PrepU Chapter 29- Management of Patients With Complications from Heart Disease

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A client with chronic heart failure is receiving digoxin (Lanoxin), 0.25 mg by mouth daily, and furosemide (Lasix), 20 mg by mouth twice daily. The nurse instructs the client to notify the physician if nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal cramps occur because these signs and symptoms may signal digoxin toxicity. Digoxin toxicity may also cause:

visual disturbances.

A client with a history of myocardial infarction is admitted with shortness of breath, anxiety, and slight confusion. Assessment findings include a regular heart rate of 120 beats/minute, audible third and fourth heart sounds, blood pressure of 84/64 mm Hg, bibasilar crackles on lung auscultation, and a urine output of 5 ml over the past hour. The nurse anticipates preparing the client for transfer to the intensive care unit and pulmonary artery catheter insertion because:

the client is going into cardiogenic shock.

The patient with cardiac failure is taught to report which of the following symptoms to the physician or clinic immediately?

persistent cough

A client is admitted to the hospital with systolic left-sided heart failure. The nurse knows to look for which of the following assessment findings for this client?

Pulmonary congestion

Which of the following therapies are for patient who have advanced heart failure (HF) after all other therapies have failed?

Heart transplant

A nurse is administering lanoxin, which she knows increases contractility as well as cardiac output. Contractility refers to which of the following?

The force of the contraction related to the status of the myocardium

The nurse is discussing cardiac hemodynamics with a nursing student. The nurse explains preload to the student and then asks the student what nursing interventions might cause increased preload. The student correctly answers which of the following?

Application of antiembolytic stockings

A client is receiving furosemide (Lasix), a loop diuretic, to prevent fluid overload. The order is for 50 mg intraveneous now. The pharmacy supplies Lasix 80 mg per 2 mL. How many mL will the nurse give the client? Enter the correct number ONLY.

1.25 mL

A client with right-sided heart failure is admitted to the medical-surgical unit. What information obtained from the client may indicate the presence of edema?

The client says his rings have become tight and are difficult to remove.

A nurse taking care of a patient recently admitted to the ICU observes the patient coughing up large amounts of pink, frothy sputum. Auscultation of the lungs reveals course crackles to lower lobes bilaterally. Based on this assessment, the nurse recognizes this patient is developing which of the following problems?

Decompensated heart failure with pulmonary edema

A nurse in the emergency department is caring for a client with acute heart failure. Which laboratory value is most important for the nurse to check before administering medications to treat heart failure?


You are caring for a client with suspected right-sided heart failure. What would you know that clients with suspected right-sided heart failure may experience?

Gradual unexplained weight gain

The Cardiac Nurse Clinician is teaching a group of clients with heart failure about self-management of their disease. What dietary advice should the Nurse Clinician give to clients with severe heart failure until edema resolves?

Avoid the intake of processed and commercially prepared foods.

A patient has missed 2 doses of digitalis (Digoxin). What laboratory results would indicate to the nurse that the patient is within therapeutic range?

2.0 mg/mL

The nurse does an assessment on a patient who is admitted with a diagnosis of right-sided heart failure. The nurse knows that a significant sign is which of the following?

Pitting edema

Following a left anterior myocardial infarction, a client undergoes insertion of a pulmonary artery catheter. Which finding most strongly suggests left-sided heart failure?

Increased pulmonary artery diastolic pressure

Which of the following nursing interventions should a nurse perform when a patient with valvular disorder of the heart has a heart rate less than 60 beats per minute before administering beta-blockers?

Withhold the drug and inform the primary health care provider

Which of the following is a key diagnostic indicator of heart failure?


A patient has been diagnosed with systolic heart failure. The nurse would expect the patient’s ejection fraction to be at which level?

Severely reduced

A patient has been experiencing increasing shortness of breath and fatigue. The physician has ordered a diagnostic test in order to determine what type of heart failure the patient is having. What diagnostic test does the nurse anticipate being ordered?

An echocardiogram

Which of the following medications reverses digitalis toxicity?

Digoxin immune FAB (Digibind)

You are working in a long-term care facility with a group of older adults with cardiac disorders. Why would it be important for you to closely monitor an older adult receiving digitalis preparations for cardiac disorders?

Older adults are at increased risk for toxicity.

A patient is prescribed digitalis preparations. Which of the following conditions should the nurse closely monitor when caring for the patient?

Electrolyte and water loss

The nurse recognizes which of the following symptoms as a classic sign of cardiogenic shock?

Restlessness and confusion

The diagnosis of heart failure is usually confirmed by which of the following?


The nursing instructor is teaching their clinical group how to assess a client for congestive heart failure. How would the instructor teach the students to assess a client with congestive heart failure for nocturnal dyspnea?

By questioning how many pillows the client normally uses for sleep

A patient arrives at the ED with an exacerbation of left-sided heart failure and complains of shortness of breath. Which of the following is the priority nursing intervention?

Assess oxygen saturation level

Frequently, what is the earliest symptom of left-sided heart failure?

Dyspnea on exertion

A client with left-sided heart failure is in danger of impaired renal perfusion. How would the nurse assess this client for impaired renal perfusion?

Assess for elevated blood urea nitrogen levels.

The nurse is providing discharge instructions to a client with heart failure preparing to leave the following day. What type of diet should the nurse request the dietitian to discuss with the client?

Low-sodium diet

Which pulse should the nurse palpate during rapid assessment of an unconscious adult?


A nurse is caring for a client experiencing dyspnea, dependent edema, hepatomegaly, crackles, and jugular vein distention. What condition should the nurse suspect?

Heart failure

A new client has been admitted with right-sided heart failure. The nurse knows to look for which of the following assessment findings when assessing this client?

Jugular venous distention

A 73-year-old client has been admitted to the cardiac step-down unit where you practice nursing. After diagnostics, she was brought to your unit with acute pulmonary edema. Which of the following symptoms would you expect to find during your assessment?

Moist, gurgling respirations

When the nurse observes that the patient has increased difficulty breathing when lying flat, the nurse records that the patient is demonstrating


Which of the following is a manifestation of right-sided heart failure?

Systemic venous congestion

A client with chronic heart failure is able to continue with his regular physical activity and does not have any limitations as to what he can do. According to the New York Heart Association (NYHA), what classification of chronic heart failure does this client have?

Class I (Mild)

The nurse hears the alarm sound on the telemetry monitor and observes a flat line. The patient is found unresponsive, without a pulse, and no respiratory effort. What is the first action by the nurse?

Call for help and begin chest compressions.

A patient with acute pericarditis is exhibiting distended jugular veins, tachycardia, tachypnea, bradycardia, and muffled heart sounds. The senior nursing student recognizes these symptoms occur when

Excess pericardial fluid compresses the heart and prevents adequate diastolic filling

A client with heart failure has been receiving an intravenous infusion at 150 mL/hr. Now the client is short of breath. The nurse auscultates crackles bilaterally and notes neck vein distention and tachycardia. Using critical thinking skills, what should the nurse do first?

Slow the infusion and notify the physician.

Which of the following medications is a human brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) preparation?


Ronald is a 46-year-old who has developed congestive heart failure. He has to learn to adapt his diet and you are his initial counselor. Which of the following should you tell him to avoid?

Canned peas

Which of the following is a key diagnostic laboratory test for heart failure?

B-type natriuretic peptide

The nurse is administering nitroglycerin, which he knows decreases preload as well as afterload. Preload refers to which of the following?

The amount of blood presented to the ventricles just before systole

The nursing instructor is discussing heart failure with their clinical group. The instructor talks about heart failure in terms of a decreasing ejection fraction of the heart. What diagnostic test is used to measure the ejection fraction of the heart?


A client is brought to the emergency department via rescue squad with suspicion of cardiogenic pulmonary edema. What complication should the nurse monitor for? Select all that apply.

– Cardiac dysrhythmias -Respiratory arrest -Cardiac arrest

A physician orders digoxin (Lanoxin) for a client with heart failure. During digoxin therapy, which laboratory value may predispose the client to digoxin toxicity?

Potassium level of 2.8 mEq/L

In a client with chronic bronchitis, which sign would lead the nurse to suspect right-sided heart failure?

Leg edema

A nurse is discussing cardiac hemodynamics with a nursing student and explains the concept of afterload. The student asks what medical conditions might cause increased afterload. The nurse correctly answers which of the following?

Hypertension and aortic valve stenosis

On his return to the cardiac step-down unit after his diagnostic procedure, a client awaits the report from his cardiologist. As the client’s nurse, you review the process of measuring ejection fraction and explain to the client that it measures the percentage of blood the left ventricle ejects upon contraction. What is the typical percentage of blood a healthy heart ejects?


Sixty six-year-old David Steiner is already being treated for hypertension. His doctor, concerned about the potential for heart failure, has him come back for check-ups regularly. What does hypertension have to do with heart failure?

Hypertension causes the heart’s chambers to enlarge and weaken

The nurse assists the client to the bathroom, which is approximately 10 feet from the bed. The client ambulates 3 feet and states, ?"I cannot catch my breath." ?How would the nurse document this finding?

?"Experiences exertional dyspnea when walking 3 feet; states, ?"I cannot catch my breath."?

When the nurse observes that the patient has increased difficulty breathing when lying flat, the nurse records that the patient is demonstrating which of the following?


A nurse suspects that a client has digoxin toxicity. The nurse should assess for

vision changes.

Which of the following is the hallmark of heart failure?

Low ejection fraction (EF)

Which drug is most commonly used to treat cardiogenic shock?

Dopamine (Intropin)

The nurse is caring for a client with heart failure. What procedure should the nurse prepare the client for in order to determine the ejection fraction to measure the efficiency of the heart as a pump?


The physician writes orders for a patient to receive an angiotensin II receptor blocker for treatment of heart failure. What medication does the nurse administer?

Valsartan (Diovan)

A nurse is caring for a client with heart failure. The nurse knows that the client has left-sided heart failure when he makes which statement?

"I sleep on three pillows each night."

A hospitalized client with heart failure puts on the call light and makes the following statement: "I’ve become very short of breath, and I’ve been coughing up this pink frothy sputum." The nurse immediately suspects which of the following complications?

Pulmonary edema

Which New York Heart Association classification of heart failure has a poor prognosis and includes symptoms of cardiac insufficiency at rest?


A total artificial heart (TAH) is an electrically powered pump that circulates blood into the pulmonary artery and the aorta, thus replacing the functions of both the right and left ventricles. What makes it different from an LVAD?

An LVAD only supports a failing left ventricle.

The nurse identifies which of the following symptoms as a manifestation of right-sided heart failure (HF)?

Congestion in the peripheral tissues

A patient in severe pulmonary edema is being intubated by the respiratory therapist. What priority action by the nurse will assist in the confirmation of tube placement in the proper position in the trachea?

Call for a chest x-ray.

While auscultating the heart sounds of a client with heart failure, the nurse hears an extra heart sound immediately after the second heart sound (S2). The nurse should document this as:

a third heart sound (S3).

Which of the following body system responses correlates with systolic heart failure (HF)?

Decrease in renal perfusion

The clinical manifestations of cardiogenic shock reflect the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). By applying this correlation, the nurse notes that the degree of shock is proportional to which of the following?

Left ventricular function

A patient with congestive heart failure is admitted to the hospital with complaints of shortness of breath. How should the nurse position the patient in order to decrease preload?

Head of the bed elevated at 45 degrees and lower arms supported by pillows

Which of the following groups of patients are at risk for thrombophlebitis?

Older adults

The nurse is obtaining data on an older adult client. What finding may indicate to the nurse the early symptom of heart failure?

Dyspnea on exertion

What is the primary underlying disorder of pulmonary edema?

Decreased left ventricular pumping

A client has a myocardial infarction in the left ventricle and develops crackles bilaterally; 3-pillow orthopnea; an S3 heart sound; and a cough with pink, frothy sputum. The nurse obtains a pulse oximetry reading of 88%. What do these signs and symptoms indicate for this client?

The development of left-sided heart failure

Which of the following is a classic sign of cardiogenic shock?

Tissue hypoperfusion

A client develops cardiogenic pulmonary edema and is extremely apprehensive. What medication can the nurse administer with physician orders that will relieve anxiety and slow respiratory rate?

Morphine sulfate

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