Music Literature – Enjoyment of Music

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The Baroque period witnessed a new style of music, which featured a single vocal melody with accompaniment. This was known as:


Allegro is an Italian term for a fast, cheerful tempo.


What characterizes humanism?

-thinking centered on human issues and individuality -inspiration from the ancient cultures of Greece and Rome -independence from tradition and religion

Britten’s The Young Persons Guide to the Orchestra exemplifies the forms of

variations and fugue

Baroque composers used dissonance for emotional intensity and color.


An early center for the development of polyphony was the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris


The order of church services and the structure of each service are known as the liturgy


Haydn served as a choirboy in


Chamber music blossomed in popularity in the Classical era


Which of the following make up the movements of the Ordinary of the Mass

kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei

A specific area within the range of a voice or instrument, such as high, middle, or low, is called


A typical feature of a concerto is a free solo passage without orchestral accompaniment called

the cadenza

The term timbre refers to

the color of a tone

The Frankish emperor who encouraged education and the concept of a centralized government was


Throughout history, the human voice has served as a model to instrumentalists and to instrument builders


The Classical period has been called the Enlightenment


How does a scherzo differ from a minuet

A scherzo is faster and sometimes humorous, while a minuet is slower and serious

Meters in which each beat is subdivided into three rather than two are known as

compound meters

The word concerto implies the opposition of two dissimilar elements, such as a soloist or solo group versus an orchestra


A piano trio is an ensemble of three pianos


The term __________ describes the technique whereby some aspects of the music are changed yet the whole remains recognizable


Recitative that is just accompanied by continuo instruments is called secco


The service in the Roman Catholic Church that symbolically reenacts the sacrifice of Christ is

the mass

The dates given for the beginning and end of eras are precise ones


In the nineteenth-century symphony, the minuet was often replaced by the scherzo


How did comic opera differ from opera seria?

-It was sung in the vernacular -It presented down-to-earth plots -It featured ensemble as well as solo singing

Opera buffa was typically serious in tone, with plots dealing with historical or legendary figures.


The three main sections of sonata-allegro form are the exposition, the development, and:

the recapitulation

Most large musical ensembles use a conductor in order to perform together


Which is the correct order of bowed string instruments from highest to lowest in range

violin,viola,cello,double bass

Mozart’s Requiem was:

his last work, incomplete at his death

The knowledge of early civilizations and the culture of the Middle Ages were preserved largely in monasteries


Which Western orchestral instrument(s) derive from Turkish military bands

triangle, cymbals, and bass drum

In the nineteenth century, the Mass was performed only in church


Developments in music are closely related to those in other arts


Bach completed just under one hundred cantatas in his lifetime.


What does NOT describe a dissonance?

sustains a sense of stability

The two centers of power during the early Middle Ages were the church and

newly formed centralized governments led by kings

The term a cappella refers to choral music performed

without any accompaniment

The fixed melody used as a basis for elaborate polyphonic writing in the Renaissance was called

a cantus firmus

Which work by Beethoven is called the Choral Symphony

the ninth symphony

Which two instruments would most likely have played the basso continuo in the Baroque era?

cello and harpsichord

What is the doctrine of the affections?

the codification of basic emotional states aroused by music

Which of the following does NOT characterize the Baroque era?

an age of freedom and democracy

John Milton’s Paradise Lost is an epic poem expressing the views of:


The Baroque period witnessed a new style of music, which featured a single vocal melody with accompaniment. This was known as:


The group of early Baroque writers, artists, and musicians whose aim was to resurrect the musical drama of ancient Greece was known as:

the Florentine Camerata

Which two instruments would most likely have played the basso continuo in the Baroque era?

cello and harpsichord

The Baroque technique of placing numerals, indicating the harmony required, above or below the bass notes is called:

figuered bass

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Baroque musical style?

harmonies built on the early church modes

What is the doctrine of the affections?

the codification of basic emotional states aroused by music

The artificially created male soprano or alto who dominated opera was known as:

the castrato

The vocal style in opera that imitates the natural inflections of speech is called:


A highly emotional song in an opera is called:

an aria

The text of an opera is called:

the libretto

The earliest operas took their plots from:

greek mythology

Of the following, which does NOT characterize Monteverdi’s love duet from The Coronation of Poppea?:

it is accompanied by continuo only

On which epic poem was Purcell’s opera Dido and Aeneas based?

virgil’s aeneid

Bach was most famous in his day as a performer on:

the organ

The opening movement of Bach’s cantata Wachet auf is best described as:

a grand chorale fanstasia

Which of the following does NOT characterize an oratorio?

elaborate scenery

The stories for oratorios are generally drawn from:

the bible

__________ was born in Germany and studied in Italy, but spent much of his creative life in England.


Late in life, Handel turned his efforts from the opera to:

the oratorio

Why is Messiah so popular in England and America today?

it is sung in English;the first part is appropriate for the Christmas seasons; it combines vocal soloists, chorus and orchestra; (All of the Above)

Which of the following does NOT characterize the suite?

each movement is in a contrasting key

What is the form of each individual movement in a suite?


The concept of the suite was applied to:

solo instrumental music; keyboard music; orchestral music; (all of the above)

The Alla hornpipe movement from Water Music is characterized by:

instrumental groups exchanging motivic ideas

Who was the court composer to Louis XIV that was central to the development of French opera?

Jean-Baptiste Lully

The instrumental form based on the contrast of two dissimilar masses of sound is called a:


A concerto based on the opposition of small and large groups of instruments is called a:

concerto grosso

Vivaldi lived and worked in:


Which of the following is a well-known set of concertos by Vivaldi?

The Four Seasons

The accompanying group in a concerto grosso is called:

the ripieno

The solo group in a concerto grosso is called:

the concertino

The harpsichord is different from the piano because:

it sometimes has two keyboards, rather than one; its strings are plucked, rather than struck; it is not capable of a wide dynamic range; (All of above)

The sonata da camera was based on:

dance movements

How many players are generally necessary to perform a trio sonata?


The music of Domenico Scarlatti’s Sonata in C major evokes:

a strummed guitar; rhythmic castanets; horn calls; (All of the above)

What is a toccata?

an improvisatory, virtuosic keyboard work

What is the principal element of a fugue?


After the fugue subject is stated, the second entrance of the subject is called the:


Which of the following is a set of forty-eight preludes and fugues by Bach?

The Well-Tempered Clavier

Which of the following is NOT true of the Rococo?

It emphasized the grandiose

Which eighteenth-century French composer wrote the Treatise on Harmony, which set forth concepts leading to modern musical theory?

Jean-Philippe Rameau

The new pre-Classical "sensitive" style, which saw the first stirrings of Romanticism, was called:


John Gay’s The Beggar’s Opera is best described as:

a ballad or dialogue opera

The War of the Buffoons debated the merits of opera in:


The transition from Renaissance to Baroque was characterized by the change from polyphonic to homophonic texture in music.


While playing the basso continuo, musicians in the Baroque era improvised on the figured bass.


One of the most significant changes in music history occurred during the Baroque era: the transition from medieval church modes to major-minor tonality


Baroque composers used dissonance for emotional intensity and color


During the Baroque era, women began entering the ranks of professional musicians, both as composers and as performers


Recitative that is just accompanied by continuo instruments is called secco


The da capo aria is a set form and would have no improvisation


Lully was the leading composer of opera in France


Bach completed just under one hundred cantatas in his lifetime


A chorale is a hymn tune associated with German Protestantism


The role of the chorus was especially important in the oratorio.


The Baroque period was the first in which instrumental music was comparable in importance to vocal music


The standard Baroque suite consists of a variety of international dance types


Arcangelo Corelli was a leading composer of the concerto grosso


The Four Seasons can be considered to be program music


The sonata da camera was intended for performances in church


The term trio sonata refers to the number of parts, or musical lines, rather than the number of players


A fugue is a contrapuntal composition in which a single subject is the focal point, thus unifying the work.


The War of the Buffoons was between those who favored French court opera and the proponents of Italian comic opera. Start with Week 5


Which of the following best describes absolute music?

music without a story or text

Which of the following genres does NOT usually follow the general structure of a multimovement cycle?


We can best regard sonata-allegro form as a drama between:

two key areas

The three main sections of sonata-allegro form are the exposition, the development, and:

the recapitulation

In sonata-allegro form, a modulatory section that leads from one theme to the next is called:


In sonata-allegro form, the section that features the most tension and drama through modulation and motivic interplay is called:

the development

Which of the following is a common characteristic of the second movement of a multimovement cycle?

lyrical, songful melodies

The overall form of a minuet and trio is best described as:


How does a scherzo differ from a minuet?

a scherzo is faster and sometimes humorous, while a minuet is slower and serious

Of the following, which form would be found most likely be found as the last movement of a Classical sonata or symphony?

a rondo

A string quartet consists of:

2 violins, viola, and cello.

A piano trio consists of:

piano, violin and cello

Haydn served as a choirboy in:


Haydn enjoyed phenomenal musical success with two trips to which country?


Mozart’s Eine kleine Nachtmusik is an example of:

a serenade

Which composer rebelled against the patronage system and struggled to achieve financial independence?


Mozart died while writing his:

opera The Magic Flute

The Classical symphony had its roots in the:

opera overture

The early Classical symphony is characterized by quickly ascending themes with a strong rhythmic drive. These are known as:

rocket themes

Why does Mozart’s Symphony in G minor project a Romantic quality?

It is in a minor key

How did Haydn’s Military Symphony earn its nickname?

it uses percussion instruments associated with Turkish military music

Janissary bands are associated with:


Beethoven’s temperament could best be described as:

explosive and independent

Beethoven suffered perhaps the most traumatic of all maladies for a musician. What was it?


Beethoven’s sketchbooks were:

books in which he worked out his musical ideas

Which work by Beethoven is called the Choral Symphony?

the ninth symphony

What is unusual about Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5?

there is no break between the third and fourth movements

Using material from an earlier movement in a symphony is called:

cyclical form

Of the following, which historical event did NOT have an impact on the Classical era?

the Russian Revolution

Who is the French philosopher called the "father of Romanticism"?


The Sturm und Drang movement came about largely because of two works, written by Schiller and:


Which of the following composers was NOT a master of the Viennese school?


Which of the following best describes the lyrical melodies of the Classical period?

conjunct, dianotic, and singable

The system in which the aristocracy sponsored musicians is called:


The term multimovement cycle is applied not only to sonatas and chamber music but also to concertos and symphonies.


The slow movement of a multimovement cycle is most frequently the third movement.


In the nineteenth-century symphony, the minuet was often replaced by the scherzo


Chamber music blossomed in popularity in the Classical era.


The Classical string quartet literature follows the same basic formal design as the symphony and sonata


The career of Joseph Haydn spanned the years from the formation of the Classical style to the beginning of Romanticism.


The establishment of a four-movement cycle for the symphony is generally credited to the London school of composers.


The late symphonies of Haydn abound in expressive effects.


Beethoven was unable to compose music after he became deaf.


Beethoven set Schiller’s Ode to Joy in the finale of his Symphony No. 5.


The Classical era saw the publication of important new encyclopedias


The American Declaration of Independence reflects the intellectual climate of the Classical era.


The Classical period has been called the Enlightenment


Some women achieved fame during the eighteenth century as opera singers and as solo instrumentalists


The audience of the eighteenth century, like that of today, was mainly interested in music from the past


How many movements are in a Classical concerto?


A typical feature of a concerto is a free solo passage without orchestral accompaniment called:

the cadenza

The most popular solo instrument in the Classical concerto was

the piano

Of the following, which characterizes Maria Theresa von Paradis?

she was a woman virutoso pianist; she was a student of mozart; she was blind since birth

Which Western orchestral instrument(s) derive from Turkish military bands?

triangle, cymbals, and bass drums

How many piano sonatas did Beethoven compose?

thirty two

The dreamy first movement of the Moonlight Sonata features

a singing melody; an accompaniment with arpeggios; a strophic like form

A musical setting of the Mass for the Dead is called:

a requiem

Mozart’s Requiem was

his last work, incomplete at his death

The ____________ accompanies the baritone voice in the Tuba mirum section of Mozart’s Requiem

a trombone

The text for Haydn’s The Creation is taken from

Genesis and Milton’s Paradise Lost

In depicting "chaos" at the beginning of The Creation, Haydn

uses ambitious tonality, dissonance, and chromatic harmonies

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of opera seria?

a middle class appeal

The rigid conventions of opera seria were shaped largely by


How did comic opera differ from opera seria?

A) It was sung in the vernacular. B) It presented down-to-earth plots. C) It featured ensemble as well as solo singing. D) all of the above

Which of the following was NOT a new opera type that sought to reflect simplicity and real human emotions?

opera seria

What Mozart opera is based on controversial play by Beaumarchais?

The marriage of Figaro

Which of the following composers is not a member of the Viennese School?


Which composer was born in Vienna and bridged the Classical and Romantic eras?


The word concerto implies the opposition of two dissimilar elements, such as a soloist or solo group versus an orchestra.


The finale of a Classical concerto is often in rondo form


Mozart wrote his piano concertos primarily for his own public performances.


The Trumpet Concerto in E-flat major, composed in 1796, was Haydn’s last orchestral work


In the Classical era, the sonata was intended for professional musicians only.


In the nineteenth century, the Mass was performed only in church


In Haydn’s The Creation, the soloists include three archangels: Gabriel, Uriel, and Raphael.


Opera buffa was typically serious in tone, with plots dealing with historical or legendary figures


Don Giovanni is Mozart’s only major opera.


The French Revolution signaled:

the transfer of power from the aristocracy to the middle class

Which of the following is true of Romantic poets?

A) They rebelled against conventional forms and subjects. B) They leaned toward the fanciful and picturesque. C) They expressed their new spirit of individualism with passion. D) all of the above

In the Romantic era, skilled musicians were trained at:


What trend inspired composers to write music evoking scenes or sounds of far-off lands?


Which does NOT characterize Romantic music?

reserved emotions

Which of the following best describes the role of women in nineteenth-century music?

the piano provided women with a socially acceptable performance outlet

Which of the following women organized concerts featuring music by her brother?

Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel

A song form in which the same melody is repeated with every stanza of text is called


A song structure that is composed from beginning to end without repetition of whole sections is called:


The German term for the art song is:


A group of Lieder unified by some narrative thread or a descriptive or expressive theme is called:

a song cycle

The favorite Romantic poets for the composers of Lieder were:

Goethe and Heine

Schubert organized evening gatherings of artists, writers, and musicians, called:


Approximately how many songs did Schubert compose?

more than 600

Schubert’s song Elfking was a setting of the ballad written by:


Robert Schumann’s wife, Clara, was:

A) the daughter of his piano teacher. B) one of the foremost pianists of her day. C) the inspiration for A Poet’s Love. D) all of the above

Which of the following was NOT a technical improvement in the nineteenth-century piano?

A second keyboard was added

The short, lyric piano piece is the instrumental equivalent of

the song

Which composer is known as "the poet of the piano"?

Frédéric Chopin

Chopin is considered to be the national composer of:


Chopin spent most of his productive life in:


Chopin is credited with creating:

the modern piano style

Which of the following was NOT a genre of music written by Chopin?


Which of the following does NOT characterize Chopin’s Mazurka in B-flat Minor, Op. 24, No. 4?

standard A-B-A form

Liszt’s career consisted of:

A) performing on the piano. B) conducting. C) composing. D) all of the above

Which composer is generally considered the greatest pianist and showman of the Romantic era?


Which composer is considered the creator of the symphonic poem?


The compositional technique of varying a theme melodically, harmonically, rhythmically, or dynamically, and thereby changing its character, is called:

thematic transformation

Liszt was inspired by the virtuoso violinist:


Liszt joined Chopin in transforming the ____________ from a piano exercise into a poetic mood piece.


Who composed the piano cycle entitled The Year?

Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel

Which of the following describes the music in America during the early nineteenth century?

Music was largely imported from Europe

Which of the following characterizes the published devotional music in America during the nineteenth century?

simpler notation for people lacking music literacy

Who was the first internationally acclaimed American composer of classical music?

Louis Moreau Gottschalk

Of the following statements about Louis Gottschalk, which is NOT true?

He spent most of his creative life in Europe

The familiar tune quoted near the end of Gottschalk’s work The Banjo is:

Camptown Races

The nineteenth-century novel found its great theme in the conflict between the individual and society


The Industrial Revolution produced less expensive musical instruments but with no technical improvements.


An interest in folklore and folk music resulted from the rise of nationalism.


Solo musicians became stars in the Romantic era, idolized by the public


The art song can be described as representing a union of poetry and music


The rise of the piano as a household instrument influenced the popularity of the Lied


Schumann was a carefree spirit with a happy disposition who lived a long, productive life as a composer


Schumann wrote his song cycle A Poet’s Love during his "year of song," in which he wrote hundreds of Lieder and also married Clara Schumann


As in the eighteenth century, nineteenth-century virtuoso pianists were almost always prominent composers as well


Chopin had a long relationship with the female writer George Sand


An étude is a short but highly technical study piece for piano


Liszt’s daughter Cosima later became the wife of composer Richard Wagner.


Thematic transformation is a compositional technique highly developed by Chopin.


Shape-note notation was used to help the general public read music.


Hymns from eighteenth-century America survived only through oral traditions.


Foster’s Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair has an active piano accompaniment suggesting flowing water.


Gottschalk was a piano virtuoso who concertized throughout Europe, the United States, the Caribbean, and South America.


Instrumental music endowed with literary, philosophical, or pictorial associations is called:

program music

Music written for plays, generally consisting of an overture and a series of pieces to be performed between acts, is called:

incidental music

Had movies been invented in the nineteenth century, to which genre of program music would film soundtracks be most similar?

incidental music

A multimovement programmatic work for orchestra is called:

a program symphony

A piece of program music for orchestra in one movement that, through several contrasting sections, develops a poetic idea or suggests a scene or mood is called:

a symphonic poem

Who was the first composer to use the term symphonic poem?


Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the music of Berlioz?

It relies on traditional forms

Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique is an example of:

a program symphony

Which of the following inspired Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique?

the actress Harriet Smithson

In Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique, what is the idée fixe?

the basic theme of the symphony, heard in all movements

Nationalistic composers expressed their nationalism by:

employing native songs and dances in their works

Smetana’s My Country is:

a set of six symphonic poems

The Moldau represents:

A) Smetana’s finest achievement in orchestral music. B) a river that flows through Bohemia. C) a nationalist work. D) all of the above

Grieg’s incidental music for Peer Gynt was written for a play by:

Henrik Ibsen

Which of the following is a Finnish nationalist composer?

Jean Sibelius

"The Mighty Five" were composers from:


Musorgsky’s Pictures at an Exhibition is an example of:

program music

Clara Schumann’s later creative activities were supported by the devotion of which composer?


The third movement of Clara Schumann’s Piano Trio is in a ____________ form.


A large-scale work in several movements for solo instrument(s) and orchestra is called:

a concerto

What is the typical number of movements found in a concerto?


Which of the following does NOT describe the career of Felix Mendelssohn?

he was an opera singer

Mendelssohn played an important role in the revival of music by which Baroque composer?


Of the following, which does NOT describe symphony composition in the Romantic era?

Composers wrote more symphonies than their Classical counterparts

The first movement of a symphony is usually in ____________ form.


The scheme of a traditional symphony is:


Brahms wrote no symphonies until he was past the age of forty, in part because he was in awe of the symphonies of:


Of the following, who was a prolific composer of Lieder?


The opening theme of the third movement of Brahms’s Symphony No. 3 is first played by the:


Which position did mc030-1.jpg hold during his years in America?

director of the National Conservatory of Music in New York City

While teaching in America, the Bohemian composer Antonín mc032-1.jpg developed a particular fondness for:


Which of the following countries was NOT a leading opera center in the nineteenth century?


What nineteenth-century opera singer was known as the Swedish Nightingale?

Jenny Lind

Italian comic opera is called:

opera buffa

Who composed The Barber of Seville and the overture to William Tell?


The term bel canto refers to:

a style of singing that features agility and purity of tone

La Scala, the famous opera house where Verdi’s operas were performed, is in:


Verdi’s opera Nabucco was hugely popular in Italy because it:

was interpreted as a symbol of Italian independence

Which Verdi opera was commissioned for performance in Cairo to mark the opening of the Suez Canal?


Of the following, which does NOT characterize Verdi’s "La donna è mobile" from Rigoletto?

it has contrapuntal orchestral accompaniment

Wagner chose to base his stories on:

idealized folk legends

In addition to composing music, Wagner was an important:


Wagner’s cycle of four music dramas is called:

The Ring of the Nibelung

A special theater was built at ____________ for the presentation of Wagner’s music dramas.


Which characteristic of traditional opera did Wagner eliminate?

separate arias

The concept of a total artwork in which all the arts—music, poetry, drama, visual spectacle—are fused together is called:


The principal themes in Wagner’s operas, which recur throughout a work and carry specific meanings, are called:


The librettist for Wagner’s music dramas was:

the composer himself

In the Ring cycle, who is the father of the gods?


Who are the Valkyries in Wagner’s Ring of the Nibelung?

the Nibelung dwarfs

Why did Wotan deprive Brünnhilde of her immortality and leave her sleeping inside a ring of fire?

because she, overcome with compassion, attempted to save Siegmund’s life battle

Opera that features huge choruses, elaborate dance scenes, ornate costumes and scenery, and serious, historical plots is called:

grand opera

Which of the following national styles is NOT a comic opera?

grand opera

Which of the following operas is NOT an example of exoticism?

Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro

Three months after the premiere of Carmen, Georges Bizet:

died suddenly

Which of the following best describes Carmen’s character?

capricious and dangerous

At the close of Carmen, the title character:

is killed by Don Jose

In the last decades of the nineteenth century, composers fell under the influence of or reacted against:


Which of the following statements about Romantic choral music is NOT true?

Only professional singers participated in nineteenth century

Which of the following descriptions best characterizes a part song?

a short, secular song for three or four voice parts

The two principal centers of nineteenth-century ballet were France and:


What Russian figure played a crucial role in the development of twentieth-century ballet?


Which of the following Russian composers was famous for his ballets?


Tchaikovsky’s fanciful ballet about a child’s Christmas gift and dreams of exotic people and places is:

The Nutcracker

What name is given to the twentieth-century composers who continued the Romantic tradition?


The movement that, along with post-Romanticism, ushered in the twentieth century was known as:


Verismo was a late-Romantic movement in opera which sought to:

pick subjects from everyday life and treat them realistically

Puccini’s Madame Butterfly is:

a tragic tale of a Japanese geisha and a U.S. naval officer

At the close of the opera Madame Butterfly, the title character:

kills herself with a samurai dagger

With which of the following movements is Gustav Mahler most closely associated?


It is thought that Mahler’s conversion to Catholicism was prompted primarily:

to avoid anti-Semitism in Vienna

Mahler’s Song of the Earth was written after:

hi daughter’s death

The symphonic poem was created in the nineteenth century.


Berlioz was one of the boldest musical innovators of the nineteenth century.


The finale to Symphonie fantastique projects a satanic character.


The growth of nationalism became a decisive force within the Romantic movement.


Smetana’s The Moldau is a musical painting of a river.


In the play Peer Gynt, Peer accomplishes several heroic deeds.


Folk tales have had little influence on composers of Western classical music.


In absolute music, musical ideas are organized without the aid of external images provided by a program.


Classical forms were abandoned during the Romantic era.


Clara Schumann wrote primarily piano and vocal works and composed no symphonies.


Concertos in the nineteenth century often emphasized virtuosity.


The first movement of the Romantic concerto often omitted the orchestral exposition.


Mendelssohn’s Violin Concerto in E minor is characterized by both lyric melodies and virtuosic display.


The symphony was a new genre in the Romantic era.


The scherzo is a lively, dancelike movement in duple meter.


The Harlem Renaissance was an early twentieth-century movement that promoted the creative efforts of African Americans.


William Grant Still was an African-American composer who sought musical inspiration from his native heritage.


Verdi’s operas stirred a revolutionary spirit within the Italian people.


In Rigoletto, Verdi turns away from tuneful melodies to heighten the dramatic action.


Wagner eventually married Cosima, the daughter of his good friend Franz Liszt.


Wagner’s operas employ the supernatural as an element of drama and glorify the German land and people.


Wagner strived for a continuous flow of melody unlike the divisions of aria and recitative in Italian opera.


Opéra comique does not necessarily have to be comic.


Opera provided composers with a good outlet for their interest in far-off lands.


The habanera is a dance song of Cuban origin.


Singing in a chorus is restricted to professionals only.


Choral music offered the public an outlet for its creative energies.


Verdi’s Requiem Mass was performed at a notorious Nazi concentration camp.


Tchaikovsky suffered from depression and guilt over his homosexuality.


The Arab Dance and the Chinese Dance, from The Nutcracker, are examples of exoticism.


Cio-Cio-San, in Puccini’s Madame Butterfly, worked as a geisha prior to her marriage.


Mahler, like his predecessors Schubert and Schumann, cultivated the song cycle.


Who is considered to have been the leader of the Impressionist painters?

Claude Monet

Which of the following best describes the works of the Impressionist painters?

They attempted to capture the freshness of first impressions

Which of the following best describes the effect achieved by Impressionist painting?

luminous, shimmering colors

The post-Romantic movement in poetry that revolted against traditional modes of expression is called:


How did non-Western arts influence twentieth-century Western arts?

A) Western artists sought the spontaneity of primitive art. B) The abstraction of African sculpture influenced Western painters. C) Non-Western rhythms were adopted by Western composers. D) all of the above

The concept of art was rejected by:


Salvador Dali and Joan Miró are associated with:


Which early-twentieth-century style dealt with the realm of the unconscious, distorted images, and the inner self?


In which country did the Expressionist movement originate?


The early-twentieth-century style that sought to revive certain principles and forms of earlier music was:


Which of the following composers would NOT have been emulated during the Neoclassical era?


Which of the following was NOT characteristic of Impressionist music?

accents on the first beat of each measure

Impressionist music can be seen as a reaction to:

A) the symphonic tradition of Beethoven. B) the music dramas of Wagner. C) the full sonority of the German Romantic orchestra. D) all of the above

The program of Debussy’s Prelude to "The Afternoon of a Faun" evokes:

a landscape of a pagan mythological creature

Debussy was highly influenced by the sounds of the gamelan from:


The African-American strutting dance seen at the World Exhibition of 1889 was:

the cakewalk

Ravel’s post-Impressionism falls between:

impressionism and Neoclassicism

Of the following, which does NOT characterize the career of Ravel?

He was an immediate sensation in Paris

Which of the following does NOT characterize Ravel’s Romanesque Song from Don Quixote to Dulcinea?

strophic form

The element of melody in twentieth-century music is best characterized by:

wide leaps and dissonant intervals

Composers introduced new harmonic styles in the twentieth century, including:

A) atonality. B) polytonality. C) twelve-tone music. D) all of the above

The arrangement of tones in twelve-tone music is called:

a tone row

The composer most closely associated with twelve-tone music is:


Of the following, which describes formalism?

Formal considerations are valued over expressive ones

Of the following, who was the Russian-born composer that wrote post-Impressionist, primitivist, Neoclassical, and serial styles?


The Rite of Spring opened in Paris in 1913 to:

a near riot

What best describes the meter in Stravinsky’s Dance of the Youths and Maidens, from The Rite of Spring?

unpredictable accents with no sense of regular meter

Alban Berg and Anton Webern were disciples of:

Arnold Schoenberg

Which of the following early-twentieth-century composers moved to the United States and taught composition at the University of California, Los Angeles?


What Viennese composer invented the twelve-tone method after writing in both post-Romantic and atonal styles?


Schoenberg created a new style in which vocal melodies were spoken rather than sung with exact pitches and rhythms. This was known as:


What accompanies the voice in Pierrot lunaire?

a chamber group

Klangfarbenmelodie refers to:

a style that gives each note of a melody to a different instrument

Which composer was a disciple of Schoenberg and is best known for his operas Wozzeck and Lulu?


Berg’s opera Wozzeck is best described as an example of:


The final, heartbreaking scene of Berg’s Wozzeck concludes with:

the son of Marie and Wozzeck, alone

The term total serialism is most appropriately associated with the music of:


To which technique in painting can Klangfarbenmelodie be compared?


How does twentieth-century nationalism differ from its ninteenth-century counterpart?

It approached music more scientifically

The comparative study of musics of the world is called:


Which of the following twentieth-century French composers was NOT a follower of Erik Satie?

Maurice Ravel

Which of the following English composers is viewed as one of the foremost twentieth-century opera composers?


What German composer came to the United States and taught at Yale?


One of the few composers of Jewish background who consciously identified himself with his heritage was:


What Hungarian composer combined native folk music characteristics with main currents of European music?


The model for Bartók’s melodies can be found in:

Hungarian folk songs

Why did Bartók name his last work Concerto for Orchestra?

because he treated single instruments in a soloistic manner

The story of Lieutenant Kijé is a:


What is a troika?

a three-horse sleigh

The texts for Carmina Burana are from:

the middle ages

The first great American composer of the twentieth century is:

charles ives

While composing in his spare time, Charles Ives made his living as:

an insurance executive

Which of the following statements about Charles Ives is INCORRECT?

his music was very popular

For which work was Ives given a Pulitzer Prize?

Symphony No. 3

Of the following, which tune is NOT played in Ives’s Country Band March?

My old Kentucky home

In his early years, William Grant Still was associated with which artistic movement?

the Harlem Renaissance

The third movement of William Grant Still’s Suite for Violin and Piano was inspired by:

a sculpture by Augusta Savage

Copland composed Appalachian Spring for:

Martha Graham

Which of the following best describes the mood at the beginning of Copland’s Appalachian Spring?


The "Aztec Renaissance" sought to:

suggest the character of native music

The rhythm section in a traditional mariachi ensemble consists of:

vihuela, guitar, and guitarron

The Impressionists turned to the open intervals and church modes of medieval music for inspiration.


Impressionist composers avoided parallel motion between chords because it was prohibited in the Classical system of harmony.


Like Berlioz, Debussy won the coveted Prix de Rome during his compositional studies at the Paris Conservatory.


Debussy considered Wagner’s music dramas to be ponderous and tedious.


Debussy was much influenced by non-Western music he heard at the Paris World Exhibition of 1889.


Ravel’s art reflects the twin goals of Impressionism and Neoclassicism.


Ravel rejected the Classical forms.


Composers of modern music enlivened their music with the rhythms of popular music.


Dodecaphonic music is based on a series of ten notes.


Stravinsky’s ballets all achieved immediate popularity with their audiences.


Like Stravinsky, Schoenberg became a U.S. citizen and spent a major portion of his creative life in the United States.


In Schoenberg’s Pierrot lunaire, the principal character is obsessed with the sunrise.


Webern’s Symphony, Opus 21, is written for a full symphony orchestra.


Webern’s Symphony, Opus 21, combines serial technique with traditional forms.


Les Six is a group of composers from Spain.


Rachmaninoff, Prokofiev, and Shostakovich are all prominent Russian composers.


Bartók generally avoided Classical structures.


Bartók composed his Concerto for Orchestra while he was terminally ill.


Like Stravinsky, Prokofiev left Russia and never returned.


Prokofiev’s music was banned in 1948 by the Communist Party, which accused him of following non-Soviet trends in the arts.


Carl Orff made significant contributions to music education.


Because of Orff ‘s association with the Nazis, Carmina burana has received few performances since its premier.


Amy Beach is the first woman to be awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship.


Crawford’s Prelude No. 6 evokes an Impressionistic style.


William Grant Still composed the first symphony by an African American to be performed by a major American orchestra.


William Grant Still had an extensive background in jazz but no training in the European tradition.


During his career, Copland employed jazz, Neoclassical elements, and twelve-tone techniques.


Unlike Billy the Kid, Appalachian Spring has no borrowed melodies.


Like Copland and Prokofiev, Revueltas wrote music for films.


Radio and film were the major contributors to mariachi’s increasing popularity in Mexico in the 1930s.


From which source did Messiaen draw inspiration?

A) bird songs B) Gregorian chant C) music of non-Western cultures D) all of the above

The music of George Crumb includes many settings of the poetry of:

Federico Garcia Lorca

Which innovative composer constructed a scale of forty-three microtones to the octave and built instruments to play with this tuning?

Harry Partch

Which work by John Cage has no musical content and can be performed by anyone on any instrument?


A raga is the starting point for music in:


What art movement drew themes from modern urban life, including machines, comic strips, and commercial advertisements?

pop art

Of the following, which does NOT describe postmodernism?

It is a more radical form of modernism

With which contemporary movement can the composer John Cage be linked?

aleatoric music

The most important development in art music in the 1950s and 1960s was the increasing importance of:

electronic music

Music made up of natural sounds that are recorded and then altered is called:

musique concrete

The standardized communications protocol that allows synthesizers to "talk" to computers is:


The postmodern approach that mixes styles from the past with contemporary ones is called:


Higdon chose the title blue cathedral as a tribute to:

her brother

Which of the following composers is NOT a minimalist?

Thea Musgrave

Of the following, what best describes today’s opera subjects?

They explore the supernatural

Contemporary music has made fewer and fewer technical demands on performers.


Messiaen composed the Quartet for the End of Time while on a sabbatical.


Boulez applied serial techniques to rhythm, dynamics, and texture.


The motto of architect Frank Gehry is "less is more."


A semi-improvised multimedia event in the 1960s was called a "happening."


The salient feature of minimalism is contrast.


Tintinnabulation is associated with the music of John Corigliano.


Corigliano’s The Ghosts of Versailles, which features the spirit of Marie Antoinette upset over being beheaded, is based on a true story.


Corigliano’s The Ghosts of Versailles, which features the spirit of Marie Antoinette upset over being beheaded, is based on a true story.


American musical theater developed from ____________, whose repertory includes the works of Gilbert and Sullivan.


What is vaudeville?

a type of comedic musical sketch by immigrant composers

The center of music publishing in New York was called:

Tin Pan Alley

The first film to include dialogue and music was:

The Jazz Singer

Of the following, who was not a prominent musical entertainer during the Depression?

Scott Joplin

Of the following, what did not take place during the 1980s?


African-American music forms the roots of which of the following popular American musical styles?

A) ragtime B) blues C) jazz D) all of the above

What is the principal musical characteristic of ragtime?


Scott Joplin was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for his opera:


Which of the following does NOT characterize blues?

It is a form of African folk music

What is a bent, or "blue," note?

a note in which the pitch drops slightly

Which of the following is NOT true of New Orleans jazz?

There were no set forms or harmonic progressions

In New Orleans jazz, which instrument usually played the melody?


Which instrument did Louis Armstrong play?


A style of jazz singing that sets syllables without meaning to an improvised vocal line is known as:

scat singing

Billie Holiday was the first African-American singer to:

break the color barrier by recording and performing with white musicians

Billie Holiday’s song Billie’s Blues demonstrates ____________ form.

twelve-bar blues

Which of the following is NOT a musical trait of African origin?

major-minor tonality

Duke Ellington’s great musical collaborator in the 1940s was:

Billy Strayhorn

Take the A Train is a song that refers to:

a New York City subway line

What was the trademark of bebop?

a two-note phrase

During the 1940s, Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker, and Thelonious Monk developed:


The term third stream was coined by:

Gunther Schuller

Who won the 1996 Pulitzer Prize for the jazz oratorio Blood on the Fields?

Wynton Marsalis

What is considered to be America’s unique contribution to theater?

the musical

Which of the following musicals was NOT a collaboration of Rodgers and Hammerstein?

Phantom of the Opera

Which of the following is an example of a rock musical?


Jonathan Larsen’s rock opera Rent is inspired by which opera?

La Boheme

George Gershwin is recognized as being one of the first American composers to:

incorporate African-American blues and jazz styles into his compositions

Who wrote the lyrics for West Side Story?

Stephen Sondheim

West Side Story is a modern-day musical setting of Shakespeare’s:

Romeo and Juliet

Why is music important to film?

A) It can reveal the emotions of the actors. B) It can reflect the character of an actor. C) It can tell the audience where or when the story takes place. D) all of the above

Music that is performed on screen and is part of the drama itself is called:

source music

Who is credited with composing the first original film score?

Camille Saint-Saens

Which of the following is considered to be the first full-length masterwork of film?

The Birth of a Nation

Following World War II, which of the following was NOT a trend in film music?

an incorporation of more popular musical styles

Of the following, which characterizes the career of John Williams?

A) He was a composer for the TV series Gilligan’s Island. B) He was the composer for films such as Jaws and Star Wars. C) He is a composer and conductor of concert music. D) all of the above

Of the following, which does NOT characterize the Raiders March?

It is in A-B-A Form

Rock and roll emerged as a union of which two styles?

rhythm and blues, and country-western

Who is considered by many to be "the father of soul"?

Ray Charles

Which of the following was NOT a member of the Beatles?

Roger McGuinn

In what year did the Beatles first perform in the United States?


What instrument did George Harrison of the Beatles take up that brought a more international sound to rock?

Indian sitar

All of the following are representatives of the British rock invasion EXCEPT:

the Beach boys

Who first merged folk music with rock?

the Byrds

Which of the following does NOT characterize Dylan’s Mr. Tambourine Man?

polished vocal quality

Jefferson Airplane and The Grateful Dead are groups that played in the ____________ style.

acid rock

All of the following popular singers died from alcohol and/or drug abuse EXCEPT:

John Lennon

The Who’s Tommy is an example of:

a rock opera

One of the foremost groups in the genre of Latin rock is:


David Bowie and Elton John are representatives of the ____________ style.

glitter rock

The Sex Pistols and The Clash play in the ____________ style.

punk rock

The popular style that is characterized by a vocal patter against syncopated rhythmic accompaniment is:


The groups Soundgarden and Nirvana are representative of:

grunge rock

Of the following, who was NOT introduced through American Idol?

Justin Timberlake

The American musical theater developed out of the European comic opera or operetta tradition.


Minstrel shows continued to be popular well into the twentieth century.


Radio underwent enormous growth during the 1920s.


Jazz is an art form created mainly by African Americans in the early twentieth century that blended elements from African music with traditions of the West.


The jazz technique of playing short melodic ostinatos, or riffs, derives from African call-and-response patterns.


Big-band swing represented the dominant form of American popular music in the 1930s and 1940s.


Bebop jazz was a complex new style that developed after World War II, built on small groups in which each player has an equal voice in the improvisation.


The Gerry Mulligan Quartet is associated with West Coast jazz.


The use of preexisting literary sources such as books and plays for the plots of musicals helped the new genre to gain maturity and permanence.


Rodgers and Hart helped to elevate the level of lyrics in musical comedy from clichés to serious poetry.


Because most musicals now seem dated, revivals have been largely unsuccessful.


Leonard Bernstein was the first American-born musician to be appointed conductor of the New York Philharmonic.


The most important function of music in film is to establish a mood.


The use of leitmotifs in the Star Wars films mirrors that in Wagner’s Ring cycle.


Music for silent films was usually created by the director of the local theater, rather than by a composer hired by the producers of the film.


The first talkie film, The Jazz Singer, was a musical.


Bernard Herrmann introduced the concept of leitmotifs into films with his music for Gone with the Wind.


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