Psychology Ch. 8

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Erikson described early childhood as

a period of "vigorous unfolding."

According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of the preschool years is

initiative versus guilt.

According to Erikson, one of the major functions of play is to allow children to

try out new skills with little risk of criticism or failure.

According to Erikson, preschoolers’ exuberant play and bold efforts to master new tasks break down when they

are threatened, criticized, and punished excessively by adults.

Although Freud’s ideas are no longer accepted as satisfactory explanations of conscience development, Erikson’s image of __________ captures the diverse changes in young children’s emotional and social lives.


As self-awareness strengthens, preschoolers begin to develop a


When asked "Tell me about yourself," which of the following is 3-year-old Riley the most likely to say?

"I have new, blue shoes."

Preschoolers’ self-concepts

consist largely of observable characteristics.

__________ seems to foster a more positive, coherent early self-concept.

A warm, sensitive parent-child relationship

Research examining cultural variations in personal storytelling shows that

there are striking cultural differences in parents’ selection and interpretation of events told in narratives

Research on cultural variations in personal storytelling reveals that

Chinese parents use storytelling to guide children toward socially responsible behavior.

__________ are a major means through which caregivers imbue the young child’s self-concept with cultural values.

Self-evaluative narratives

Around age _____, children first become certain that a video image of themselves replayed a few minutes after it was filmed is still "me."


__________ involves the judgments an individual makes about his own worth and the feelings associated with those judgments.


During the preschool years, high self-esteem

greatly contributes to children’s initiative during a period in which they must master many new skills.

Adults can avoid promoting self-defeating reactions in children by

adjusting their expectations to children’s capacities.

Emotional competence

is vital for successful peer relationships and overall mental health.

Research on emotional understanding shows that preschoolers

focus on the most obvious aspect of an emotional situation to the neglect of other relevant information.

The more parents __________, the more "emotion words" children use and the better developed their emotional understanding.

label emotions, explain them, and express warmth and enthusiasm when conversing with preschoolers

Which of the following statements is supported by research on emotional understanding?

Preschoolers who are securely attached to their mothers better understand emotion than preschoolers who are insecurely attached.

__________ contributes to preschoolers’ improved emotional self-regulation.


Research on emotional self-regulation demonstrates that

preschoolers know they can blunt emotions by restricting sensory input.

Effortful control

continues to be vital in managing emotion during early childhood.

Four-year-old Tristan experiences negative emotion intensely. He is more likely than other children to

react with anger or aggression when he is frustrated.

Which of the following is the best advice you might give to a mother to help her son manage fears?

If he fears being at preschool, provide extra support by accompanying the child and gradually lessening the amount of time she is present.

When 4-year-old Katherine throws a beanbag, her dad comments, "You stood still as you were throwing. Now try taking a step toward me as you throw." Assuming Katherine’s dad regularly gives this sort of feedback, which of the following statements is most likely true?

Katherine is likely to show moderate levels of shame and pride and greater persistence on difficult tasks.

Among Western children, when guilt occurs in appropriate circumstances and is not accompanied by shame, it is
related to

good adjustment.

An important motivator of prosocial behavior is



can escalate into personal distress in some children.

Four-year-old Simka is sociable and good at regulating emotion. She is likely to

help, share, and comfort others in distress.

Two-year-old D’Arcy has parents who encourage emotional expressiveness and show empathetic concern for her feelings. When another child is unhappy, D’Arcy is likely to respond with

sympathetic concern.

Four-year-old Harry suffers from physical abuse at home. When his playmates at the child-care center become distressed, Harry probably

reacts with fear or anger.

According to Mildred Parten, two forms of true social interaction are __________ and __________ play.

associative; cooperative

Candace and Christina sit side by side playing with their dolls. They do not talk or try to influence each other. They are engaging in __________ play.


In associative play,

a child plays near other children with similar materials, but does not try to influence their behavior.

Follow-up research on peer sociability indicates that

all types of play coexist in early childhood.

Research on peer sociability demonstrates that

preschoolers move from one type of play to another and back again.

Which of the following statements about peer sociability is true?

It is the type, not the amount, of solitary and parallel play that changes in early childhood.

Larissa, age 3, often plays alone. Her parents should be concerned if she

engages in functional play involving repetitive motor action.

Which of the following statements about peer sociability in collectivist versus individualistic societies is true?

Children in collectivist societies are more willing to include a quiet, reserved child in play than children in individualistic cultures

Caregivers who view play as mere entertainment are __________ likely to __________.

less; encourage pretend play than those who value its cognitive and social benefits

Frank, a kindergartener, says that Pat is his best friend on days they get along. But when a dispute arises, he reverses himself: "Pat is not my friend!" Frank’s parents should

be aware that first friendships do not have a long-term, enduring quality based on mutual trust.

Research on friendships shows that

the ease with which kindergarteners make new friends predicts behaviors linked to gains in achievement.

Which of the following is an example of a direct parental influence on children’s peer sociability?

Maxine arranges for her 4-year-old to play with his friend at the park.

Roger wants to promote his preschool son’s peer interaction skills. Which of the following is a particularly effective technique for Roger to try?

Roger should engage in parent-child play with his son.

Most theories of moral development agree that at first, a child’s morality is

externally controlled by adults.

Truly moral individuals

have developed compassionate concerns and principles of good conduct.

Social learning theory focuses on

how moral behavior is learned through reinforcement and modeling.

According to Freud, children

obey the superego to avoid guilt.

Research reveals that inductive discipline

helps children notice others’ feelings and points out the effects of children’s misbehavior on others

Which of the following statements is an example of induction?

"Your sister is crying because you won’t give back her truck."

Discipline that relies on __________ makes children so anxious and frightened that they cannot think clearly enough to figure out what they should do.

withdrawal of love

Maureen and Chris, the parents of an impulsive preschooler, can foster conscience development by

combining firm correction with induction.

Current research indicates that Freud was correct that

guilt is an important motivator of moral action.

Empathy-based guilt reactions

are associated with engaging in future prosocial behavior.

According to social learning theorists,

morality does not have a unique course of development.

Warmth and responsiveness, competence and power, and consistency between assertions and behavior are all characteristics

that increase a child’s willingness to imitate a model’s behavior.

Parents are most likely to use forceful methods of discipline when

immediate obedience is necessary.

Which of the following statements about the effects of harsh punishment is true?

A punitive adult is likely to punish with greater frequency over time.

Research on the consequences of corporal punishment reveals that in African-American families,

the more mothers discipline physically in childhood, the less their teenagers display angry, acting out behavior.

Research on corporal punishment shows that African-American and Caucasian-American parents

tend to mete out physical punishment differently.

A few minutes in time out can be enough to change behavior and also allows parents

time to cool off.

Mia bit her brother, so her father would not let her watch TV. This technique, known as withdrawal of privileges,

allows Mia’s father to avoid harsh techniques that could easily intensify into violence.

Martha and Thomas can increase the effectiveness of their parental discipline by

offering reasons for mild punishment.

One strategy of positive discipline is

reducing opportunities for misbehavior.

The __________ perspective regards children as active thinkers about social rules.

social learning

Preschoolers distinguish __________, which protect people’s rights and welfare, from __________, which do not violate rights and are up to the individual.

moral imperatives; matters of personal choice

Four-year-old Ellie is shown two pictures: one depicting a child stealing an apple, and the other showing a child eating ice cream with her fingers. Ellie is most likely to view

the stealing as worse than the bad table manners.

According to cognitive-developmental theorists, preschoolers

actively make sense of their experiences.

Macy spreads a rumor about Tya after Tya is cast as the lead in the school play, the role Macy desired. This is an example of __________ aggression.


Shelby tells her classmates not to play with Sophia because "she lies." This is an example of __________ aggression.


Which of the following statements is supported by research on sex differences in aggression?

Although girls have a reputation for being both more verbally and relationally aggressive than boys, the sex difference is small.

Which of the following preschool children is the most likely to be a target of harsh, inconsistent discipline?

active Adam

Highly aggressive children tend to

seek out deviant peer groups.

Verbally and relationally aggressive acts are particularly frequent in

reality TV shows

Reviewers of thousands of studies have concluded that TV violence

increases the likelihood of hostile thoughts and aggressive behaviors in viewers.

A growing number of studies confirm that playing violent video games

increases the likelihood of aggressive behavior.

Which of the following statements is supported by research on viewing television violence?

Aggressive children have a greater appetite for violent TV programming than nonaggressive children.

In the United States, __________ has hampered efforts to regulate TV content.

the First Amendment right to free speech

The V-Chip (or Violence-Chip)

allows parents to block undesired TV programming.

Which of the following statements about computer use by U.S. children is true?

Some children begin visiting websites without parental supervision as early as age 4.

Evaluations of Incredible Years reveal that the program

is highly effective at improving parenting and reducing child behavior problems in families with aggressive children.

In Michaela’s preschool classroom, the girls spend more time in the housekeeping and art centers, while the boys play with blocks and Legos. This is an example of

gender typing

During early childhood, children’s gender-stereotyped beliefs

strengthen so much that many children apply them as blanket rules that should not be violated.

Which of the following preschoolers is most likely to be shunned by agemates?

a boy who wears nail polish

Research on gender typing reveals that

the presence of male sex hormones leads to a rough, noisy play style in boys.

Research on environmental influences on gender typing suggests that parents

have different expectations of sons than of daughters.

Typical parents give their sons toys that emphasize


In a study involving mother-child conversations about gender typing,

mothers rarely explicitly countered a child’s stereotype.

Adults can combat children’s gender stereotyped beliefs by

discussing gender biases in language with children.

Research on environmental influences on gender typing shows that preschool teachers

give girls more encouragement than boys to participate in adult-structured activities.

The more preschoolers play with same-sex playmates, the

more their behavior becomes gender typed.

Research on environmental influences on gender typing shows that

boys who frequently engage in "gender-inappropriate" activities are likely to be ignored by other boys even when they engage in "masculine" activities.

When Henry is asked to judge the baking contest, he evaluates the boys more positively than the girls. This is an example of

in-group favoritism.

Mark rates his personality as ambitious, competitive, affectionate, cheerful, and soft-spoken. Mark’s responses indicate a(n)

androgynous gender identity.

Research on gender identity demonstrates that

"masculine" and androgynous children have a higher self-esteem than those with a "feminine" identity.

According to social learning theory, __________ come(s) before __________ in the development of gender identity.

behavior; self-perceptions

According to cognitive-developmental theory, __________ come(s) before __________ in the development of gender identity.

self-perceptions; behavior

Six-year-old Charlie realizes that his sister remains a girl even when she operates a bulldozer. Charlie has acquired the concept of gender


Four-year-old Cain watches an adult dress a boy doll in girl’s clothing. Cain is likely to insist that the doll

is now a girl

Research on gender constancy demonstrates that

attainment of gender constancy is strongly related to the ability to pass verbal appearance-reality tasks.

Gender schema theory

explains how environmental pressures and children’s cognitions work together to shape gender-role development.

Molly says, "Only girls can be nurses." Molly

is a gender-schematic child.

Nathan is shown a picture of a male nurse. Later, when asked to describe the occupation of the person in the picture, Nathan remembers him as a doctor. Nathan

is a gender-schematic child.

Three-year-old Nathan is a gender-schematic child. Because Nathan does not like raisins, he is likely to conclude that

only girls like raisins.

By middle childhood, children who hold flexible beliefs about what boys and girls can do

are more likely to notice instances of gender discrimination.

The __________ child-rearing style is the most successful approach.


Authoritarian parents

rarely listen to the child’s point of view.

Sophia’s parents are warm but overindulgent and inattentive. They make few demands for maturity. They permit Sophia to make many decisions before she is ready. Sophia’s parents have a(n) __________ style of child rearing.


Tanner’s parents are withdrawn. They make no demands of Tanner and are indifferent to his point of view. Tanner’s parents have a(n) __________ style of child rearing.


Which of the following statements about the authoritative child-rearing style is true?

Authoritative parents insist on mature behavior, give reasons for their expectations, and use "teaching moments" to promote the child’s self-regulation.

Bobby is anxious, unhappy, and has low self-esteem. When frustrated, Bobby tends to react with hostility. His parents are most likely to fit which of the following child-rearing styles?


Which of the following statements about the permissive child-rearing style is true?

Many permissive parents lack confidence in their ability to influence their child’s behavior.

Uninvolved parenting

is, at its extreme, a form of child maltreatment called neglect.

Longitudinal research indicates that authoritative child rearing

promotes maturity and adjustment in children of diverse temperaments.

Research on cultural variations in child rearing styles shows that

Chinese parents report expressing affection and using induction and other reasoning-oriented discipline as much as American parents do.

Mothers engage in __________ more often than fathers, whereas fathers engage in __________ more often than mothers.

neglect; sexual abuse

__________ and __________ are at the greatest risk for physical, emotional, and sexual abuse.

Preschool; school-age children

Which of the following children is the most likely to become a target of child abuse?

Cole, a premature baby

Once abuse begins,

it quickly becomes part of a self-sustaining relationship.

Research on child maltreatment shows that

maltreating parents often lack "lifelines" to others and have no one to turn to in stressful times.

Which of the following statements is supported by research on child maltreatment?

Every industrialized country except the United States and France prohibits corporal punishment in school.

At school, maltreated children

present serious discipline problems.

Because child maltreatment is embedded in families, communities, and society as a whole,

efforts to prevent it must be directed at each of these levels.

In an evaluation of its effectiveness, Healthy Families home visitation alone reduced only neglect, not abuse. But adding __________ dramatically increased its impact.

a cognitive component

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