Psychology- ch. 5 practice test

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Slot machines reward an average number of times, but on an unpredictable basis. This is an example of a ______ schedule of reinforcement.

a loud noise

In the experiment with little Albert conducted by Watson and Raynor, the baby was conditioned to fear a white rat. In this study, the UCS was _____.

He will find the scent and taste of tequila aversive.

Robert drank too much tequila last night. He spent much of this morning vomiting and nauseated. According to the principles of classical conditioning, how will Robert likely react today when he tastes or smells the tequila bottle that he drank out of last night?

operant conditioning

Applied behavior analysis is based on the concept of _____.

negative punishment

Larry is grounded each time he hits his little brother. After a few times of being grounded, Larry’s misbehavior toward his little brother decreases. Grounding Larry is an example of _____.

positive punisher

Kelley is scolded each time she teases her little brother. Her mother notices that the frequency of teasing has decreased. Scolding Kelley is an effective _____.


Random pop quizzes occur on a _____ schedule.


Carol gives her dog, Cutie Pie, a treat each time Cutie Pie sits on command. Carol is using a _____ schedule to train her dog to sit on command.


A hitchhiker most likely gets rides on a _____ schedule of reinforcement.

Waking up a few seconds BEFORE your alarm clock goes off in order to avoid the obnoxious alarm sound

Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement? -Going shopping after getting a B on a difficult exam -Waking up a few seconds BEFORE your alarm clock goes off in order to avoid the obnoxious alarm sound -Denying yourself a special treat after a bad exam performance -Exercising less after running a mini marathon


______ refers to rewarding approximations of a desired behavior.


Which of the following is the best example of a primary reinforcer? -Praise -Money- Food -Attention


A reinforcer that acquires its positive value through experience is a(n) ___________ reinforcer.

weakens behaviors / strengthens behaviors

Positive punishment _____. Negative reinforcement _____.

behaviors followed by desirable outcomes are strengthened and behaviors followed by undesirable outcomes are weakened

According to Thorndike’s law of effect _____.

The effect of the heroin was increased because Leonard injected it in a strange environment and his body could not use the stimuli in his basement to prepare for it.

Leonard is a heroin addict. He is very careful about overdosing. He typically shoots up in his basement apartment, but is now at a friend’s house and needs a fix really badly. He’s never done drugs at his friend’s house before, but he’s desperate. He injects his normal "safe" dosage of heroin but almost dies of an overdose. According to the principles of classical conditioning, what happened?

Observational learning

Your psychology professor wants to help students learn how to write a high-quality research paper, so she posts an example of an A paper on the course website. You use this example as a model when writing your own paper. Which of the following concepts best describes how you learned to write your research paper? -Classical Conditioning -Operant Conditioning -Observational Learning -Insight learning


_____ is a classical conditioning procedure for changing the relationship between a conditioned stimulus and its conditioned response.

a white rat

Watson and Raynor used _____ as a CS in order to condition fear in little Albert.


_____ occurs when the conditioned response dissipates after the anticipated reward is withheld.


Mark’s dog, Gus, sits whenever he says, "Sit. " Mark now wants to teach Gus a new trick. He wants to teach him to bark each time he says, "Speak," but whenever Mark says, "Speak," Gus sits. The dog’s behavior is an example of ______.


The first phase of classical conditioning in which the UCS and CS are paired repeatedly until the CS alone generates a CR is called _____.

the bell had become associated with food

Pavlov’s dog salivated to the sound of a bell because _____.

unconditioned response

Before the bell was ever presented, Pavlov’s dog salivated each time food was presented. The ______ in this situation is salivation.

Sneezing in response to sniffing pepper

Which of the following is the best example of an innate stimulus-response connection? -throwing a temper tantrum -Sneezing in response to sniffing pepper -Raising your hand before asking a question in a classroom setting – Learning to ride a bike by watching your older brother do so

a reflex

Salivating at the presentation of food is an example of ______.


In classical conditioning situations, the _____ connection is unlearned, but the _____ connection is learned.

Observational learning

The cliché " When in Rome, do as the Romans do" best reflects which of the following types of learning? – Operant conditioning – Classical Conditioning – Observational learning -Latent learning

classical conditioning; operant conditioning

Organisms learn the association between two stimuli through _____. Organisms learn the association between a behavior and a consequence through ______.

classical conditioning

Lightning is associated with thunder and regularly precedes it. Thus, when we see lightning, we often anticipate that we will hear thunder soon afterward. This is an example of _____.


learning is defined as a relatively stable and observable change in behavior, the principles of learning are the same for both animals and humans, & mental activities (e. g. , thinking, wishing, and hoping) are of little importance, in comparison to observable behaviors ARE ALL PRINCIPLES OF?


involves a systematic change, involves a relatively permanent change in behavior, is central to behaviorist theories… these are all part of?

Attention, retention, motor reproduction, and reinforcement

According to Bandura’s model of observational learning, what are the four primary processes involved in observational learning?

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