PSYCH CHAPters 17-22

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Which emerging adult is more likely to experience psychopathology?

Jane who has a family history of depression and recently experienced a romantic relationship break-up

Young adults rarely experience serious illness because which three systems of body functioning tend to work in harmony?

organ reserve, homeostasis, allostasis

The view that psychological disorders are produced by the interaction of a genetic vulnerability and environmental factors and life events is referred to as the

diathesis- stress model

Which of the following statements is NOT true about emerging adulthood?

all individuals between the age of 18 and 30 are now considered to be in this stage

Although the health of many emerging adults is good, some may be diagnosed with a chronic disease. All of the following are common diagnoses for this age group EXCEPT


During emerging adulthood, all body systems

function optimally

Diagnosis of _____ is most common from ages 18 to 24, with men more likely to develop the disorder than women.


Xavier is a male in the developmental stage of emerging adulthood. He can expect to notice all of the following physical changes EXCEPT for increased

body fat

Due to a job loss and divorce, 25-year-old Luke has been under an enormous amount of stress, yet he still feels good physically. The fact that Luke’s body can continue to function well under this stress is likely due to

organ reserve

The capacity of organs to allow the body to cope with stress via extra, unused functioning ability is referred to as

organ reserve

Joya is a 21-year-old college student. Statistically, she is MOST likely to

binge drink

A person between the ages of 18 and 25 is considered to be in the developmental stage of

emerging adulthood

On average, well-being increases in emerging adulthood, as does the incidence of


The process of aging by which the body becomes less strong and efficient is referred to as


Chanel has recently finished high school and is now attending college. After earning her undergraduate degree she plans to continue on to graduate school. In addition, Chanel is not seriously dating anyone and thinks marriage and parenthood are years away. Chanel is at which developmental stage?

emerging adulthood

Which task would be easier for a 21-year-old than a 51-year-old?

walk up 4 flights of stairs

A dynamic longer-term body adjustment that affects overall physiology is referred to as


The ratio between weight and height that is used to determine whether a person is below, at, or above normal weight is referred to as the

body mass index

The use of illegal drugs peaks from ages _____ and declines more sharply than the use of cigarettes and alcohol.

18 to 25

Grace is in her early 20s and exercises regularly. As she ages, what is likely going to encourage her to continue to exercise regularly?

having an active friend

According to the text, which of the following is NOT likely to contribute to increased instances of psychopathology in emerging adults?

more education

CeCe, who is 25, just finished a 5-mile jog. While cooling down, she notices that it is harder to jog 5 miles now than it was when she was 18. CeCe is experiencing


Bella has been skipping meals and eating very little for months. One night she goes out with friends and eats a full, heavy meal. Within hours, she is vomiting and has diarrhea. Bella’s symptoms are likely the result of a(n) _____ adjustment.


Riley is 23 years old. If she is like other individuals her age, which of the following health habits is Riley MOST likely to have?

seeking medical help when injured

Statistically, which of these 21-year-olds would be the most likely to engage in extreme drinking?

stanley, who is a college junior

In a class, the teacher asked students to figure out how to get from a particular city on the western edge of a map to another particular city further to the east. Each student came up with many possible routes. The students were likely in


Marge’s marriage is troubled. She and her husband find very little joy in being with each other, in part because they have both changed as individuals. If Marge and her husband are capable of dialectical thinking, they will

adjust their relationship to accommodate the changes in themselves

When college students are asked to solve a puzzle problem independently, only about 10% solve it correctly. Then, when students who did not solve the problem were allowed to discuss the problem together, 75% got it right. This illustrates the participants’

cognitive flexibility

Kim is going to buy her friend a birthday present. She remembers that her friend wanted to go to a concert; tickets for the concert are $150 each. Kim has only $300 in the bank and was going to use $250 of it to pay for car insurance next month, but she wants to make her friend happy so she buys the two concert tickets. Kim’s thinking is most likely influenced by


Sara is a successful, conscientious college student with good time management skills. According to the text, Sara is likely to be attending college


Dr. Wegman told her students that they could complete an assignment now and earn 10 points, or complete the assignment in a month and earn 15 points. The majority of students said they preferred to complete the assignment now, demonstrating

delay discounting

Which approach to studying cognitive development would be most likely to include tests that ask individuals to define the word "elementary" or make a design with blocks as shown on a picture?

psychometric approach

The approach to studying cognitive development that explores how the brain encodes, stores, and retrieves information is the _____ approach.

information-processing approach

A common logical error of emerging adults is delay discounting, the tendency to

undervalue event in the future

The study in which adults were asked to suggest solutions to various life problems demonstrated that

familiarity with situations enabled adults to be more flexible

All of the following beliefs reflect cognitive flexibility EXCEPT

life plans are static

When compared with earlier thinking, thinking in adulthood is all of the following EXCEPT

more concrete

A possible fifth stage of cognitive development that characterizes adult thinking is

post formal thought

Traditional models of formal operational thinking value _____ thought and devalue _____ thought.

objective; subjective

Thought that arises from personal experiences and perceptions is


Geraldine is a medical intern who believes that all people deserve access to medical care, but she also knows that throughout her career she will have to make decisions about which patients will receive a scarce, life-saving medication. Reconciling these two thoughts requires

dialectical thinking

Jack was raised in a home where men did not help with housework or cooking because those chores were deemed "women’s work." At age 20, he does not agree with that view, but hides his negative reaction to it when visiting his parents’ home. Jack is demonstrating

cognitive flexibility

Dr. Marquette is a researcher who studies the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information throughout life. What approach to cognitive development does she take?

information- processing

As more is understood about brain development after adolescence, it seems that the characteristics of postformal thought are evident as the brain and, in particular, as the _____, matures.

prefrontal cortex

Michelle begins an essay for her composition class by saying that knowing the truth sets people free. In her next paragraph, she explains that knowing the truth often involves learning about limitations and constraints on freedom. In her third paragraph, Michelle integrates these two perspectives. Michelle’s essay demonstrates

dialectical thinking

Most emerging adults struggle with _____, however, adults gradually master it as their cognition matures.

time management

In dialectical thought, a _____ implies a _____ and the integration of these occurs within the _____.

thesis; antithesis; synthesis

The psychometric approach to studying cognitive development analyzes intelligence using

IQ tests and other measures

On his own time, Ron looked over his course syllabi for the term and realized that, in three weeks, he had three assignments due on one day. Ron decided he would do one assignment per week for the next three weeks so that he would have them all done by their due dates. Ron is demonstrating _____ thinking.


After auditioning for a play Carlos hears Henrietta say, "Carlos was the worst actor at the auditions! I can’t believe that he got the lead!" Carlos thinks, "I know I am a fine actor. Henrietta is just upset right now because she did not get a part in the play." Carlos is using

subjective thought and objective thought

Research has found that cohabitation prior to marriage

increases the likelihood of divorce

Generally, when is physical touch most likely to occur between two male friends?

when their favorite team wins a football game

Knowing someone well, and sharing secrets as well as physical attention in a reciprocal nature, is consistent with which aspect of love?


According to Erikson, the stage of intimacy versus isolation

reflects the desire to share one’s life with someone else

During emerging adulthood, self-esteem and happiness _____ for most people.


Dixie just started dating BJ. Dixie feels happy and excited when she thinks about BJ, and knows BJ feels the same about her. That said, she is not sure where the relationship will lead, as they both continue to live independent lives. According to Sternberg, what form of love does Dixie appear to be experiencing?

romantic love

All of the following impact commitment in a romantic relationship EXCEPT

common background

Personality is plastic, but a person’s personality will be affected lifelong by

childhood experiences

Marco and Alayna have a romantic relationship, but they do not experience feelings of passion for each other and are no longer connected in an intimate way. According to Sternberg, what form of love do Marco and Alayna have?

empty love

Social networking may lead to _____, which happens when there are too many people available to meet and evaluate as potential life partners.

choice overload

Patricia and Raul live together as a romantic couple but they are not married. Their living arrangement is called


Friends _____ mental health and _____ physical health.

strengthen; strengthen

Of the college students below, who is most likely to "hook up?"

sam, who just started college and is lonely because he hasn’t made any good friends yet

In 2012 in the United States, the average age at first marriage was _____ for men and _____ for women.


Derek, who is 25 years old, is slower than average to secure a job or find a romance. He does have many friends and is no more anxious or depressed than others in his cohort. As a child, Derek may have displayed the personality trait of

extreme shyness

Peyton and Chris are long-time friends who have just transitioned to a "friends with benefits" relationship. If their friendship truly comes first, Sternberg’s triadic theory would suggest that their relationship is _____ but not _____.

intimate; passionate

Friendships reach their peak of functional significance during

emerging adulthood

For most people, social networking has _____ social isolation in emerging adulthood.


Which statement about personality in emerging adulthood is TRUE?

personality can change after adolescence

Within the context of a male-male friendship, men tend to

expect practical advice

According to research, who is MOST likely to experience the greatest gain in well-being during emerging adulthood?

eric, who just started college and lives in a campus dormitory

Gina reacted more strongly to going to college, living on her own, and making new friends than Carly. Gina’s personality seemed to change as a result of these experiences whereas Carly’s personality seemed unchanged. What could explain this is Gina’s, but not Carly’s, inheritance of _____ genes.


Jose has just started to date Christy. He can’t stop thinking about her, and his thoughts of her fill him with excitement and happiness. Jose is most likely to be experiencing what aspect of love?


Now that he is in his 20s, Juan wants to find someone to share his life with. Erikson would say that Juan is in the stage of

intimacy versus isolation

Lee is clingy and very jealous, fearing that other men are after his wife. We might suspect that his early attachment pattern was


Jim, who is 60, couldn’t understand why he kept slowly gaining weight. He was eating the same amount of food that he had each day since he was 20 and he got regular exercise. What could explain his weight gain?

his metabolism had slowed down

Which individual is most at risk for significant brain loss by age 65?

hank, who drinks five beers per day

Eve is considered obese because she

has a BMI of 30 or more

Which vision change is NOT associated with aging?

decreasing farsightedness

The process of changing a habit is long and multi-stepped. What is the first step in this process?


Regular exercise helps adults in all these ways EXCEPT

eliminating the impact of tobacco use

Janice, who is 55 years old, needed to get three projects done by the end of the week at work. When she was younger she would have worked on all three projects more or less at the same time. Now that she is older, however, Janice needs to work on one project at a time. Janice’s current inability to multitask is due to changes in her


Roger wants to be more physically active. His friend knows the research on what helps adults be more active and suggests that Roger

move to a neighborhood with walking paths and sidewalks

Patricia is in her early 60s and can pick flowers for hours, but can only lift the heavy rocks in her garden for a few minutes. Her inability to lift the rocks for longer is due to a reduction in

type 2 muscle fibers

The first visible signs of senescence are usually observed in a person’s


If he is typical, a 45-year-old man will probably state that he feels _____ his chronological age.

5 to 10 years younger than

Statistically, which female has the MOST acute hearing?

Kara Lynn, who is 10 years old

At a recent physical exam, Janet was told that she is an inch shorter than she was five years ago at age 60. What caused her decrease in height?

age- related compression of the spine

What percentage of adults in the United States and England get at least 30 minutes per day of exercise?

less than 5

Harold, who is 55 years old, didn’t realize how much his physical appearance had changed until he saw a picture of himself taken 20 years ago. Harold’s gradual change in physical appearance was due to _____.


Middle-aged Robert and his adolescent son are sitting at the table reading the newspaper. Robert is holding his section of the newspaper rather far from his eyes. His son asks, "Dad, why are you holding the paper so far away? If I held it that far away I could not read anything!" Robert replies, "I think it is because I am developing _____."


Severe brain loss that occurs before late adulthood could be caused by any of these factors EXCEPT


What experience is least likely to be associated with hearing loss?

watching television

Research has found that between the ages of 20 and 60

metabolism slows down by about one-third

A significant loss of hearing associated with senescence is referred to as


Marie is 50 years old. Which activity is likely most difficult for her to do?

dance a waltz

George is 65 years old and is experiencing some symptoms of age-related hearing loss. If he is typical for his age, which sound would be the LEAST audible for him?

the voice of a small child

In an aging brain

reaction time lengthens

In middle adulthood, a person is MOST apt to lose

nearly an inch of height

Which physical change does NOT typically occur in middle adulthood?

the space between the spinal disks wides

The Mullers have just had a baby. Both parents must now adapt to the new demands of caring for an infant. This will require the form of intelligence that Sternberg calls


Major stressors and daily hassles

can impair cognitive functioning

Ken is a highly skilled electrician and Gwen is his new apprentice. When unexpected problems occur as they work on complex wiring projects, the MOST critical difference between their approaches in successfully completing the job is

ken’s autonomic processing

Experts tend to be intuitive, automatic, _____, and _____ in their thinking.

strategic; flexible

Donna was just diagnosed with cancer. She has started drinking heavily and keeps moving doctors’ appointments further away in time. Donna is engaging in _____ coping.


All of the following contribute to the development of expertise EXCEPT


Which is the BEST example of an adult using selective optimization with compensation?

Bettie, who uses sticky note reminders in her home, office, and car

Natalie is asked by her daughter to help with making a list of all the presidents of the United States for a school project. In order for Natalie to help her daughter she will need to rely on

crystallized intelligence

The basic intelligence that makes learning quick and thorough is referred to as _____ intelligence.


The research design that involves testing groups of subjects of different ages multiple times and comparing their scores with their own scores in previous periods in addition to the scores of new groups of adults of the same ages is called

cross-sequential research

The process of turning to faith as a method of coping with stress is referred to as

religious coping

To solve a problem in his or her special area, the expert is more likely than the novice to

rely on past experience

Which is the best example of fluid intelligence?

the ability to quickly recognize relationships between words

Betty is a retired registered nurse who fills in at the local hospital when the staff is in need of nurses. She is frequently called in without advance notice and must take over without any time to get oriented. Betty must rely on what Sternberg calls _____ intelligence in order to grasp the expectations and needs of the situation.


In which of these situations would an individual MOST likely engage in religious coping?

when diagnosed with stage 4 cancer

A college student who does well on multiple-choice and essay exams likely is high in

analytic intelligence

Sally learned that she did not get a promotion at work because she did not have enough completed projects. If she chooses to engage in problem-focused coping to deal with this stressor she will

work to complete more projects

Fluid intelligence includes

the speed of processing mathematical information

With respect to intelligence testing in adulthood, scores on items measuring fluid intelligence _____ with age and scores on items measuring crystallized intelligence _____ with age.

decrease; increases

Expert thought is

intuitive, autonomic, strategic, and flexible

Which statement about fluid intelligence is TRUE?

it is quick and flexible

The most crucial cognitive difference between a skilled person and an unskilled person may be


Randy is 60 years old and realizes that his reading speed and eyesight are not as robust as they were when he was younger. He still enjoys participating in book club, which requires a new book to be read every week. In order to participate, Randy now listens to the books on tape. Randy is using _____ in order to participate in the book club.

selective optimization with compensation

When developmentalists use the term "expert," they usually mean a person who

specializes in activities that are personally meaningful

When the thought required for an action has become routine, and it appears that most aspects of the task are performed instinctively, the performance of the task is


How do consequential strangers differ from friends?

they include people from wider variety of, faiths, ethnic group, and political opinions

A long-term committed partnership correlates with health and happiness throughout adulthood and late adulthood. For most people, then, _____ is the crucial aspect of love in a partnership.


Although Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development are sequential, the search for identity that begins in the stage of identity versus role confusion

is ongoing throughout adulthood

Lena and Gregory are both 30 years old and hold graduate degrees. They are about to get married. They will be all of the following compared to their never-married counterparts EXCEPT for _____.


Adults choose their _____ by selecting neighborhoods, mates, hobbies, and careers at least in part based on their personality traits.

ecological riche

According to the text, middle age, if it exists

could begin at age 35 or 50

The group of people that moves through life with an individual while providing both protection and encouragement is called a

social convoy

Research has shown that the _____—a period of unusual anxiety, reexamination, and transformation during middle adulthood—has more to do with historical circumstances than actual age.

midlife crisis

How does the relationship between siblings typically change from adolescence to adulthood?

the relationship tends to become closer

Research finds that women typically suffer from divorce more than men do, but that many divorced men experience

increased loneliness

People who are not in a person’s closest convoy but who still have an effect on the person’s life by providing information, support, or new ideas are known as

consequential strangers

Susan’s grandmother, at age 80, is engaged in the personal journey of connecting her life with the historical and cultural purpose of human society. The grandmother is in which of Erikson’s psychosocial stages?

integrity versus despair

Committed partners who maintain separate homes but function as a committed couple are said to be

living apart together

Emily is her family’s kinkeeper. This means that she assumes responsibility for

gathering the family for holidays and disseminating information

Manuel and Rosa have been married for nearly 30 years. Their youngest child left home six months ago. If they are typical, the quality of their marriage should

improve since they have more time to spend together

Samuel is moody, anxious, and self-punishing. Samuel is high in


Which personality trait tends to increase with age?


A person who has many of the personality traits associated with extroversion would be described as

active and outgoing

All of Paulo and Geneva’s children have moved out, started families, and are working on their careers. According to the text, Paulo and Geneva’s home is now a(n)

empty nest

Those who know her describe Matilda as a kind, helpful, and easygoing person. She is high on which of the Big Five traits?


Davetta is very organized and self-disciplined. She conforms easily to standards set for her performance at work. She is high on which of the Big Five traits?


Ronald seems to thrive on changing jobs, is artistic, and likes to try new things. He would be rated high on the personality dimension called _____.


Couples who cohabit due to convenience are _____.

less likely to have a happy marriage

People choose a particular lifestyle and social context, or _____, because it is compatible with their personality traits.

ecological niche

According to research, which statement about the "sandwich generation" is TRUE?

many adults do not feel burdened by their responsibilities

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