American government quiz 2

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What was the dominant model of federalism starting with the New Deal?


Which of the following is an example of a categorical grant?

Funds provided by Congress to the states to enhance science instruction in a low-income area.

How many general types of federal grants exist?


Article VI of the U.S. Constitution establishes that federal law is __________ in conflicts between federal and state law.


Dillon’s Rule states that all local government must be authorized by which of the following?

the state government

What are reserved powers?

powers that belong to the states or people because they are not specifically delegated to the national government by the Constitution

In 2014, what did the Supreme Court decide about the use of prayers to open government meetings?

Such meetings can start with a prayer even if it clearly favors one faith.

In Barron v. Baltimore, the Supreme Court held that the Bill of Rights limits __________, not __________, activity.

federal; state

Prior to the ratification of the Constitution, the United States was governed by the Articles of __________.


Which of the following is an example of procedural due process?

the right to a speedy trial

The free exercise clause guarantees that the national government will not interfere with which of the following?


Dillon’s Rule states __________.

that local governments do not have any inherent sovereignty

The power of both the state and federal governments to levy taxes is an example of what type of power.


Convicted criminals cannot have their sentences increased when a new law calls for tougher penalties due to a prohibition against __________.

ex post facto laws

The doctrine of prior restraint says that the government cannot prevent speech or publication __________.

before the fact

Which of the following clauses requires states to return criminals to states where they have been convicted or are to stand trial?


The Sixth Amendment sets out basic requirements for which type of due process?


A defamatory, false written statement is __________; the same statement spoken aloud is __________.

libel; slander

__________ powers are shared by the federal and state governments.


The concept of nullification was quashed by which of the following?

the civil war

Which of the following categories of grants did President Lyndon Johnson favor?


Which of the following best exemplifies the cooperative federalism?

New Deal legislation

Which of the following is an example of a reserved power of the states?

imposing the death penalty

Which of the following is a power specifically denied the states by the Constitution?

passing bills of attainder

What type of due process protects citizens from arbitrary or unjust state or federal laws?


Which rule bars the use of illegally seized evidence at trial?


In the late 1980s, what caused the Rehnquist Court to start to restrict Congress’s ability to regulate various areas of the economy?

the Court’s support for states’ rights

What kind of speech is by its very utterance intended to inflict injury or incite an immediate breach of peace?

fighting words

Which of the following is an enumerated power of the national government?

coining money

What did Abington School District v. Schempp find to be unconstitutional?

state-mandated Bible reading

Inciting a fight by using threats and profanity could be considered __________, which is not a protected type of speech.

fighting words

Which amendment gave Congress the power to levy and collect federal taxes on incomes without apportioning them among the states?


According to Justice Blackmun, a woman has an absolute right to __________.

an abortion during her first trimester

Which of the following is the best definition of federalism?

A constitutional arrangement by which power is distributed between a central government and state governments.

Substantive due process means that states have a legal burden to prove that their laws __________.

are a valid exercise of power

The Fourth Amendment of the Constitution protects against unreasonable __________.


The "right to remain silent" is a citizen’s protection against which of the following?


__________ is the proclaimed right of a state to declare a federal law void.


The Supreme Court has ruled that states can limit abortions if the regulations do not pose which of the following?

an undue burden

In Near v. Minnesota, the Supreme Court further developed which of the following?

incorporation doctrine

What was the dominant form of federalism prior to the New Deal?


The USA PATRIOT Act enhances the government’s ability to do which of the following?

examine private records

Which of the following did Dred Scott v. Sandford address?


The __________ Amendment states that those powers not given to the federal government and not prohibited to the states by the Constitution are reserved for the states and the people.


The double jeopardy clause prevents an individual who is acquitted of a crime from which of the following?

being tried again for the same crime

What does the Sixth Amendment guarantee to those accused of a crime?

assistance of counsel

Which of the following is responsible for determining whether enough evidence exists to go to trial?

grand jury

The __________ clause of the Constitution means that legally sanctioned marriages performed in one state should automatically be recognized by other states.

full faith and credit

The Supreme Court briefly outlawed which of the following in the 1970s by asserting that it was being imposed in an arbitrary manner?

capital punishment

In Gitlow v. New York, the Supreme Court held that __________.

states must comply with the Constitution’s free speech guarantee

The Bill of Rights is made up of the first __________ amendments to the U.S. Constitution.


The Military Commission Act of 2006 was ruled unconstitutional because it violated detainees’ rights to __________.

habeas corpus

In Gibbons v. Ogden, the Supreme Court __________.

broadly interpreted the national government’s power to regulate interstate commerce

In 2008, the Supreme Court ruled that detainees have a right to which of the following?

habeas corpus

Today, the United States is the only western country to use which of the following to punish crime?

the death penalty

Which clause in the Constitution ensures that judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in another?

full faith and credit

Which of the following rights has the Supreme Court found to be one of the penumbras of unstated liberties linked to explicitly stated rights?

right to privacy

Which of the constitutional amendments was the first to be incorporated and applied to the states?


Which is an example of a programmatic request?

Congress passing a law creating a technology incubator to benefit a single congressional district.

New York Times Co. v. Sullivan held that there must be proof of which of the following in order to find libel against a public figure?

actual malice

Which of the following best explains the rationale for the selective incorporation of freedom of assembly?

it is a fundamental freedom essential to order, liberty, and justice

What two types of powers does Congress have under Article I, section 8 of the U.S. Constitution?

enumerated; implied

New Federalism most favors which type of government grant?

block grants

Which of the following generally is unconstitutional in school?

mandatory prayer

__________ grants typically allocate federal dollars for a specific purpose based on a state’s population.


The Seventeenth Amendment gave the people the power to elect which of the following?


Which type of federalism is characterized by a system of separate but equally powerful state and national governments?


Under which Court did the willingness to allow Congress to regulate in a variety of areas wane?

the Rehnquist court

The United States was the __________ nation to adopt a federal system of government.


During World War I, the Supreme Court upheld the Espionage Act by ruling that Congress has a right to restrict speech that __________.

creates a clear and present danger

__________ make an act punishable as a crime even if the act was legal when it was committed. These are prohibited by Article I of the Constitution.

ex post facto laws

Which of the following is a concurrent power?

power to tax

If a police officer has a reasonable belief that someone is committing or about to commit a crime, that officer can stop the suspect __________.

without getting a warrant

Which amendment protects the right to bear arms?


In McCulloch v. Maryland, which clause of the U.S. Constitution did the Supreme Court interpret as preventing Maryland from taxing the national bank?


A Pell grant is an example of __________.

an unfunded mandate

Which of the following is an implied power of the federal government?

creating banks

Miranda rights require that the police inform suspects of which of the following rights?

remain silent

Which Supreme Court case is most closely associated with the exclusionary rule?

Mapp v. Ohio

Which U.S. Supreme Court case found that a woman’s right to have an abortion is protected by the implied constitutional right to privacy?

Roe v. Wade

Before the ratification of the Constitution, the United States was organized as a(n) __________.


Which clause prevents the national government from sanctioning an official religion?


Which test examines the constitutionality of religious establishment issues?


Which Supreme Court case upheld the National Firearms Act, which imposed taxes on some kinds of weapons?

U.S. v. Miller

In a(n) __________ system, local and regional governments derive authority from the national government.


The Alien and Sedition Acts likely violated the Constitution’s prohibitions against __________.

prior restraint

The New Deal best exemplifies which type of federalism?


The Supreme Court has used selective incorporation to __________ the authority of states.


What was the first major Supreme Court decision to define the relationship between the federal and state governments?

McCulloch v. Maryland

Under the system created by the Framers, the national and state governments share power and derive all authority from __________.

the people

Which of the following best describes progressive federalism?


The process of incorporation has resulted in the __________ of federal power.


Selective incorporation makes the protections in the Bill of Rights applicable to the states through which of the following amendments?


Barron v. Baltimore held that __________ is/are bound by the Bill of Rights.

only the federal government

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