Psychology Test 4- Ch. 14

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During the middle ages, mental disorders were thought to be caused by _____.

spirit possession

The term that refers to the need to consider the unique characteristics of the culture in which the person with the disorder was nurtured in order to correctly diagnose and treat the disorder is _____.

cultural relativity

There are _____ different categories of recognized types of personality disorders in the DSM-IV-TR.


_____ is the most commonly diagnosed mood disorder.

major depression

Personality disorders are diagnosed in _____ of the DSM-IV-TR.

axis II

_____ is a mood disorder that is caused by the body’s reaction to low levels of light present in the winter months.

seasonal affective disorder

The study of abnormal behavior is called _____.


The frequency of _____ personality disorder in women is nearly 2-3 times greater than in men, leading researchers to believe that hormonal influences, childhood experiences with incest or drug abuse, and a poor mother-infant relationship can cause the disorder.


_____ disorders involve a break in consciousness, memory, or a person’s sense of identity.


Anorexia nervosa is a condition in which a person reduces eating to the point that a weight loss of _____ below expected body weight occurs.


Severe depression that comes on suddenly and seems to have no external causal factor is called _____.

major depression

The term _____ means that the person is unable to distinguish between reality and fantasy and has disturbances in thinking, emotion, and behavior.


An irrational and often persistent fear of an object, situation, or activity is called _____.

a phobia

The DSM-IV-TR contains a checklist of criteria to be met for the diagnosis of each disorder, the path of the progression of each disorder, a description of the symptoms of each disorder but does not contain _____.

a description of how to perform such procedures as trepanning to treat the disorders

A man with a paralyzing fear of heights has become unable to go upstairs or ride in an elevator, is an example of _____.

subjective discomfort

Matthew a psychology major, is worried that he and his family have the mental disorders he is reading about. Matthew is experiencing _____.

psychology student syndrome

Maria is a college student and is generally anxious. She can not identify any one thing in particular that is bothersome but feels anxious most of the time. Maria is exhibiting _____.

free-floating anxiety

Bill is extremely vain and winds up steering all conversations toward himself. When evaluating situations, he can only see how they affect him. Bill may have _____ personality disorder.


A person who finds it difficult to function on a day-to-day basis may be displaying _____ behaviors.


The _____ model explains disordered behavior as the result of repressing one’s threatening thoughts, memories, and concerns in the unconscious mind.


In the _____ model, abnormal behavior is seen as the result of the combined and interacting forces of biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences.


A _____ is apparent when there is a sudden onset of intense panic in which there can be multiple physical symptoms of stress occurring.

panic attack

_____ is when a person believes that his or her behavior must be perfect or the result will be a total failure.


The dissociative disorder that occurs when a person travels away from home and then cannot remember the trip or personal information such as identity is _____.

dissociative fugue

The _____ theory explains dissociative disorders as the result of "thought avoidance" to avoid or decrease the pain of guilt, shame, or anxiety produced from disturbing thoughts and experiences.


Some one who has difficulty forming social relationships, odd and eccentric behavior, and a tendency to magical beliefs would most likely be diagnosed with _____ personality disorder.


Dissociative disorders are characterized by fugue experiences, blackouts, and at least two or more personalities that exist in one body, but is not characterized by _____.

frequent panic attacks in crowded areas

An individual with _____ schizophrenia would display symptoms of bizarre, childish behavior, confused speech, vivid hallucinations, inappropriate of flat affect, and may neglect cleanliness.


Because the term schizophrenia literally means "split mind", it has often been confused with _____.

dissociative identity disorder (DID)

_____ has been linked to a decrease in the size of the hippocampus in children with the disorder, causing long-term detrimental effects on learning and forming, declarative memories.


In psychology terms, affect means _____.


The _____ perspective is the perspective in which abnormal behavior (and normal behavior) is seen as the product of the learning and shaping of behavior within the context of the family, the social group to which one belongs, and the culture within which the family and social group exists.


Scott believes that when he feels the sensation of his heart beating faster whenever he exercises, it means he’s having a heart attack and that he’s about to die. Scott therefore refuses to do any activities that would raise his heart rate, and has gained excessive weight. Scott’s behavior would most likely be diagnosed as _____.


One gender difference in personality disorders is that there are more _____.

males diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder and more females diagnosed with borderline personality disorder

One way to measure abnormality is to use _____, which is the social or environmental setting of a person’s behavior.

situational context

One of the symptoms of _____ schizophrenia is a behavior in which a person maintains an odd position, without moving, for hours on end.


The behaviorists model looks at disordered behavior as _____.


_____ are false beliefs about the world that a person holds and that tend to remain fixed and unshakable even in the face of evidence that disproves them.


A man wakes up on a beach with no memory of how he got there, who he his, or any sense of identity whatsoever. The man would likely be diagnosed with _____.

dissociative fugue

On the axis of the DSM-IV-TR, Axis V assesses _____.

global assessment of functioning

Bulimia nervosa is a condition in which a person develops a cycle of binging on enormous amounts of food and then using inappropriate methods to prevent weight gain. _____ causes a person to binge even though he or she is worried about weight gain.

prompts such as anxious mood, social stressors, or intense hunger after extreme diet attempts

Henry complains to his therapist that he thinks people are listening in on his phone conversations and spying on him. Once his therapist learns that he is in the witness protection program, it help explains the _____ of his behavior.

situational context

_____ are not an attribute of OCD but intruding thoughts, ritualistic behavior, and repetitive behavior are.


Personality disorders are different from other psychological disorders in that personality disorders _____.

affect the entire life adjustment of the person

Luca is a child who lived in New Orleans when Hurricane Katrina hit. Two years later, Luca woke up in the middle of the night with nightmares about the hurricane and has since been experiencing flashbacks, extreme anxiety, and he cannot concentrate in school. Luca would most likely diagnosed with _____.

post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Owen suffers from _____ personality disorder, causing him to believe that everyone is "out to get him", and he cannot maintain healthy relationships with girls because he is constantly jealous of any males they come in contact with.


An ongoing disorder lasting six months or longer in which a person has a feeling of dread and impending doom along with the physical symptoms of stress is _____.

generalized anxiety disorder

A phobia which literally means "fear of the market place" is _____.


Scott experiences vast mood swings ranging from depression on one end of the spectrum to episodes when he feels euphoric and has so much energy that he can’t sleep. Scott is suffering from _____.

bipolar disorder

Trepanning _____.

was done in ancient times in order to release "demons" and is still done today to relieve pressure fluids on the brain

Marlena said "I didn’t get into the sorority I wanted and now my life is ruined." This would be an indicator of abnormal behavior according to the _____ model.


In 1952, the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) was published to help _____.

psychological professionals diagnose psychological disorders

If Dr. Smith thinks Jacob’s problems are on axis II of the DSM-IV-TR, Jacob must have _____.

a personality disorder or mental retardation

_____ ,such as juvenile diabetes which affects a person’s psychological well being, are listen on axis III.

physical disorders

Barbara is very self-conscious around others because she’s afraid of being evaluated in some negative way. Barbara may have _____.

a social phobia

A racing heart, rapid breathing, a sensation of being "out of one’s body", dulled hearing and vision, sweating, and dry mouth are all physical symtoms of _____.

a panic attack

Mood disorders can result when _____.

stress or some other factor pushes a person to one extreme emotion or another

_____ is a cycle of moderate mood swings (from sad to elated) that are chronic and usually last two years or more.


The fact that more severe mood disorders are not a reaction to some outside source of stress or anxiety but rather seem to come from within the person’s own body, together with the tendency of mood disorders to appear in genetically related individuals at a higher rate, suggests that _____ plays a significant part in these disorders.


A person in the manic phase is restless, unable to sit, has unlimited energy, euphoric without any real cause to be so happy, and has delusional plans but they are not _____.

depressed for most of the day, feel tired, or take no pleasure in any activity

People with _____ are often moody, manipulative, and untrusting of others, and often display inappropriate and excessive behaviors.

borderline personality disorder

Severe sadness that comes on suddenly, and is either (a) too severe for the circumstances or (b)exists without any external cause, is called:

major depression

The emotional unresponsiveness of people who suffer from ______ personality disorder has been linked to lower than normal levels of stress hormones.


There are ___ basic categories of recognized types of personality disorders in the DSM-5.


Negative symptoms of schizophrenia appear to reflect a decrease of normal functions such as:

poor attention or a lack of effort

Researchers investigating ways to help people reduce their experience of test anxiety have found that ______ (imagining a person who is successful at a related task) lowered the relationship between test anxiety and test performance.

competence priming

Bill tends to have relationships with others that are very intense and often unstable. He is moody, manipulative, and sometimes engages in suicidal behaviors to get attention from others. Bill would best be diagnosed with _____ disorder.

borderline personality

The DSM-5 describes about ______ different psychological disorders, each noted for its symptoms, typical path, and a checklist of criteria that must be met in order for a diagnosis of that condition to be made.


________ is a condition in which a person reduces eating to a point that results in significantly lower-than-normal body weight.

anorexia nervosa

The frequency of ______ personality disorder is nearly two to three times greater in women than in men.


The most dominant symptom of a(n) ______ disorder is excessive or unrealistic worrying and fearfulness.


_________ results from exposure to a major stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, recurring nightmares, sleep disturbances, problems concentrating, and flashbacks for as long as one month following the event.

acute stress disorder

An individual who uses _____ takes one negative event and interprets it as a never-ending pattern of defeat.


Of the delusions, a delusion of reference best characterizes disordered thinking when an individual with schizophrenia believes

other people, television characters, and books are speaking directly to them

The term dementia preaecox once referred to the disorder not known as:


Todd has been struggling with _____ characterized by the intruding thought that his hands are covered in germs. He cannot pursue daily tasks unless he completes a ritualistic routine to wash his hands until he feels clean. These rituals have taken up so much of his time that he rarely manages to finish a task or complete his work at his job.

obsessive-compulsive disorder

______, such as hearing voices or seeing things that aren’t really there,are not uncommon in someone diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia.


Behavioral theorists link depression to:

learned helplessness

The current name for what was once called multiple personality disorder is:

dissociative identity disorder

The DSM-5 contains all of the following EXCEPT:

a description of how to perform such procedures as trephining to treat the disorders

Cognitive psychologists believe abnormal behavior is the result of:

illogical thinking problems

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