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Olaudah Equiano

c. survived the Middle Passage

James Oglethorpe

e. founder of Georgia


g. Ottawa war leader

Benjamin Franklin

j. founder of the Junto, a club for mutual improvement

William Pitt

f. British prime minister

Jonathan Edwards

h. wrote Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God

Junípero Serra

d. founded the first mission in San Diego

John Peter Zenger

a. German-born printer of a colonial weekly journal

George Whitefield

b. Great Awakening preacher

John Locke

i. English Enlightenment political philosopher

William Cosby

l. victim of Zenger’s pen

Trenchard and Gordon

k. authors of Cato’s Letters

Middle Passage

e. the ship voyage for slaves from Africa to the New World


c. distinct slave dialect


b. bearers of the good news


a. Jamaican fugitive slaves


h. courteous respect

Proclamation of 1763

d. no colonial settlement west of the Appalachians


f. right to provide slaves to Spanish America


j. virtuous elite giving themselves to public service


i. Enlightenment religion

Old Lights

g. religious traditionalists who did not support revivalism

Stono Rebellion

l. slaves fought in South Carolina


k. political club

1. Olaudah Equiano:

a. wrote the eighteenth century’s most widely read account by a slave of a slave’s own experiences.

2. All of the following statements are true of the Atlantic trade in the eighteenth century EXCEPT:

a. Although important, slave-grown crops actually accounted for only a small portion of the value of the trade.

3. What did the British acquire from the Netherlands in the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713?

c. the right to transport slaves from Africa to Spain’s New World colonies

4. Which of the following is a true statement about the Atlantic slave trade’s effect in West Africa?

b. It helped lead to the rise of militarized states in West Africa, whose large armies preyed upon their neighbors in order to capture slaves.

5. Which one of the following statements is NOT true of the slave trade in the eighteenth-century Atlantic world?

d. Slightly more than half of slaves from Africa were taken to mainland North America (what became the United States).

6. Tobacco plantations in the Chesapeake region:

c. helped make the Chesapeake colonies models of mercantilism.

7. In the Chesapeake region, slavery:

b. rapidly became the dominant labor system after 1680.

8. As slave society consolidated in the Chesapeake region, what happened to free blacks?

e. They lost many of their rights.

9. The early South Carolina economy focused on the export of deerskins and furs to England as well as on:

c. the export of Indian slaves to the Caribbean.

10. The development of rice plantations in South Carolina:

d. led to a black majority in that colony by the 1730s.

11. The task system:

e. assigned slaves daily jobs and allowed them free time upon completion of those jobs.

12. Georgia was established by James Oglethorpe, whose causes included improved conditions for imprisoned debtors and the abolition of:


13. Which of the following was true of Georgia?

a. Colonists sought self-government to gain the right to introduce slavery.

14. Why was slavery less prevalent in the northern colonies?

c. The small farms of the northern colonies did not need slaves.

15. In the northern colonies, slaves:

c. were far less important to New England than the Middle Colonies.

16. In the forest regions of West Africa, before being captured slaves worshipped:

d. aspects of nature.

17. When brought to the New World, with regard to religion, slaves:

c. mixed elements of Christianity with African beliefs.

18. Which one of the following statements about slaves in the Chesapeake is FALSE?

e. Slave communities remained distinctly African in culture.

19. The language (with mixed African roots) spoken by African-American slaves on the rice plantations of South Carolina and Georgia during the eighteenth century was known as:


20. Which of the following is true of eighteenth-century slavery in South Carolina and Georgia?

b. Plantation slaves enjoyed far more autonomy than they did in other colonies, allowing them to maintain more of their African culture.

21. The participants in South Carolina’s Stono Rebellion:

c. included some who apparently had been soldiers in Africa.

22. The 1741 panic in New York City that led to thirty-four executions was sparked by:

e. a series of fires.

23. Slave resistance in the eighteenth century:

b. included rebellions in both northern and southern colonies that led to the deaths of several of those involved in planning the conspiracies.

24. During the eighteenth century, British patriotism:

c. celebrated individual freedom and the rule of law.

25. The British concept of liberty:

e. included both formal restraints on authority and a collection of specific rights.

26. The language of British liberty:

e. was used by humble members of society as well as by the elite.

27. "Republicanism" in the eighteenth-century Anglo-American political world emphasized the importance of __________ as the essence of liberty.

b. active participation in public life by property-owning citizens

28. The British Country Party:

d. sought to stop corruption in British politics.

29. John Locke’s political philosophy stressed:

a. a contract system between the people and the government.

30. The idea of liberalism in eighteenth-century British politics:

d. was compatible with inequalities in wealth and well-being.

31. How did John Locke reconcile his belief in natural rights and his support for slavery?

b. He believed that the free individual in liberal thought was the propertied white man.

32. It is estimated that between __________ percent of adult white men could vote in eighteenth-century colonial British America.

d. 50 and 80

33. How did colonial politics compare with British politics?

b. Colonists tended to agree with the British that owning property was related to having the right to vote.

34. Property qualifications for holding office:

c. meant that the landed gentry wielded considerable power in colonial legislatures.

35. The assumption among ordinary people that wealth, education, and social prominence entitled leaders to public office was called:

d. deference.

36. "Salutary neglect" meant:

e. British governments left the colonies largely alone to govern themselves.

37. During the eighteenth century, colonial assemblies:

c. became more assertive.

38. The most successful colonial governors:

b. used their appointive powers and control of land grants to win allies in colonial legislatures.

39. Which issue divided colonial governors appointed by the king and legislatures elected by colonists?

c. To deal with a scarcity of gold and silver coins, legislatures supported printing paper money despite opposition from the governors.

40. Which one of the following did NOT contribute to the expansion of the public sphere during the eighteenth century?

e. the founding of the California missions

41. The American Philosophical Society in its modest beginnings was called:

a. the Junto.

42. John Peter Zenger’s libel trial:

b. probably would not have ended in his acquittal if he had attacked someone other than the colonial governor.

43. The American version of the Enlightenment:

c. was exemplified by Benjamin Franklin.

44. Deists shared the ideas of eighteenth-century European Enlightenment thinkers, namely that:

c. science could uncover God’s laws that governed the natural order.

45. Deists concluded that the best form of religious devotion was to:

d. study the workings of nature.

46. Which of the following is NOT true of the Great Awakening?

a. Its more subdued style of preaching appealed to a wider audience than the older, bombastic style employed by the Puritans.

47. The most famous Great Awakening revivalist minister was:

b. George Whitefield.

48. Revivalist preachers during the Great Awakening frequently:

c. criticized commercial society.

49. In the eighteenth century, the Spanish empire in North America:

b. rested economically on trading with and extracting labor from surviving Native Americans.

50. What did Junípero Serra hope to do in California?

a. convert Indians to Christianity and to settled farming

51. The French in North America:

d. were greatly outnumbered by the British on the continent.

52. The French and Indian War began because some American colonists felt that:

b. France was encroaching on land claimed by the Ohio Company.

53. The English finally became successful in defeating the French in the Seven Years’ War under the leadership of:

e. William Pitt.

54. Neolin, a Delaware Indian and religious prophet, helped inspire __________ Rebellion in 1763.

c. Pontiac’s

55. What did Neolin tell his people they must reject?

b. European technology and material goods

56. Pontiac’s Rebellion:

b. although named for an Ottawa warrior, owed its origins as much to the teachings of a religious prophet.

57. What was the primary purpose of the Proclamation of 1763?

d. to bring stability to the colonial frontier

58. What did the Paxton Boys demand?

c. that the Indians be removed from Pennsylvania

59. Who drafted the Albany Plan of Union?

b. Benjamin Franklin

60. Which of the following was a consequence of the Seven Years’ War?

a. strengthened pride among American colonists about being part of the British empire

1. Some contemporaries spoke of British America as a "rising empire" that would one day eclipse the mother country in population and wealth.


2. Recent scholarship has suggested that Olaudah Equiano may have been born in the New World rather than in Africa.


3. The transatlantic slave trade was not a vital part of world commerce.


4. In the 1700s, the militarily strong West African nations of Ashanti and Dahomey refused to participate in the slave trade.


5. Most of the slaves carried to the New World were destined for mainland North America.


6. Creek Indians sold war captives and their families to South Carolina planters as slaves.


7. In eighteenth-century Chesapeake, race took on greater importance over time, and whites increasingly considered free blacks dangerous and undesirable.


8. Africans had experience cultivating rice in Africa and helped the English settlers grow it in the South.


9. Initially, the proprietors of Georgia banned the introduction of both liquor and slaves.


10. In the early eighteenth century, only one-quarter of the Northern urban elite owned at least one slave.


11. Most slaves in eighteenth-century British America had been born in the colonies.


12. Evidence that slaves frequently tried to escape in the eighteenth century was the numerous advertisements in colonial newspapers for runaways.


13. Most Britons believed that the king was above the law.


14. Increasingly in the eighteenth century, liberty was being used to express a right to rebel.


15. John Locke believed that slaves could not be considered part of civil society.


16. A higher percentage of the population in Britain enjoyed the suffrage as compared to the American colonies.


17. In the northern colonies the law did not prohibit blacks from voting but local custom did.


18. Pennsylvania had the most powerful assembly of all the colonies.


19. Colonial governments generally viewed freedom of the press as dangerous.


20. Deists concluded that the best form of religious devotion was to devoutly worship in organized churches.


21. The religious emotionalism of the Great Awakening was confined to the American colonies in the mid-eighteenth century.


22. Benjamin Franklin wrote an influential essay criticizing George Whitefield’s preaching tour of the colonies.


23. By the 1750s, the Great Awakening had resulted in the consolidation of all American Protestant churches into three denominations: Anglican, Congregationalist, and Quaker.


24. The Spanish and French North American empires were densely populated areas.


25. Father Junípero Serra established the first mission in California and converted many Indians to Christianity, but his missions also relied on forced Indian labor and brought devastating diseases.


26. The "middle ground" was an area shared by Indians and European traders.


27. Pontiac’s Rebellion was an Indian revolt against British rule.


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