Abnormal Ch 5

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Fear differs from anxiety in that:

fear- physiological and emotional response to a serious treat to one’s well-being; anxiety- …response to a vague sense of threat or danger

Anxiety disorders differ from everyday experiences of fear and anxiety in:

it is too severe, too frequent, lasts too long, or is triggered too easily

The most common mental disorders in the US is the:

anxiety disorder

a college student who is so anxious that he can’t function unless his clothes are arranged by color and type in his closet is experiencing:

obsessive-compulsive disorder

a person who frequently experiences terror attacks, and goes to the ER complaining of shortness of breath, rapid heart rate, and feelings of impending death, although nothing is medically wrong is experiencing:

panic disorder without agoraphobia

a professor who becomes anxious unless students sit in alphabetical order, turn in their papers in alphabetical order, and leave tests in that same order is experiencing:


a person who constantly feels upset and nervous, so much that it interferes with work is experiencing:

generalized anxiety disorder

college students who always become so anxious when taking a test that they can’t remember even simple things that they know quite well are experiencing:

text anxiety?

A lasting and groundless fear of a specific object, activity, or situation is called:


Max is upset because he can’t stop thinking he is forgetting something and constantly goes back to his apt to check. this is a behavior of:

obsessive-compulsive disorder

Every one in awhile, Ona feels nervous to the point of terror. It seems to come on suddenly and randomly. Her experience is an example of:

a panic attack

Raphael was outside the WTC when it exploded. Ever since he has periods of anxiety and sleeplessness. This is an example of:

post-traumatic stress disorder

Leila always feel threatened and anxious- imaging something awful is about to happen. She is able to work, but not as well as she’d like. She is probably experiencing:

unpredictable negative events

A person who is restless, keyed up, and on edge for no apparent reason is experiencing:

free-floating anxiety

Someone interested in the effects of social change, poverty, and race on the risk for generalized anxiety disorders probably represents the ______ perspective.


"Who wouldn’t be afraid all of the time? We have AIDS, crime, bombs, etc." This complaint is consistent with a _____ explanation of GAD


One limitation of the sociocultural approach to understanding GAD is that:

Theorists have yet to explain why some develop the disorder while others do not.

Which theoretical position explains the origin of anxiety disorders are overrun of defense mechanisms by neurotic or moral anxiety?


According to Freud, GAD is most likely to result when:

growing up

Psychodynamic theorists would predict that high levels of anxiety in adulthood would be positively related to earlier:


"Phobic and GAD arise when people stop looking at themselves honestly with acceptance and instead deny their distort through their true thoughts, emotions, and behavior." This explanation would be offered by:

Humanistic perspective

If you criticized everything you did, looking for flaws, and never could measure up to your personal standards, you would be exhibiting what Rogers called:

conditions of worth

Which theory states that people develop GAD because they failed to receive unconditional positive regard as children and evaluate themselves with conditions of worth?

Humanistic perspective

If I believe there is a dire necessity for me to be loved or approved by everyone and that is catastrophic is things are not the way I want them, I am displaying basic:

irrational assumptions

A person who believes that it is awful and catastrophic when things are not the way he or she would like them to be is displaying:

maladaptive assumptions

A person who believes that one should be thoroughly competent, adequate, and achieving in all possible respects is displaying:

basic irrational assumptions

Cognitive therapists believe that GAD is induced by:

maladaptive assumptions

Research on the cognitive explanation for the development of generalized anxiety shows that people with generalized anxiety symptoms:

excessively worry

Cognitive researchers have found that lives full of anxiety most often are associated with:

stressful events

If your therapist gave you homework that required you to challenge your faulty assumptions and replace them with healthier ones, the therapist would be using:

rational-emotive therapy

The therapy for GAD developed by Albert Ellis is called:

rational-emotive therapy

The therapist who developed a cognitive therapy for anxiety disorders that is based on his therapy for depression is:


Until recently, the evidence that GAD is related to biological factors come largely from:

family pedigree studies

Evidence in support of the biological understanding of generalized anxiety is supported by the finding that:

benzodizapines provide relief from anxiety

Benzodiazepines are believed to be effective in treating GAD because they mimic the effect of ____ at certain receptor sites in the limbic system and hypothalamus.

gamma-aminobutyric acid

GABA is related to:

generalized anxiety disorder

If you wanted a drug to improve the functioning of GABA, you would choose:


"Please flex your biceps. Now release your biceps. Now flex your thigh. Now release it." These statements might be made by a therapist using:

relaxation training

Devon is being treated for anxiety. He is connected to an instrument that records muscle tension. His job is to try to reduce muscle tension. This is an example of:


A friend asks you whether to try relaxation training or biofeedback to reduce anxiety. Based upon present research, your best answer is:

relaxation training

An intense, persistent, and irrational fear that is accompanied by a compelling desire to avoid the object of the fear of interfering with the life of the person is called:

specific phobia

How do phobias and common fear differ?

a phobia is more intense and persistent and the desire to avoid the object or situation is greater.

Steve is afraid of eating in public, expecting to be judged negatively and to feel humiliated. He would most likely be diagnosed with:

social phobia

Which theoretical position explains the origin of phobias as due to classical conditioning?

behaviorist perspective

..during a rainstorm. Today, he is extremely afraid of trees. A behaviorist would say he acquired this fear by:

classical conditioning

Rainforest, struck by lighting… now afraid of trees.. what is the conditioned stimulus?


Davon watched his father recoil from a snake in fear. Now he is afraid of snake. This apparent acquisition of fear of snakes is an example of:


According to behavioral theory, specific learned fears become a generalized anxiety disorder through a process of:

classical conditioning

Karen was bit by a tan pony. She was then afraid of the tan Great Dane. Fear of this dog is an example of:

stimulus generalization

Apparently, people develop phobias more readily to such objects as spiders and the dark than they do to computers and radios. This observation supports the idea of:


If the idea of "preparedness" is accurate, then:

Someone who believes that among our ancestors, those who feared animals, darkness and heights were more likely to survive long enough to reproduce, represents the _____ explanation of the development of phobias.


Someone who believes that experiences teach us early in life that certain objects are legitimate sources of fear represents the _____ explanation of the development of phobias.


A phobic person is taken to a snake-handling convention in order to actually confront snakes as part of desensitization training. This is an example of the ____ technique.


A phobic person is taught to imagine the feared items as part of desensitization training. This is an example of the ____ technique.

systematic desensitization

You are suffering from arachnophobia. Your therapist first has you go through relaxation training, then has you construct a fear heirachy and, finally, has you go through a phase of graded pairings of spiders and relaxation responses. This approach is called:

in vivo desensitization

Pairing the thought of feared objects and relaxation training is:

covert desensitization

The first step in treatment of systematic desensitization is:

relaxation training

Your fear of spiders is debilitating because because you are an entomologist. To treat this phobia, your therapist puts you in a room with spiders, even asking you to handle them. This technique might be used in:


If you were afraid of dogs and your therapist treated you by interacting with dogs while you watched, you would be receiving:

vicarious conditioning

One procedure used to treat phobic disorders involves having the therapist confront the feared object or situation while the fearful client observes. This is called:

vicarious conditioning

In vicarious conditioning, the client:

observes the therapist who confronts the feared object or situation

A phobic person is exposed to computer graphics that simulate real-world situations. This is an example of the ____ technique.

virtual reality

Research indicates that the best therapy for treating a social phobia is:

antidepressant medications

Rosa’s heart was racing from the four cups of coffee she had just finished, but she thought she might be having a heart attack. Her fear seemed to be increasing without end. This might be the beginning of a:

panic attack

You notice someone who is sweating, experiencing shortness of breath, choking, feeling dizzy, and is afraid of dying. If it is not a heart attack but an indicator of anxiety disorder, it is probably a:

panic attack

A person who experiences unpredictable panic attacks combined with dysfunctional behavior and thoughts is probably experiencing:

panic disorder

The phobia most often associated with panic disorder is:


One who is experiencing a panic disorder would most likely also be phobic about:

traveling in public places where escape might be difficult or help unavailable

The drug treatment that is most effecting in treating panic disorder is like that used to treat:


Panic disorder appears to be related to abnormal activity of which neurotransmitter?


Antidepressant drugs are frequently effective in treating panic attacks. This may mean that the disorder is related to levels of the neurotransmitter:


The proportion of panic-attack sufferers who are helped at least somewhat by antidepressant drug is about:


Antidepressants and alprazolam (Xanax) have been found to be successful in treating:

panic attacks

What type of drug is alprazolam (Xanax)?


The cognitive explanation for panic disorders is that people who have them:

misinterpret the physiological events that are occurring within their bodies

Imagine that researchers investigating panic disorder gave you a drug that caused you to hyperventilate and your heart to beat rapidly. You would have been a(n):

biological challenge test

Panic attacks are usually treated with cognitive therapy and/or:

interoceptive exposure

According to cognitive theorists, people who have anxiety sensitivity:

interpret their bodily sensations as potentially harmful

People who experience a positive event, get excited, breathe harder, and have an increase in their heart rate, then interpret the symptoms as a heart attack, are experiencing what cognitive theorists call:

Ted has a high degree of:

anxiety sensitivity

When someone checks the stove ten times to make sure it is turned off before leaving in the morning, he or she is exhibiting a(n):

obsessive-compulsive disorder

The yearly prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the US is about:


About what proportion of the normal population become irritated if forced to depart from their normal routine?


If a professor had the notion that there were germs lurking everywhere, the professor would be experiencing:

obsessive idea

Maxine started worrying about cleanliness when her first child was born. That worry has intensified and she cannot stop thinking that germs lurk everywhere. She is exhibiting a(n):

obsessive idea

Sally is never sure of the right thing to do. She married Todd and has been wondering for years if that was the right thing to do. She is exhibiting:

obsessive doubts

Jethro hates his mother-in-law and can’t seem to stop imagining her lying in a pool of blood, in pieces. These thoughts are interfering with his daily life. He is exhibiting:

obsessive wishes

Sam is displaying:

checking compulsions

Someone who can tell you exactly how many ceiling tiles there are in each classroom and how many people’s names were in the credits of the movie he watched last night is exhibiting a:

counting compulsion

Someone who is anxious unless her books are perfectly lined up on her desk and who must eat the food on her plate in a balanced order is exhibiting a:

balance or order compulsion

Someone who made sure that he had his passport, airplane ticket, and hotel reservation form exactly every 5 minutes for an entire day is exhibiting a(n):

checking compulsion

A professor who puts on rubber gloves before grading papers and religiously avoids any contact with the hands of students is exhibiting a(n):

touching compulsion

What is one important way obsessions and compulsions are related?

obsession is thought, compulsion is acting upon the thoughts

A psychodynamic theorist finds that a client is experiencing a battle between anxiety-provoking id impulses and anxiety-reducing ego defense mechanisms. She is sure this underlying conflict explains her client’s:

reaction formation

Long-term studies of those with obsessive-compulsive disorder show that obsessive thoughts in many cases eventually lead to:

compulsive acts

If someone leads a life of service to others in order to counter his hatred and contempt for the poor and destitute, this person is exhibiting what psychodynamic theorists would call:


The defense mechanism that involves doing good works in order to cancel out one’s previous bad acts is called:


An obsessive-compulsive person who was told that everyone was required to wear shoes at all times in the hose and not to vacuum for a week, would be experiencing what therapy procedures?

exposure and response prevention

Studies of the effectiveness of exposure and prevention therapy most often have focused on ____ compulsions.

One of the drawbacks of exposure and response prevention as a therapy is that it:

in as many as one-quarter fail to improve at all

"Everyone has unwanted thoughts. …they act in ways that they hope will neutralize the thoughts." The type of theorist most likely to agree with this quote would be a:

cognitive theorist

According to the cognitive theorists, compulsive acts serve to ____ obsessive thoughts.


A friend of yours says, "I’ll try to see only the positive side of thins, then everything will be okay." From a cognitive perspective, your friend is:

using neutralizing techniques

If a client were instructed to tape-record obsessive thoughts and listen to them for two hours each day, the client would be experiencing what therapy technique?

habituation training

A neurologist who was working with a person with obsessive-compulsive disorder would be suspicious of abnormality in what region of the brain?

orbitofrontal cortex and the caudate nuclei

the neurotransmitter implicated in the control of obsessive-compulsive disorder is:


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