.

The last 10,000 years is called the:


Cavities in the teeth are caused by:

dental caries.

The domestication of wheat and barley spread to Greece by:

8,000 yBP.

By the close of the Pleistocene the human population numbered:

several million

A round cross section of a long bone suggests that:

the bone will have equal strength in all directions.

In the American Midwest native seed crops goosefoot, sumpweed, and sunflowers were farmed about:

6,000-1,000 yBP.

The dog was the first animal to be domesticated during the:


The Neolithic site Çatalhöyük is located in:

southwest Asia.

The human population increase of the Holocene was probably due to:

decreased birth spacing.

Modern diseases made possible by overcrowding include, but are not limited to:

both a. and b.

Domestication produced more food per unit area of land than had hunting and gathering, meaning:

more people could be fed from the same amount of land.

The masticatory-functional hypothesis:

states that change in skull form represents a response to decreased demands on the chewing muscles.

Two-thirds of calorie intake comes from the key cereal grains domesticated in the earlier Holocene, especially:

wheat, barley, corn, and rice.

Comparisons of the bones from hunter-gatherers’ to later agriculturalists’ to modern peoples’:

show a remarkable decline in size.

Our environment is affected by:

All of these are correct

Greenhouse gases include all of the following EXCEPT


Stable isotopes of oxygen can reveal information about:

temperature change

Approximately what fraction of the world’s population currently suffers from malnutrition?


The World Health Organization notes that human casualties of global warming will result from climate-sensitive health issues; these include all of the following EXCEPT:

lung cancer

More than __________ of the world’s population lives in cities, and ___________ of these people live in overcrowded slums, leaving them vulnerable to the effects of a changing climate.

half ; one-quarter

All adults over the age of 40 experience ________________, or age-related bone loss.


About ______________ of American adults and ____________ of American children are overweight or obese.

two-thirds; one-fifth

What is contributing to the increasing trend in allergies in the United States?

All of these are correct.

Scientists predict that climate change will cause:

the sea level to rise over peninsular Florida.

Human developments have made possible all of the following EXCEPT:

shorter life expectancy

The trend among American males in the past 150 years is for an increase in height as a result of ______________ and an increase in weight as a result of ______________.

nutrition; overnourishment

Being obese predisposes a person to:


Mutation and selection for light skin, which is useful for absorbing ultraviolet rays and producing vitamin D in northern latitudes, likely occurred in the last:

10,000 yBP

Global warming:

all of these are correct

Your younger brother is writing a report on climate change and asks you what evidence there is that Earth is getting warmer. You reply that:

all of these are correct

You hear on the news that global warming is a recent phenomenon caused by the rise of motor vehicles in the last 100 years. You know this is not quite true, though, because:

the warming trend actually began with the agricultural revolution.

Over winter break, your family is sitting around talking about how cold it is outside. Your grandmother says that global warming would be quite welcome right about now. You, however, tell your family that considerable problems could befall humans should global warming continue, such as:

All of these are correct.

If you wanted to live in the most healthy environment possible, you may choose to move to:

rural Kansas.

While babysitting your young cousin, you let her dig up part of your mom’s vegetable garden. Your mom complains that your cousin has destroyed part of her garden, but you insist that you are helping her because:

increased exposure to microbes in dirt may decrease her chance of having allergies.

The Dust Bowl, seen here, was caused in the 1930s by:

soil overuse

Population increase creates many new hosts for infectious diseases, and _________ translates to _________.

more hosts; more organisms

One of the most significant items of scientific evidence for global climate change is:

the 85% reduction in the size of ice fields atop Mount Kilimanjaro, in Tanzania.

The nutrition transition refers to:

shifts to higher-fat, higher-carbohydrate diets.

Biological evolution in humans and in other organisms is evidenced by:

antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in hospitals.

Human activities that have contributed to greenhouse gases include:

both a. and c.

Global warming is the result of anthropogenic interference, which is:


All adults experience age-related bone loss after about age:


The health effects of industrialization include:

an increase in environmental pollutants.

Hip fractures in older adults are:

more common in modern societies than in previous ones.

Exposure to microbes early in life can _________ the immune system.


After the 1960s, children in rural Oaxaca developed shorter, rounder heads and narrower faces. This is likely related to:

softer, more processed corn and other foods.

Researchers have discovered a genetic _________likely related to increased resistance to smallpox and plague in Europe about 5,000 years ago that reduces susceptibility to_________.

mutation; HIV infection

Human populations living in areas of endemic malaria have a selective advantage if they carry:

the allele for sickle-cell anemia.

Physical anthropologist John Hawks and colleagues suggest that evolution is speeding up as population size continues to _________ and _________are introduced.

mushroom; new mutations

Luca Cavalli-Sforza hypothesizes that skin color change came late because:

earlier populations had ready access to vitamin D from the foods they ate.

Barry Popkin found that owing to_________ and _________, obesity levels in many parts of the developing world now match that of the United States.

dietary change; reduced physical activity

Of the 7.1 billion people living in the world today, nearly_________ suffer from malnutrition.

1 billion

The melting of glaciers and the polar ice caps poses a devastating threat of potential flooding for low-lying areas. Scientists predict that a sea level rise of_________would inundate areas such as the delta regions of Africa and Asia, peninsular Florida, Bangladesh, and most major coastal cities.

4-6 millimeters

Some technology has negatively influenced the world, including:

the burning of fossil fuels.

A common basis for adaptation to changing circumstances in humans is:


Climate change brings about illness and death because of:

both a. and b.

Human life expectancy in the United States has:

increased since 1900, due largely to improvements in medicine and in sanitation.

Abundant evidence indicates:

that humans continue to evolve.

The H2 haplotype on chromosome 17 occurs in about 21% of European women. Natural selection is strongly implicated because:

H2 women have 3.5% more children than do non-H2 women.

After conducting stable-isotope analysis of an ice core you record a high level of 18O at a particular layer. This suggests that:

the climate at this time was dry.

Approximately _________ of urban populations reside in slums without access to basic sanitation.


Health conditions considered climate-sensitive and likely to increase with increasing greenhouse gases include:

both a. and c.

Americans’ body weights vary according to socioeconomic status, inasmuch as:

both a. and c.

Both genetic mutation and selection have recently been linked to the development of pale skin in:

relatively recent European farming populations.

The increase in the average temperature of the atmosphere and sea due to human activity is referred to as:

global warming

Climate scientists predict that shifting patterns of precipitation and increasing dryness in areas like the American Southwest and Midwest will result in:

decreases in human population density.

The name first proposed by Ernst Haeckel for the oldest hominin; Dubois later used this name for his first fossil discovery, which later became known as Homo erectus:

Pithecanthropus erectus

An early species of Homo and the likely descendant of H. habilis; the first hominin species to move out of Africa into Asia and Europe.

Homo erectus

A slight ridge of bone found along the midline sagittal suture of the cranium, which is typically found on H. erectus skulls.

sagittal keel

The culture associated with H. erectus, including handaxes and other types of stone tools; more refined than the earlier Oldowan tools.

Acheulian Complex

The most dominant tool in the Acheulian Complex, characterized by a sharp edge for both cutting and scraping.


A cranial feature of Neandertals in which the occipital bone projects substantially from the skull’s posterior.

occipital bun

The stone tool culture in which Neandertals produced tools using the Levallois technique.


The middle part of the Old Stone Age, associated with Mousterian tools, which Neandertals produced using the Levallois technique.

Middle Paleolithic

A distinctive method of stone tool production used during the Middle Paleolithic, in which the core was prepared and flakes removed from the surface before the final tool was detached from the core.


Refers to the most recent part of the Old Stone Age, associated with early modern Homo sapiens and characterized by finely crafted stone and other types of tools with various functions.

Upper Paleolithic

Refers to hardened plaque on teeth; the condition is caused by the minerals from saliva being continuously deposited on tooth surfaces.


Nicknamed "Hobbit" for its diminutive size, a possible new species of Homo found in Liang Bua Cave, on the Indonesian island of Flores.

Homo floresiensis

A condition in which the cranium is abnormally small and the brain is underdeveloped.


A dental trait, commonly found among Native Americans and Asians, in which the incisors’ posterior aspect has varying degrees of concavity.

shovel-shaped incisors

The earliest hominin inhabitants of the Americas; they likely migrated from Asia and are associated with the Clovis and Folsom stone tool cultures in North America and comparable tools in South America.


Earliest Native American ("Paleo-indian") culture of North America; technology known for large, fluted, bifacial stone projectile points used as spear points for big game hunting.


Early Native American (immediately following Clovis) culture of North America; technology known for large, fluted, bifacial projectile points used as spear points for big game hunting.


General term for the large game animals hunted by pre-Holocene and early Holocene humans


The process of converting wild animals or wild plants into forms that humans can care for and cultivate.


The late Pleistocene/early Holocene culture, during which humans domesticated plants and animals.


Cereal grains, such as rice, corn, and wheat, that make up a substantial portion of the human population’s diet today.


The hypothesis that craniofacial shape change during the Holocene was related to the consumption of softer foods.

masticatory-functional hypothesis

Degenerative changes of the joints caused by a variety of factors, especially physical activity and mechanical stress.


Inflammatory response of the bones’ outer covering due to bacterial infection or to trauma.

periosteal reaction

A group of related diseases (venereal syphilis, yaws, endemic syphilis) caused by the bacteria Treponema, which causes pathological changes most often to the cranium and tibiae.


A disease process that creates demineralized areas in dental tissues, leading to cavities; demineralization is caused by acids produced by bacteria that metabolize carbohydrates in dental plaque:

dental caries

Cells that make tooth enamel


A condition in which the blood has insufficient iron; may be caused by diet, poor iron absorption, parasitic infection, and severe blood loss.

iron deficiency anemia

Iron—found in red meat, fish, and poultry—that the body absorbs efficiently.

heme iron

Iron—found in lentils and beans—that is less efficiently absorbed by the body than is heme iron.

nonheme iron

Expansion and porosity of cranial bones due to anemia caused by an iron-deficient diet, parasitic infection, or genetic disease.

porotic hyperostosis

Porosity in the eye orbits due to anemia caused by an iron-deficient diet, parasitic infection, or genetic disease.

cribra orbitalia

The increase in the average temperature of Earth’s atmosphere in response to the greenhouse effect; a cause of climate change.

global warming

Refers to any effect caused by humans.


Combustible material, such as oil, coal, or natural gas, composed of organisms’ remains preserved in rocks.

fossil fuel

The shift in diet to one that is high in saturated fat and sugar; a cause of the global obesity epidemic.

nutrition transition

The proposition that increasing allergies among children are the result of decreased exposure to microbes, such as those found in dirt.

hygiene hypothesis

Toxins released by bacteria when they break down or die.


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