Psychology 281 Chapter 8

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Human Development

The scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age from conception until death.

Longitudinal Design

One group of participants is followed and assessed as the group ages.

Cross-Sectional Design

A sample of people of varying ages are studied at one point in time.


Allows researches to combine longitudinal and cross-sectional research strategies.


The influence of our inherited characteristics on our personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions.


The influence of the environment on personality, physical growth, a social interactions.

Behavioral Genetics

A relatively new field which investigates the influence of genes and heredity on a person’s personality and actions.


The science of heredity.


A special molecule that contains the genetic material of the organism.


A section of DNA containing a sequence of amines. There are two kinds: Dominant and Recessive.

Dominant Genes

Actively controls the expression of a trait.

Recessive Genes

The less active gene.


Rod-shaped structures in the cell nucleus that contains genes. Humans normally have 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs.

Genetic Problems

If the disease is carried by a recessive gene, the the child has to inherit it from both parents. Examples are cystic fibrosis, sickle-cell anemia, tay-sachs, and phenylketonuria.

Chromosome Problems

Down Syndrome-extra chromosome in 21’s pair. Klinefelter’s Syndrome-Sex chromosomes XXY male with reduced masculine characteristics.

Zygote and Twinning

Egg and sperm unite.

Germinal Period

First two weeks after fertilization the zygote implants in the uterus.

Embryonic Period

2-8 weeks after conception, embryo is vulnerable to teratogens, development of the body and major organs.

Fetal Period

8 weeks to birth, Fetus, the organs continue to develop, andd become functional and the body grows, mother feels movement.


The union of the ovum and sperm.

Monozygotic Twins

One fertilized egg and divides into identical zygotes

Dizygotic Twins

Two eggs are fertilized genetically same as siblings.


A specialized organ provides nourishment and filters away waste products from the developing baby.

Critical Periods

Times when certain internal and external influences have a major impact on development.


Lower birth weight and short stature.


Smaller than normal head, heart defects, mental retardation, learning difficulties, and delayed growth.


Miscarriage, low birth rate.


Irritability nervousness, tremors; infant is easily disturbed,startled.

High Water Temperatures

Increased chance on neural tube (develops into the spinal cord and brain) defects.


Blindness, deafness, heart defects and brain damage.


______ is the most functional at birth.


_______ is functional before birth, (high and low pitches)


_____ is also functional at birth. It can discriminate between their mothers milk scent and someone else’s within a few days after birth.


______ is the least functional, 7-8 inches clear vision at birth.

Moro Reflex

_______ is produced from a loud sound.

Motor Milestones

Raising head and chest, rolling over, sitting up with support, sitting up without support, crawling, walking.

Sensorimotor Stage

Birth- 2yrs. Object permanence

Preoperational Stage

2-7 yrs. At this stage a child is egocentric.

Concrete Operation

7-11 yrs. Understand concrete concepts.

Formal Operations

12- Adulthood. Able to understand abstract concepts. This is the creation of hypotheticals.

Social Cultural Interactions

Interactions between and child and skilled people.


A more skilled person gives the learner more help at the beginning of the learning process and then begins to withdraw help as the learner’s skills.

Zone of Proximal Development

The difference between what a child can do alone versus what a child can do with the help of a teacher.

Easy Temperament

Regular schedule, adaptable to change, happy easily soothed.

Difficult Temperament

Irregular schedules, unhappy, loud, and active.

Slow to warm up Temperament

Less grumpy, quieter, and regular slow to adapt to change.


______are relatively stable well into adulthood.


Emotional bond that forms between infant and a primary caregiver.

Secure Attachment

Will look to caregiver for support and explore environment.

Avoidant Attachment

Reacts very little to caregiver coming and going..

Ambivalent Attachment

Clinging and unwilling to explore.

Disorganized-disoriented Attachment

Fearful and dazed and depressed look unsure what would happen from their caregiver.

Trust vs. Mistrust

Birth- 1 yr.

Autonomy vs.Shame and Doubt

1-3 yrs. Learns to direct own behavior and make decisions and act independently.

Industry vs. Inferiority

5-12 yrs. Feels self-esteem from work and effort.

Identity vs. Role Confusion

13- early 20’s. Forming close relationships.

Generativity vs. Stagnation

40- 50’s. Give to future generations.

Ego Integrity vs. Despair

60-Beyond. Looking back over life and evaluate if pleased or not (life review)


Sex characteristics develop. 12 for girls, 14 for boys.

Personal Fable

Type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe themselves to be unique and protected from harm.

Imaginary Audience

Type of thought common to adolescents in which young people believe that other people are just as concerned about the adolescents thoughts and characteristics as they themselves are.

Preconventional Morality

Obedience to rules is because fear or punishment or rewards.

Conventional Morality

Conforming to societies norms, or for others approval. Most adolescents are at this level.

Postconventional Morality

Morals are guided by the individual and may be in disagreement with accepted social norms.

Parent-Teen Conflict

Conflicts between adolescents and their parents tend to be over trivial things. On big moral issues, parents and teens tend to be in agreement.

The twenties

____________ are a time of peak physical health.

The thirties

____________ are a time of slight decline of vision and hearing.

Heart Disease

Most common cause of death in middle adulthood.

Speed of Processing

Declines during adulthood.

Authoritarian Parenting

Parents are rigid and overly strict, showing little warmth to the child..

Authoritative Parenting

Parents combine warmth and affection with firm limits.

Permissive Neglectful Parenting

Parent are uninvolved; lack skills later in life.

Permissive Indulgent Parenting

Parents are so involved that children are allowed to behave without limits. Lack skills later in life.

Cellular–Clock Theory

Cells are limited in the number of times they can reproduce.

Wear-and-Tear Theory

Bodies, organs, and cell tissues wear out.

Free-Radical Theory

Free radicals are oxygen molecules that have an unstable electron and the older we are, the more free radicals there are.

Activity Theory

The more active we are, the less we will lose.

Life Review

People deal with mistakes, regrets, and unfinished business.

Stages of Death and Dying

Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance.

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