POL Ch. 7 The Media

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Brief quotes and short characterizations of the day’s events in news coverage are called ________.

sound bites

Why do radio stations repeat the news so often throughout the day?

The audience is constantly changing since most people listen to the radio in their cars.

Despite its widespread availability, ________ typically provide(s) the least depth of news coverage.


Much of the national news that is published in local newspapers is provided by ________.

the Associated Press

Which group has had great popularity on radio talk shows?


Large media conglomerates own approximately ________ percent of daily newspapers.


Most local newspapers get their national news from ________.

wire services

Which of the following is NOT a national newspaper?


What has helped accelerate the trend toward less variety in national news in the past decade?

the corporate consolidation of news media into a small number of conglomerates

The development of media giants with access to a variety of media holdings raises the question of whether

there is enough competition among the media to produce a diverse set of views and opinions.

Which of the following statements best describes the changing ownership patterns in the American media?

There has been a recent trend toward homogenization of national news as conglomerates have come to own a larger and larger percentage of media outlets.

Daily Internet users who participate in society and politics through online activities are called _______

digital citizens

The penny press

both a and b

________ is the niche leader inside the Beltway


Niche journalism refers to

news reporting targeted for a demographic of readers based on content or ideological presentation.

"Filter bubbles" appear when

search engines automatically screen out information that might challenge or broaden our worldview.

Which of the following is NOT a reason that Americans prefer online news?

the accuracy and objectivity of the information found online

One positive consequence of the decline in traditional newspapers and Washington, D.C., bureaus is the

revival of local news coverage.

The following are all concerns raised by the growing popularity of online news EXCEPT

a reduction in the diversity of perspectives that can potentially be heard.

Google News and Real Clear Politics are good examples of ________.

news aggregators

A website devoted entirely to reporting on climate change and other environmental issues is an example of ________ journalism.


________ is generally regarded as a conservative news broadcasting service.

Fox News

Which of the following statements best describes the media’s role in the Watergate affair?

Relentless investigations by journalists revealed various abuses of power by President Nixon and led to his resignation.

A majority of newspaper reporters identify themselves as ________.


The power of the media to draw public attention to particular issues and problems is called ________.

agenda setting

"Marriage equality" is an illustration of ________.


When journalists focus on a candidate’s relative standing in the polls instead of substantive issues they are demonstrating ________ coverage.

horse race

Which of the following statements is true?

Individuals customize the political information they receive through their choices of news outlets.

The media can set the political agenda in the United States by

identifying an issue as a problem that must be solved.

The most important selection bias in news is the ________.

audience appeal of a story

Besides their ideological biases, journalists also exhibit selection biases in favor of news stories they view as

having a great deal of dramatic or entertainment value.

The Pentagon Papers were released as a result of

a leak by a minor Defense Department staffer.

________ has released thousands of secret government documents.


The press release was created

in the early twentieth century by a public relations firm working for a railroad.

The Vietnam War initiated the growth of ________ journalism.


Which of the following statements about leaks is FALSE?

Leaks never occurred before the George W. Bush administration.

Which of the following is NOT a reason why a free media is necessary to democratic government?

A free media is needed to ensure economic equality.

The________ regulates broadcast media.

Federal Communications Commission

Which of the following is regulated by the federal government?


The ________ provides candidates for the same political office equal opportunities to communicate their messages.

equal time rule

The Supreme Court case Red Lion Broadcasting Company v. FCC (1969) upheld ________.

the right to rebuttal

The Fairness Doctrine required that

broadcasters who aired controversial issues provide time for opposing viewpoints.

In 1985, the federal government stopped enforcing the ________, arguing that it was no longer necessary due to the increasing number of television and radio stations.

Fairness Doctrine

The proliferation of news sources in recent years has

encouraged polarization because many media outlets seek to position themselves within a discrete ideological or partisan niche rather than maintain a middle-of-the-road stance.

Which of the following best describes the relationship between the government and the media in the United States today?

The government does not own but regulates the content and ownership of broadcast media.

The Communications Decency Act was struck down by the Supreme Court because it violated the

First Amendment’s right to freedom of speech.

If a radio station aired a personal attack against a candidate but refused to allow the same candidate the opportunity to respond to that attack on its station, the station would be violating the ________.

right of rebuttal

Which statement about the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is FALSE?

The FCC was established in 1949 by President Harry Truman.

Which statement about the Telecommunications Act of 1996 is FALSE?

The act required broadcasters who aired programs on controversial issues to provide time for opposing views.

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