Ab Psych Chp 7

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Prior to the DSM-IIIR, conditions that are currently characterized as mood disorders were referred to
by several different names, including all of the following EXCEPT:

psychotic episodes

One of the symptoms of a mood disorder is called anhedonia, which means:

an inability to experience pleasure

Mood disorders can range from mild to severe; the most severe type of depression is called:

major depressive disorder

Most episodes of major depression are time-limited, i.e., lasting up to 3333, although about 10% last as long as two years.

9 months

Which of the following is a symptom of the mood disorder known as mania?


When used in connection with mood disorders, "flight of ideas" means:

rapid speech expressing many exciting ideas at once

In comparing the length of untreated depressive episodes and untreated manic episodes, which of the following is an accurate statement?

Depressive episodes generally last longer.

The physical or somatic symptoms of a major depressive disorder include:

changes in appetite or weight

Which of the following symptoms characterize a manic episode?


A 35-year-old individual named Manny has recently formulated an elaborate plan to cure AIDS with vitamin therapy. To provide funding for this cause he has withdrawn all the money from his bank account and purchased thousands of jars of vitamins and small boxes in which to put them. When he appeared at a hospital emergency room loudly demanding names of patients with AIDS, he himself was hospitalized for psychiatric observation. What is your diagnosis of Manny?

manic episode

Dysphoric mania refers to a type of mood disorder in which manic episodes are:

accompanied by depression or anxiety

What significant finding is usually noted when comparing major depressive disorder/recurrent and major depressive disorder/single episode?

family history of depression

Most individuals who experience a single episode of major depressive disorder will:

probably have several episodes throughout their lives

Debbie has been diagnosed with major depressive disorder, recurrent. She wants to know what to expect in the future regarding her condition. You tell her that according to recent research (Angst 1998, Angst and Preizig, 1996), the median lifetime number of major depressive episodes is:


Dysthymic disorder differs from major depressive disorder because persons diagnosed with dysthymia have symptoms of depression that are:


Jack has experienced recurrent episodes of major depressive episodes. In the intervals between the episodes, he does not seem to return to "normal." In fact, during those periods, he has been diagnosed as dysthymic. Jack’s condition is referred to as:

double depression

Research studies reported in your textbook indicate that during the 20th century, the age of onset for depression:


According to recent research (Kessler et al., 2003), the percentage of people aged 18 to 29 that have already experienced major depression is:


The probability that a person will recover from a major depressive episode within 5 years approaches 90% in:

all cases

How many patients with severe cases of depression where the episode lasts 5 years or longer can be expected to recover?

approximately one-third

In comparison to later age of onset, early onset of dysthymia (before age 21) is associated with all of the following characteristics EXCEPT:

better prognosis

Not only is there a high prevalence of dysthymic disorder in children but it has also been found (Kovacs et al., 1994) that three-fourths of these children will eventually be diagnosed with:

major depressive disorder

Symptoms of severe depression are generally NOT considered a psychological disorder when they are associated with:

a grief reaction

Although grieving is considered a normal process it does sometimes become a psychological disorder. Which of the following cases would NOT be diagnosed as a pathological grief reaction?

Mrs. C’s dog recently died. Three weeks later her friends suggest that she get another dog "to help her get over the loss." Mrs. C. refuses and says she just isn’t ready to get another dog and besides, it would be impossible to replace her beloved "Toto."

Anhedonia is:

inability to engage in pleasurable activities

If a friend of yours stops sleeping and suddenly claims that he is going to go to law school and medical school simultaneously so he can change the world you might suspect he is:


During a dysphoric manic episode the patient experiences mania and:


Major depressive episodes tend to abate:

on their own eventually

A person who experiences a persistent depressed mood for at least 2 years but is not experiencing major depression may have:

dysthymic disorder

Rates of depression appear to be:

increasing at every age worldwide

The earlier the onset of dysphoric disorder the:

all of the above

The milder but more chronic version of bipolar disorder is called:

cyclothymic disorder

Bipolar II disorder consists of:

depression with hypomanic disorders

A women who is extremely depressed a year or so after the loss of her spouse might be diagnosed with:

complicated grief

Suicide associated with bipolar disorder usually occurs during:

depressive episode

A person who eats and sleeps too much is experiencing a depressive episode with:

atypical features

Following the birth of a baby, depressive symptoms may increase in

chronic features

The rapid-cycling specifier refers to an individual with bipolar disorder who experiences at least 3333 episodes in a year.


Which of the following is most effective in the treatment of seasonal affective disorder?

light and CBT

Morning light is thought to help with seasonal affective disorder because it:

produces phase advances of the melatonin rhythm

Studies suggest that depression:

can occur in babies as young as 3 months

Depression rates appear to be 3333 in adolescents.


A common characteristic of depression in boys is:


The strongest genetic contributions have been associated with:

severe mood disorders

According to the textbook, therapeutic approaches towards helping the bereaved would involve all of the following EXCEPT:

realizing that one cannot cope with the emotional pain

In regard to the terms used to differentiated mood disorders, cyclothymic is to dysthymic as:

bipolar is to major depressive

Jane is diagnosed with Bipolar II disorder. You can expect that she will experience:

hypomanic episodes

Manic episodes alternate with depressive episodes in the disorder called:

bipolar disorder

When referring to the mood disorders called cyclothymia and dysthymia, it would be accurate to say that an individual with cyclothymia probably:

would be considered "moody"

One of the problems encountered by psychiatrists who prescribe medication for patients with bipolar disorder is that patients often:

stop taking the medication in order to bring on a manic state

At various times, Cynthia, a 20 year-old college student, has been considered by her family and/or friends to be moody, high-strung, explosive, or hyperactive. Knowing the criteria for mood disorders you would diagnose Cynthia with:


The melancholic specifiers for depressive disorders include all of the following EXCEPT:

sleeping late and hypersomnia

Katie has been diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Most recently she has been lying immobile for long periods. If someone moves one of her arms to a different position, it just stays there. Katie has stopped speaking and does not appear to hear what is being said to her. What specifier would you apply to her diagnosis of major depressive disorder?


Although catatonic symptoms occur in major depressive disorders, they are more frequently associated with:


The postpartum onset specifier is used to characterize a severe manic or depressive episode with psychotic features that occurs in a woman following:


In rare tragic cases a mother suffering from postpartum depression sometimes:

kills her child

In regard to mood disorders there are additional criteria called specifiers that are used to determine length of treatment and prognosis. Which of the following is a longitudinal course specifier?

interepisode recovery

All of the following are longitudinal course specifiers for recurrent mania or depression EXCEPT:

presence of psychotic features

The "rapid cycling" specifier is added to the diagnosis of bipolar disorder when a patient has had at
least 3333 manic or depressive episodes within a year.


Since traditional antidepressant medication such as tricyclics may actually provoke rapid cycling in bipolar patients, mood stabilizers and 3333 are often prescribed instead.


In studies of bipolar patients who experience rapid cycling, it has been found that as many as 90% are:


Which of the following statements applies to the condition known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD)?

Individuals may become depressed during the winter and manic during the summer.

In regard to the prevalence of mood disorders, which of the following has been found consistently?

Bipolar disorders occur equally across gender.

Recent evidence (Coryell et al., 2003) indicates a higher level of 3333 in bipolar patients with a rapid cycling pattern compared to those with a non-rapid cycling pattern.


All of the following are accurate statements about the prevalence of mood disorders in children and adolescents EXCEPT:

Rates of attempted suicide decrease during adolescence.

Being depressed 3333 the risk of death in elderly patients who have had a stroke or heart attack.


The presence of medical illnesses or symptoms of dementia can make the diagnosis of depression difficult in:

the elderly

Cross-cultural research indicates that, due at least in part to appalling social and economic conditions, the prevalence of major depression is extremely high among:

Native Americans

According to your textbook, researchers have been studying the life histories of American poets to determine if there is a relationship between creativity and 3333.

manic-depressive disorder

Which of the following statements is accurate regarding the relationship between anxiety and depression?

Almost all depressed patients are anxious, but not every anxious patient is depressed.

In research looking at the biological causes of mood disorders, studies have shown that if one of a set of twins has bipolar disorder, the probability that the other twin will have a mood disorder is:


In terms of the etiology of mood disorders, research has shown that:

environmental stress plays a larger role in causing depression in men than in women

Current research into neurotransmitter systems has produced the "permissive" hypothesis, which states that:

when serotonin levels are low, other neurotransmitter systems become dysregulated and contribute to mood irregularities

A friend of yours tells you that he thinks he is mildly depressed but he’s not sure. Knowing that you are studying abnormal psychology, he asks if there is any kind of laboratory test that could determine whether or not someone is depressed. You respond correctly with one of the following statements.

Currently there is no way of diagnosing depression with a laboratory test.

The best conclusion about the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) for the diagnosis of depression is that:

it is not useful as a diagnostic tool

One symptom of depression is an increase in sleeping. What other symptoms related to sleep occur in depression?

decreased delta (slow wave) sleep, the deepest stage of sleep

In regard to the relationship between stress and depression, all of the following statements are true EXCEPT:

Recurrent episodes of depression, but not initial episodes, are strongly predicted by major life stress.

When individuals who are biologically vulnerable to depression place themselves in high risk stressful environments, it is called:

the reciprocal gene-environment model

Martin Seligman’s theory that people become anxious and depressed because they believe that they have no control over the stress in their lives, is called:

the learned helplessness model

In 1989, Abramson and his colleagues revised Seligman’s theory of learned helplessness, changing the focus from specific attributions to 3333 as the crucial factor in depression.

a sense of hopelessness

A student who has been doing very well in her psychology class receives a minor critical comment on an essay that she wrote as part of an exam. The student thinks, "This is terrible. I’m probably going to fail the course." This type of cognitive error in thinking is called:


In Aaron Beck’s depressive cognitive triad, individuals think negatively about all of the following EXCEPT:

their past

Regarding Beck’s views on depression, which of the following definitions of cognitive errors and negative schema is NOT correct?

Arbitrary inference means that a depressed individual emphasizes the positive rather than the negative aspects of a situation.

According to recent research on the development of depression, dysfunctional attitudes (a negative outlook) and hopelessness attributes (explaining things negatively) constitute a 3333 vulnerability to depression.


Preliminary results of a study of cognitive vulnerability to depression (Alloy et al., 2000) found that 3333 percent of the students with thought patterns classified as "high risk" for depression subsequently suffered a major depressive episode where only 3333 percent of the "low risk" students subsequently experienced a major depressive episode.

17; 1

For individuals who had not been previously depressed, research studies indicate that a marital separation or divorce resulted in 3333.

a higher rate of depression in men

Possible reasons for the higher rates of depression found in women include all of the following EXCEPT:

low value placed on intimate relationships

Possible reasons for the higher rates of depression found in women relate to the disadvantages experienced by women in the United States such as:

both of these

Which of the following factors contribute to the integrative theory of depression?

all of these

In regard to most disorders, serotonin is thought to:

regulate norepinephrine and dopamine

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the sleep of depressed patients?

They show advanced slow wave sleep.

Depressive individuals tend to exhibit:

greater right anterior brain activity

Stressful events are strongly related to the onset of:

bipolar disorder

Negative cognitive styles are associated with a vulnerability to subsequent depression:

in people in general

Research studies suggest that depression in adolescent girls is most closely related to:


A child raised by depressed parents is likely to:

struggle with depression as well

Which of the following is a common side effect of depression medications in the elderly?

memory impairment

The antidepressant medications known as imipramine (Tofranil) and amitriptyline (Elavil) are included in the class of drugs called:


The therapeutic effects of the tricyclic antidepressants begin:

2 to 8 weeks after starting the medication

Side effects of the tricyclic antidepressants include:

sexual dysfunction

Which of the following is a well-known and widely used selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)?


Clinical studies have shown that 50 to 75 percent of patients taking Prozac will experience:

sexual dysfunction

With regard to treatment of mood disorders, which of the following statements is accurate?

Delaying or preventing future episodes of major depression is an important treatment goal.

Clinical studies have shown that the favorable response rate for patients taking antidepressant medications is:


A goal of treatment for patients who have experienced major depressive disorders is delaying or preventing the next episode. In which of the following situations would this goal be least important?

patients who have had a single, brief episode of major depressive disorder and recovered without treatment

A recent treatment approved for use with depression is:

Vagus nerve stimulation

Research on exercise and depression suggests that exercise is:

worse at preventing relapse than medicaton

Common side effects of antidepressants include:

all the above

The antidepressant medication lithium is also referred to as a mood stabilizer because it:

helps to prevent manic episodes

A relative of yours has been diagnosed with bipolar (manic-depressive) disorder. Your family is impressed when you mention that the preferred drug for this condition is:


Although the mood stabilizing drug lithium is the preferred treatment for bipolar disorder, patient compliance has been a problem. Patients often stop taking their lithium, even though it is effective in stabilizing their moods, because they

miss the euphoric feelings that mania produces

Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been a controversial issue for decades, it is an effective treatment for depression especially when:

patient response to antidepressant medication is poor

In comparing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) to antidepressant medication, all of the following statements are accurate EXCEPT:

Relief of symptoms occurs more rapidly with ECT.

Recent research (Grunhaus, et al., 2003; Janicak et al., 2002) suggests that an equally effective alternative to electroconvulsive therapy that requires no anesthesia and appears to alter electrical activity in the brain may be:

transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)

Which of the following statements about suicide is correct?

For teenagers, suicide is the third leading cause of death after auto accidents and homicide.

Research has found that low serotonin levels may be implicated in suicidal behavior because they affect all of the following EXCEPT:


Evidence for an inherited tendency towards suicidal behavior comes from research involving:

adoption and twin studies

In regard to the relationship between mood disorders and suicide, which of the following statements reflects the current thinking on this issue?

Suicide is often associated with psychological disorders, especially depression.

Statistics on suicide indicate that approximately one-quarter to one-half of all suicides are associated with:

alcohol use

Although glorifying and romanticizing suicide in the media contributes to copycat suicides, it is more likely that the person copying the suicide is:

vulnerable due to an existing psychological disorder

Impulsive suicidal behavior is often a symptom of 3333 personality disorder.


On the "Abnormal Psychology Live" CD for Chapter 7, Barbara says that her primary depressive symptom was:

physically lethargy

Barbara, one of the patients suffering from a major depressive episode on the "Abnormal Psychology Live" CD for Chapter 7, told how she avoided relationships because she was:

afraid people would ask her to participate in activities

During Evelyn’s final interview on the "Abnormal Psychology Live" CD for Chapter 7, she describes the experience of starting to feel better as:

beginning to see some light

During the final interview with Mary on the "Abnormal Psychology Live" CD for Chapter 7, she is clearly in a manic state with an affect that can be considered inappropriate due to her:


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