Med Terms – Chapter 8

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amni/o

amnion (amniotic sac) amni/o/centesis (ăm-nē-ō-sĕn-TĒ-sĭs): surgical puncture of the amniotic sac -centesis: surgical puncture

cervic/o

neck; cervix uteri (neck of uterus) cervic/itis (sĕr-vĭ-SĪ-tĭs): inflammation of cervix uteri -itis: infl ammation

colp/o

vagina colp/o/scopy (kŏl-PŎS-kō-pē): examination of the vagina and cervix with an optical magnifying instrument (colposcope) -scopy: visual examination

vagin/o

vagina vagin/o/cele (VĂJ-ĭn-ō-sēl): herniation into the vagina; also called a colpocele -cele: hernia, swelling

galact/o

milk galact/o/rrhea (gă-lăk-tō-RĒ-ă): discharge or fl ow of milk -rrhea: discharge, fl ow

lact/o

lact/o/gen (LĂK-tō-jĕn): production and secretion of milk -gen: forming, producing, origin

gynec/o

woman, female gynec/o/logist (gī-nĕ-KŎL-ō-jĭst): physician specializing in treating disorders of the female reproductive system -logist: specialist in study of

hyster/o

uterus (womb) hyster/ectomy (hĭs-tĕr-ĔK-tō-mē): excision of uterus -ectomy: excision, removal

uter/o

uterus (womb) uter/o/vagin/al (ū-tĕr-ō-VĂJ-ĭ-năl): pertaining to the uterus and vagina vagin: vagina -al: pertaining to

mamm/o

breast mamm/o/gram (MĂM-ō-grăm): radiograph of the breast -gram: record, writing

mast/o

breast mast/o/pexy (MĂS-tō-pĕks-ē): surgical fixation of the breast(s) -pexy: fixation (of an organ)

men/o

menses, menstruation men/o/rrhagia (mĕn-ō-RĀ-jē-ă): excessive amount of menstrual fl ow over a longer duration than normal -rrhagia: bursting forth (of)

metr/o

uterus (womb); measure endo/metr/itis (ĕn-dō-mē-TRĪ-tĭs): inflammation of the endometrium endo-: in, within -itis: infl ammation

nat/o

birth pre/nat/al (prē-NĀ-tl ): pertaining to (the period) before birth pre-: before, in front of -al: pertaining to

oophor/o

oophor/oma (ō-ŏf-ōr-Ō-mă): ovarian tumor -oma: tumor

ovari/o

ovary ovari/o/rrhexis (ō-văr-rē-ō-RĔK-sĭs): rupture of an ovary -rrhexis: rupture

perine/o

perineum perine/o/rrhaphy (pĕr-ĭ-nē-OR-ă-fē): suture of the perineum -rrhaphy: suture

salping/o

tube (usually fallopian or eustachian [auditory] tubes) salping/ectomy (săl-pĭn-JĔK-tō-mē): excision of a fallopian tube -ectomy: excision, removal

vulv/o

vulva vulv/o/pathy (vŭl-VŎP-ă-thē): disease of the vulva -pathy: disease

episi/o

vulva episi/o/tomy (ĕ-pēs-ē-ŎT-ō-mē): incision of the perineum Episiotomy is performed to enlarge the vaginal opening for delivery of the fetus. -tomy: incision

-arche

beginning men/arche (mĕn-ĂR-kē): initial menstrual period men: menses, menstruation Menarche usually occurs between ages 9 and 17.

-cyesis

pregnancy pseudo/cyesis (soo-dō-sī-Ē-sĭs): false pregnancy In pseudocyesis, a woman believes she is pregnant when she is not. pseudo-: false

-gravida

pregnant woman primi/gravida (prī-mĭ-GRĂV-ĭ-dă): woman during her first pregnancy primi-: first

-para

to bear (offspring) multi/para (mŭl-TĬP-ă-ră): woman who has delivered more than one viable infant multi-: many, much

-salpinx

tube (usually fallopian or eustachian [auditory] tubes) hemat/o/salpinx (hĕm-ă-tō-SĂL-pinks): collection of blood in a fallopian tube; also called hemosalpinx. hemat/o: blood Hematosalpinx is commonly associated with a tubal pregnancy.

-tocia

childbirth, labor dys/tocia (dĭs-TŌ-sē-ā): childbirth that is painful and difficult dys-: bad; painful; difficult

-version

turning retro/version (rĕt-rō-VĔR-shŭn): tipping back of an organ retro-: backward, behind Uterine retroversion is measured as first, second, or third degree, depending on the angle of tilt in relationship to the vagina.

primi/gravida

-gravida: pregnant woman; first

colp/o/scopy

-scopy: visual examination; vagina

gynec/o/logist

-logist: specialist in study of; woman, female

perine/o/rrhaphy

-rrhaphy: suture; perineum

hyster/ectomy

-ectomy: excision, removal; uterus (womb)

oophor/oma

-oma: tumor; ovary

dys/tocia

-tocia: childbirth, labor; bad, painful, difficult

endo/metr/itis

-itis: inflammation; in, within; uterus (womb); measure

mamm/o/gram

-gram: record, writing; breast

amni/o/centesis

-centesis: surgical puncture; amnion (amniotic sac)

tumor
TOO-mŏr

An oophor/oma is an ovarian ____________. Pronounce the initial o and the second o in words with oophor/o.

oophor/o

The main purpose of the ovaries is to produce ovum, the female reproductive cell. This process is called ovulation. Another important function of the ovaries is to produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone. From oophor/oma, construct the CF for ovary. ____________________ / _____

oophor/o/pathy
ō-ŏf-ŏr-ŎP-ă-thē

disease of the ovaries: ____________________ / _____ / __________

oophor/o/plasty
ō-ŎF-ŏr-ō-plăs-tē

surgical repair of an ovary: _______________ / _____ / _______________

oophor/o/pexy
ō-ŏf-ō-rō-PĔK-sē

fixation of a displaced ovary: ____________________ / _____ / __________

salping/o/plasty
săl-PĬNG-gō-plăs-tē

Surgical repair of a fallopian tube (also known as oviduct) is called ________________ / _____ / ________________.

salping/o

To form words for the fallopian tube(s), uterine tube(s), or oviduct(s), use the CF ____________________ / _____.

salping/ectomy
săl-pĭn-JĔK-tō-mē

When a fallopian tube is removed, the surgical procedure is called __________________ / ____________________.

instrument

A salping/o/scope is an ____________________ for viewing the fallopian tube(s).

salping/o/scopy
săl-pĭng-GŎS-kō-pē

Visual examination of the fallopian tube(s) is called ____________________ / _____ / __________.

salping/o/cele
săl-PĬNG-ō-sēl

Herniation of a fallopian tube(s) is known as ____________________ / _____ / __________.

oviducts
Ŏ-vĭ-dŭkts

Locate the two small tubes leading to each ovary that are called fallopian tubes, uterine tubes, or ____________________.

hernia or herniation, uterus
HĔR-nē-ă or hĕr-nē-Ā-shŭn,
Ū-tĕr-ŭs

The CF hyster/o is used to form words about the uterus as an organ. A hyster/o/cele is a ____________________ of the ____________________.

hyster/o/pathy
hĭs-tēr-ŎP-ă-thē

disease of the uterus: ____________________ / _____ / __________

hyster/algia, hyster/o/dynia
hĭs-tĕr-ĂL-jē-ā, hĭs-tĕr-ō-DĬN-ē-ă

pain in the uterus: ____________________ / __________ or ____________________ / _____ / __________

hyster/o/spasm
HĬS-tĕr-ō-spăzm

involuntary contraction, twitching of uterus: ____________________ / _____ / __________

hyster/ectomy
hĭs-tĕr-ĔK-tō-mē

excision of uterus: __________________ / ____________________

hyster/o/tomy
hĭs-tĕr-ŎT-ō-mē

incision of uterus: ____________________ / _____ / __________

dictionary

When in doubt about forming medical words with hyster/o, uter/o, or metr/o, refer to your medical ____________________.

hyster/o/scopy
hĭs-tĕr-ŎS-kō-pē

Use hyster/o to form a word that means visual examination of the uterus. ____________________ / _____ / __________

uter/o/scopy
Ū-tĕr-ŏs-kō-pē

Use uter/o to form another word that means visual examination of the uterus. __________ / _____ / __________

hyster/o/ptosis
hĭs-tĕr-ŏp-TŌ-sĭs

Combine hyster/o and -ptosis to form a word that means a prolapse or downwarddisplacement of the uterus. ________________ / _____ / ________________

uterus
Ū-tēr-ŭs

A diagnosis (Dx) of uter/ine hemorrhage denotes bleeding from the ____________________.

-ine

The element in this frame that means pertaining to is ___________.

hyster/o, uter/o
-pexy

A prolapsed uterus may be caused by heavy physical exertion, pregnancy, or an inherent weakness. The surgical procedure to correct a prolapsed uterus is known as hyster/o/pexy or uter/o/pexy. Write the elements in this frame that mean uterus: _______________ / _____, __________ / _____ fixation (of an organ): __________

surgical repair, uterus
Ū-tĕr-ŭs

Surgical repair is denoted by the suffi x -plasty. Hyster/o/plasty, uter/o/plasty, and metr/o/plasty all refer to ____________________ ____________________ of the ____________________.

hyster/o/cele
HĬS-tĕr-ō-sēl

A Dx of herniation of the uterus would be documented in the medical chart as ____________________ / _____ / __________.

estrogen, progesterone
ĔS-trō-jĕn, prō-JĔS-tĕr-ōn

When ovaries are diseased and necessitate removal, the body becomes deficient in the hormones known as ____________________ and ____________________.

men/o/pause
MĔN-ō-pawz

Identify terms in this frame that mean cessation of the menses: __________ / _____ / __________

post/men/o/pause
pōst-MĔN-ō-pawz

The term pre/men/o/pause refers to a time period before men/o/pause. Can you build a word that refers to a time period after men/o/pause? __________ / __________ / _____ / __________

bursting forth

The suffi xes -rrhage and -rrhagia are used in words to mean bursting forth (of). Hem/o/rrhage denotes a ____________________ ___________ (of) blood.

hem/o

The CF in hem/o/rrhage that denotes blood is __________ / _____.

blood

The elements hemat/o, hem/o, and -emia refer to ___________.

blood

Hemat/o/logy is the study of ___________.

blood
tumor
TOO-mŏr

Analyze hemat/oma by defi ning the elements. hemat/o: ___________ -oma: ___________

hemat/o/logist
hē-mă-TŎL-ō-jĭst
hemat/o/pathy
hē-mă-TŎP-ă-thē
hemat/emesis
hĕm-ăt-ĔM-ĕ-sĭs

Use hemat/o to build medical words that mean specialist in the study of blood: __________ / _____ / ____________________ disease of the blood: __________ / _____ / __________ vomiting blood: __________ / ____________________

cervic/itis
sĕr-vĭ-SĪ-tĭs

The medical term for inflammation of the cervix uteri is ____________________ / __________.

curet
kū-RĔT

The instrument used to scrape the endo/metri/um is known as a ___________.

uterine sound

What type of instrument is used to measure the uterus? ____________________ ___________

serrated

What type of curet is used to scrape the uterine lining? ____________________

inflammation, vagina
vă-JĪ-nă

The CFs colp/o and vagin/o refer to the vagina. Colp/itis is an ____________________ of the ____________________.

vagin/itis
văj-ĭn-Ī-tĭs

Form another word in addition to colp/itis that means inflammation of the vagina. __________ / __________

colp/algia
kŏl-PĂL-jē-ā

Colp/o/dynia is pain in the vagina. Use colp/o to build another term for pain in the vagina. __________ / __________

colp/o/spasm
KŎL-pō-spăzm

spasm or twitching of the vagina: __________ / _____ / __________

colp/o/ptosis
kŏl-pŏp-TŌ-sĭs

prolapse or downward displacement of the vagina: __________ / _____ / ____________________

colp/o/pexy
KŎL-pō-pĕk-sē

fixation of the vagina: __________ / _____ / __________

vagin/o/plasty
vă-JĪ-nō-plăs-tē

surgical repair of the vagina: __________ / _____ / ____________________

vagin/o/scope
VĂJ-ĭn-ō-skōp

instrument to view the vagina: ___________ / _____ / ___________

vagin/o/tomy
văj-ĭ-NŎT-ō-mē

incision of the vagina: __________ / _____ / __________

suture, vagina
SŪ-chŭr, vă-JĪ-nă

A prolapsed vagina usually is sutured to the abdominal wall. Colp/o/rrhaphy is a _________________of the _________________.

vesic/o/vagin/al fistula
vĕs-ĭ-kō-VĂJ-ĭ-năl, FĬS-tū-lă

An abnormal connection that develops between the bladder and vagina is known as a __________ / _____ / __________ / __________ ____________________.

vagina
vă-JĪ-nă

The term fistula refers to an abnormal passage from one epithelial surface to another epithelial surface. It can occur in any body system. Thus, a vesic/o/vagin/al fistula is only one type of fistula. A ureter/o/vagin/al fistula occurs between the lower ureter and the ____________________.

vagina
vă-JĪ-nă

A rect/o/vagin/al fi stula is one that develops between the rectum and the ________________.

-rrhagia, -rrhage

Colp/o/rrhagia is an excessive vagin/al discharge or a vagin/al hem/o/rrhage. The elements in these words that mean bursting forth (of) are ____________________ and ____________________.

hem/o/rrhage
HĔM-ĕ-rĭj

Form a word that means bursting forth (of) blood. __________ / _____ / ____________________

hernia, swelling
HĔR-nē-ă

Recall that -cele means ____________________ or. ____________________.

vagina
vă-JĪ-nă

A colp/o/cyst/o/cele is swelling or herniation of the bladder into the ____________________.

vagina
bladder
hernia, swelling

Identify the elements in colp/o/cyst/o/cele. colp/o: ____________________ cyst/o: ____________________ -cele: _______________ or _________________

vagin/al
VĂJ-ĭn-ăl

pertaining to the vagina: __________ / __________

hyster/ectomy
hĭs-tĕr-ĔK-tō-mē

excision of the uterus: ____________________ / ___________________

muc/ous
MŪ-kŭs

Use the adjective ending -ous to form a word that means pertaining to mucus. __________ / __________

-oid

The adjective element that means resembling is ___________.

resembling fat

Lip/oid means ________________ ___________.

adip/oid
ĂD-ĭ-poyd

Use adip/o to form another term that means resembling fat. __________ / __________

cyst/o

____________________ bladder

hemat/o, hem/o

____________________ blood

-rrhage, -rrhagia

____________________ bursting forth (of)

hyster/o, uter/o, metr/o

____________________ uterus (womb)

-cele

____________________ hernia, swelling

-tomy

____________________ incision

-tome

____________________ instrument to cut

-scope

____________________ instrument for examining

salping/o, -salpinx

____________________ tube (usually fallopian or eustachian [auditory] tubes)

-pexy

____________________ fixation (of an organ)

muc/o

____________________ mucus

oophor/o, ovari/o

____________________ ovary

-arche

____________________ beginning

metr/o

____________________ uterus (womb); measure

-ptosis

____________________ prolapse, downward displacement

-oid

____________________ resembling

-logist

____________________ specialist in study of

-logy

____________________ study of

-plasty

____________________ surgical repair

colp/o, vagin/o

____________________ vagina

vulva
VŬL-vă

Vulv/o/uter/ine refers to the uterus and ___________.

clitoris, Bartholin glands
KLĬT-ō-rĭs, BĂR-tō-lĭn

The external structures, or genitalia (also known as the vulva), include the labia majora, labia minora, ____________________ , and ____________________ ____________________.

muc/ous
MŪ-kŭs

Use -ous to build a word that means pertaining to mucus. __________ / __________ (adjective ending)

vulv/itis
vŭl-VĪ-tĭs

inflammation of the vulva: ________ / __________

vulv/o/pathy
vŭl-VŎP-ă-thē

disease of the vulva: __________ / _____ / __________

cervic/itis
sĕr-vĭ-SĪ-tĭs

The CF cervic/o denotes the cervix uteri or the neck. Inflammation of the cervix uteri is called ____________________ / __________.

vagina, uteri
vă-JĪ-nă, Ū-tĕ-rī

When cervic/o is used in a word, you can determine whether it refers to the neck or the cervix uteri by reviewing the other parts of the word. Colp/o/cervic/al refers to the _________________ and cervix ___________.

colp/o/scopy
kŏl-PŎS-kō-pē

A colp/o/scope, an instrument with a magnifying lens, is used to examine vagin/al and cervic/al tissue. Visual examination of vagin/al and cervic/al tissue using a colposcope is called __________ / _____ / __________.

colp/o/scope
KŎL-pō-skōp

instrument for examining the vagina and cervix uteri: __________ / _____ / __________

colp/o/scopy
kŏl-PŎS-kō-pē

visual examination of the vagina and cervix uteri using a colp/o/scope: __________ / _____ / __________

vagin/al
VĂJ-ĭn-ăl

pertaining to the vagina: __________ / __________

cervic/al
SĔR-vĭ-kăl

pertaining to the cervix uteri: ____________________ / __________

uterus
Ū-tĕr-ŭs

Cervix uteri refers to the neck of the ____________________.

gynec/o/logist
gī-nĕ-KŎL-ō-jĭst

The term gynec/o/logy means study of females or women and is the medical specialty for treating female reproductive disorders. A specialist in study of female reproductive disorders is called a __________ / _____ / ____________________.

gynec/o

The CF in gynec/o/logy that means woman or female is __________ /_____.

gynec/o/pathy
gī-nĕ-KŎP-ă-thē

Use -pathy to form a word that means disease of a female. __________ / _____ / __________

gynec/o/logy
gī-nĕ-KŎL-ō-jē

GYN is the abbreviation for gynec/o/logy. OB-GYN refers to obstetrics and ______ / ___ / ________.

menses, menstruation
MĔN-sēz, mĕn-stroo-Ā-shŭn

The CF men/o means menses or menstruation, which is the monthly fl ow of blood and tissue from the uterus. Men/o/rrhea is a flow of ____________________ or ____________________.

dys/men/o/rrhea
dĭs-mĕn-ō-RĒ-ă

Use dys- and men/o/rrhea to develop a word that means painful or difficult menstrual fl ow. __________ / __________ / _____ / __________

dys/men/o/rrhea
dĭs-mĕn-ō-RĒ-ă

The symptomatic term that literally means bad, painful, difficult menstruation is __________ / __________ / _____ / __________.

bursting forth, menses or menstruation
MĔN-sēz,
mĕn-stroo-Ā-shŭn

Men/o/rrhagia is excessive bleeding at the time of a menstrual period. Literally, it means ____________________ ___________ of ____________________.

menstruation
mĕn-stroo-Ā-shun

Men/o/pause terminates the reproductive period of life and is a permanent cessation of menses or ____________________.

menstruation
mĕn-stroo-Ā-shun

A/men/o/rrhea is absence or abnormal stoppage of menstruation. Men/o/rrhea is a flow of the menses or ____________________.

-pause

Identify the element in men/o/pause that means cessation. ___________

after, before

Post- means ___________, or behind. Pre- means ____________________, or in front of.

mamm/o, mast/o

The CFs that refer to the breast are __________ / _____ and __________ / _____.

excision or removal
ĕk-SĬ-zhŭn

Mast/ectomy is a(n) ____________________ of a breast.

mast/ectomy
măs-TĔK-tō-mē

To prevent spread of CA, a malignant breast tumor may be treated with a partial or complete excision. When a breast has to be removed, the patient has a __________ / _________________.

lactation
lăk-TĀ-shŭn

During pregnancy, the breasts enlarge and remain so until lactation ceases. At menopause, breast tissue begins to atrophy. The ability of mammary glands to secrete milk for the nourishment of the infant is a process called ___________________.

-graphy
mamm/o

Mamm/o/graphy, an x-ray examination of the breast, is used in the Dx of CA. Determine the elements in this frame that mean process of recording: ____________________ breast: ___________ / _____

mamm/o/plasty
MĂM-ō-plăs-tē

Use mamm/o to construct a word that means surgical reconstruction or surgical repair of a breast._________ / _____ / _________________

mast/o/plasty
MĂS-tō-plăs-tē

surgical repair of the breast: __________ / _____ / ____________________

mast/o/pexy
MĂS-to-pĕk-sē

fi xation of the breast: __________ / _____ / __________

mast/o, mamm/o

The CFs for breast are __________ / _____ and __________ / _____.

inflammation, breast(s)

Breast-feeding may cause a blockage of the milk ducts and mast/itis, which is an ____________________ of the ___________.

mast/o/dynia, mast/algia
măst-ō-DĬN-ē-ă,
măst-ĂL- jē-ă

Use mast/o to form a word that means pain in the breast. __________ / _____ / __________ or __________ / __________

before, after

The term nat/al means pertaining to birth. Pre/nat/al refers to the time period ____________________ birth; post/nat/al refers to the time period ___________ birth.

neonat/
o
-logy

Identify elements in neo/nat/o/logy that mean new: ___________ birth: __________ / _____ study of: ___________

neo/nat/o/logist
nē-ō-nā-TŎL-ō-jĭst

Neo/nat/o/logy is the study and treatment of the neonate (newborn infant). A physician who specializes in the care and treatment of the neonate is called a ________ / ________ / _____ / ______________.

woman

Whenever you see gravida in a word, you will know it denotes a pregnant _________________.

fourth
second

Gravida 4 is a woman in her _______ pregnancy. Gravida 2 is a woman in her _______ pregnancy.

gravida 3
GRĂV-ĭ-dă
gravida 5
GRĂV-ĭ-dă

A woman in her third pregnancy is a ____________________ ___________. A woman in her fifth pregnancy is a ____________________ ___________.

two, five

Para 2 means ___________ deliveries; para 5 means ___________ deliveries.

para 6
PĂR-ă

A woman who has delivered three infants would be described as para 3. A woman who has delivered six infants would be described as ___________ ___________.

PID

The abbreviation for pelvic inflammatory disease is ___________.

path/o/gen
PĂTH-ō-jĕn

A term in this frame that means forming, producing, or origin of disease is __________ / _____ / __________.

sexually transmitted disease

The abbreviation STD refers to _____________ ____________ ______________.

pelvic inflammatory disease

The abbreviation PID refers to _____________ ____________ ______________.

ovary or ovaries
Ō-vă-rē, Ō-vă-rēz

The CF oophor/o refers to the ____________________.

oophor/itis
ō-ŏf-ō-RĪ-tĭs

inflammation of the ovaries: ____________________ / __________

oophor/oma
ō-ŏf-ō-RŌ-mă

tumor of the ovaries: ____________________ / __________

diagnosis

When the abbreviation Dx is used in a medical report, it means _________________.

salping/ectomy
săl-pĭn-JĔK-tō-mē

Build a surgical term that means excision of one or both fallopian tubes. ____________________ / ___________________

uterus
Ū-tĕr-ŭs

A hyster/o/tome is an instrument for incising the ____________________.

incision, uterus

Hyster/o/tomy is an ____________________ into the ____________________.

CS, C-section

Abbreviations for cesarean section are ___________ and ____________________.

post-

____________________ after, behind

gynec/o

____________________ woman, female

pre-

____________________ before, in front of

mamm/o, mast/o

____________________ breast

-pathy

____________________ disease

-ectomy

____________________ excision, removal

-rrhea

____________________ discharge, flow

-itis

____________________ inflammation

-tome

____________________ instrument to cut

-scope

____________________ instrument for examining

-scopy

____________________ visual examination

men/o

____________________ menses, menstruation

cervic/o

____________________ neck; cervix uteri (neck of uterus)

-algia, -dynia

____________________ pain

-ary, -ous

____________________ pertaining to

-logist

____________________ specialist in study of

salping/o

____________________ tube (usually fallopian or eustachian [auditory] tubes)

colp/o, vagin/o

____________________ vagina

vulv/o, episi/o

____________________ vulva

dys-

____________________ bad; painful; difficult

andr/o

male andr/o/gen (ĂN-drō-jĕn): forming or producing male (hormones) -gen: forming, producing, origin

balan/o

glans penis balan/itis (băl-ă-NĪ-tĭs): infl ammation of the glans penis -itis: infl ammation

gonad/o

gonads, sex glands gonad/o/tropin (gŏn-ă-dō-TRŌ-pĭn): hormone that stimulates the gonads -tropin: stimulate Gonadotropin is a hormone that stimulates the function of the testes and ovaries (gonads).

orch/o

testis (plural, testes) crypt/orch/ism (krĭpt-OR-kĭzm): condition of a hidden testicle crypt: hidden -ism: condition

orchi/o

testis (plural, testes) orchi/o/pexy (ŌR-kē-ō-pĕk-sē): surgical fixation of a testis -pexy: fixation (of an organ) An orchiopexy is performed to mobilize an undescended testis, bring it into the scrotum, and attach it so that it will not retract.

orchid/o

testis (plural, testes) orchid/ectomy (or-kĭ-DĔK-tō-mē): excision of one or both testes -ectomy: excision, removal

test/o

testis (plural, testes) test/algia (tĕs-TĂL-jē-ă): pain in the testes -algia: pain

spermat/o

spermatozoa, sperm cells spermat/o/cyte (spĕr-MĂT-ō-sīt) sperm cell cyte: cell

sperm/i

sperm/i/cide (SPĔR-mĭ-sīd): agent that kills spermatozoa -cide: killing

sperm/o

a/sperm/ia (ă-SPĔR-mē-ă): without semen a-: without, not -ia: condition In aspermia, semen fail to form or ejaculate.

varic/o

dilated vein varic/o/cele (VĂR-ĭ-kō-sēl): dilated or enlarged vein of the spermatic cord -cele: hernia, swelling

vas/o

vessel; vas deferens; duct vas/ectomy (văs-ĔK-tō-mē): removal of all or part of the vas deferens -ectomy: excision, removal

vesicul/o

seminal vesicle vesicul/itis (vĕ-sĭk-ū-LĪ-tĭs): inflammation of the seminal vesicle -itis: inflammation

vas/ectomy

-ectomy: excision, removal; vessel, vas deferens, duct

balan/itis

-itis: inflammation; glans penis

spermat/i/cide

-cide: killing; spermatozoa, sperm cells

gonad/o/tropin

-tropin: stimulate; gonads, sex glands

orchi/o/pexy

-pexy: fixation (of an organ); testis (plural, testes)

a/sperm/ia

-ia: condition; without, not; spermatozoa, sperm cells

vesicul/itis

-itis: inflammation; seminal vesicle

orchid/ectomy

-ectomy: excision, removal; testis (plural, testes)

andr/o/gen

-gen: forming, producing, origin; male

crypt/orch/ism

-ism: condition; hidden; testis (plural, testes)

disease, testes or testicles
TĔS-tēs, TĔS-tĭ-klz

The CF test/o refers to the testis. Test/o/pathy is a ____________________ of the ____________________ (plural).

testis
TĔS-tēs

The singular form of testes is ____________________.

testicle
TĔS-tĭ-kl

The singular form of testicles is ____________________.

test/itis
tĕs-TĪ-tĭs
test/ectomy
tĕs-TĔK-tō-mē
test/o/pathy
tĕs-TŎP-ă-thē

Use test/o to form medical words that mean inflammation of testis: __________ / __________ excision of testis: __________ /______________ disease of testis: _______ / _____ / __________

spermatozoa
spĕr-măt-ō-ZŌ-ă

Spermat/o/genesis is the beginning or formation of sperm cells, or ____________________.

stone, calculus
KĂL-kū-lŭs

A spermat/o/lith is a ___________ or ____________________ in the spermatic duct.

spermat/o/genesis
spĕr-măt-ō-JĔN-ĕ-sĭs

Construct a word that means producing or forming sperm. ______________ / _____ / _________________

spermat/o/cyte
spĕr-MĂT-ō-sīt

Use spermat/o to form a word that means sperm cell. __________________ / _____ / __________

spermat/oid
SPĔR-mă-toyd

Build a word that means resembling spermatozoa. ________________ / __________

spermat/uria
spĕr-mă-TŪ-rē-ă

A discharge of semen with urine is also called ____________________ / __________.

without

A/spermat/ism literally means ______________ sperm.

scanty

A man who produces a scanty amount of sperm in the semen has a condition called olig/o/sperm/ia. Olig/o means ____________________.

olig/o/sperm/ia
ŏl-ĭ-gō-SPĔR-mē-ă

When the physician detects an insufficient number of spermatozoa in the semen, the Dx is noted in the medical record as __________ / _____ / __________ / __________.

muc/o

Ducts of Cowper glands open into the urethra and secrete thick mucus that acts as a lubricant during sexual stimulation. Write the CF that refers to mucus. __________ / _____

adjective

Muc/us is a noun. Muc/ous is a (n) (noun, adjective) ____________________.

muc/oid
MŪ-koyd

Use -oid to construct a medical term that means resembling mucus. __________ / __________

orchi/o/plasty
OR-kē-ō-plăs-tē

surgical repair of the testicle: __________ / _____ / ____________________

orchi/o/rrhaphy
or-kē-OR-ă-fē

suture of a testicle: __________ / _____ / ____________________

orchi/o/pexy
or-kē-ō-PĔK-sē

fixation of a testicle: __________ / _____ / __________

enlargement

Prostat/o/megaly is a(n) ____________________ of the prostate gland.

prostat/o/megaly
prŏs-tă-tō-MĔG-ă-lē

Construct a medical word that means enlargement of the prostate gland. ______________ / _____ / _________________

growth; nourishment

Benign prostat/ic hyper/plasia (BPH) is also known as benign prostat/ic hyper/trophy (BPH). The suffix -plasia means formation, ____________________. The suffix -trophy means development, ____________________.

trans/urethr/al
trăns-ū-RĒ-thrăl

Common symptoms of BPH include hesitancy and dribbling on urination and a weak urine stream. Treatment for BPH includes drugs to decrease prostate size or the surgical procedure known as trans/urethr/al resection of the prostate (TURP)in which the obstructing tissue is removed. TURP makes it possible to perform surgery on certain organs that lie near the urethra without having an abdominal incision. Because this surgery is performed by passing a resect/o/scope through the urethra, it is called __________ / ________________ / __________ resection of the prostate.

resect/o/scope
rē-SĔK-tō-skōp

The endo/scop/ic instrument used by the urologist to perform TURP is called a ____________________ / _____ / __________.

PSA

The abbreviation for prostatespecific antigen test is ___________.

prostat/itis
prŏs-tă-TĪ-tĭs

inflammation of the prostate gland: ____________________ / __________

prostat/o/cyst/itis
prŏs-tă-tō-sĭs-TĪ-tĭs

inflammation of the prostate gland and bladder: _____________ / _____ / __________ /________

prostate, bladder
PRŎS-tāt

Prostat/o/cyst/o/tomy is an incision of the _________________ and __________________.

water
hernia, swelling
HĔR-nē-ă

Hydr/o/cele is a collection of fluid in a saclike cavity, specifically the testis. Analyze hydr/o/cele by defi ning the elements. hydr/o: ___________ -cele: ______________, ____________________

prostat/ectomy
prŏs-tă-TĔK-tō-mē

Develop a surgical term that means excision of the prostate gland. ____________________ / ___________________

cancer

Currently PSA is considered the most sensitive tumor marker for prostate __________________.

threatening

Tumors may be benign or malignant. Benign tumors are not malignant (cancerous) and not life-threatening. A malignant tumor, however, is cancerous and life-____________________.

benign
bē-NĪN

Tumors are also called neo/plasms (new growths or formations). Similar to tumors, neo/plasms can be malignant or ____________________.

cancer/ous
KĂN-sĕr-ŭs

A benign tumor is non/cancer/ous. A malignant tumor is ____________________ / __________.

neo/plasm
NĒ-ō-plăzm

Carcin/omas also are known as malignant neo/plasms. Form a word that means formation or growth that is new. __________ / __________

prostate
PRŎS-tāt

Prostate CA also is called carcinoma of the ____________________.

prostat/itis
prŏs-tă-TĪ-tĭs

Build a symptomatic term that means inflammation of the prostate gland. ____________________ / __________

growth

The suffixes -plasm and -plasia refer to formation or _____________.

dys-
-plasia

Dys/plasia is an abnormal development of tissue. Identify the element in dys/plasia that means bad, painful, or difficult: _____________ formation, growth: ____________________

without, not
formation, growth

A/plasia means without formation, and it is a condition that is due to failure of an organ to develop or form normally. Analyze a/plasia by defining the elements. a-: ____________________, _____________ -plasia: _______________ or _______________

hyper-
-plasia

Hyper/plasia is an excessive increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ. Determine the element in hyper/plasia that means excessive: _____________ formation or growth: ____________________

vas/o

From the term vas/ectomy, construct the combining form that means vessel, vas deferens, or duct. __________ / _____

an/esthesia
ăn-ĕs-THĒ-zē-ă

without feeling: __________ / ________________

bi/later/al
bī-LĂT-ĕr-ăl

pertaining to two sides: __________ / __________ / __________

vas/ectomy
văs-ĔK-tō-mē

excision of the vas deferens: __________ / ____________________

prostat/itis
prŏs-tă-TĪ-tĭs

Inflammation of the prostate gland is called ____________________ / __________.

vas/ectomy reversal
văs-ĔK-tō-mē

Another term for vas/o/vas/o/stomy is __________ / ___________ ________________.

ur/o/genit/al
ū-rō-JĔN-ĭ-tăl

Identify the term that means pertaining to urine and the organs of reproduction. __________ / _____ / __________

vas/o/vas/o/stomy
văs-ō-vă-SŎS-tō-mē

Identify the surgical term that is synonymous with vas/ectomy reversal. _______ / _____ / __________ / _____ / _______

-rrhaphy

____________________ suture

dys-

____________________ bad; painful; difficult

cyst/o

____________________ bladder

carcin/o

____________________ cancer

-cyte

____________________ cell

-pathy

____________________ disease

-megaly

____________________ enlargement

-cele

____________________ hernia, swelling

-itis

____________________ inflammation

-tome

____________________ instrument to cut

vas/o

____________________ vessel; vas deferens; duct

muc/o

____________________ mucus

neo-

____________________ new

-genesis

____________________ forming, producing, origin

prostat/o

____________________ prostate gland

test/o, orchi/o, orchid/o

____________________ testes

olig/o

____________________ scanty

spermat/o, sperm/o

____________________ spermatozoa, sperm cells

-pexy

____________________ fixation (of an organ)

hyper-

____________________ excessive, above normal

CS, C-section

cesarean section

D&C

dilatation (dilation) and curettage

Dx

diagnosis

G

gravida (pregnant)

GYN

gynecology

HRT

hormone replacement therapy

IUD

intrauterine device

IVF

in vitro fertilization

LMP

last menstrual period

OB-GYN

obstetrics and gynecology

OCPs

oral contraceptive pills

Pap

Papanicolaou (test)

para 1, 2, 3

unipara, bipara, tripara (number of viable births)

PID

pelvic infl ammatory disease

PIH

pregnancy-induced hypertension

PMP

previous menstrual period

PSA

prostate-specific antigen

TAH

total abdominal hysterectomy

TRAM

transverse rectus abdominis muscle

TSS

toxic shock syndrome

TVH

total vaginal hysterectomy

BPH

benign prostatic hyperplasia, benign prostatic hypertrophy

DRE

digital rectal examination

GU

genitourinary

TURP, TUR

transurethral resection of the prostate

XY

male sex chromosomes

GC

gonorrhea

HPV

human papillomavirus

HSV

herpes simplex virus

STD

sexually transmitted disease

VD

venereal disease

candidiasis
kăn-dĭ-DĪ-ă-sĭs

Vaginal fungal infection caused by Candida albicans; characterized by a curdy or cheeselike discharge and extreme itching

cervicitis
sĕr-vĭ-SĪ-tĭs
cervic: neck; cervix uteri (neck of uterus)
-itis: infl ammation

Infl ammation of the uterine cervix Cervicitis is usually the result of infection or a sexually transmitted disease. It may also become chronic, because the cervical lining is not renewed each month as is the uterine lining during menstruation.

ectopic pregnancy
ĕk-TŎP-ik

Implantation of the fertilized ovum outside of the uterine cavity

endometriosis
ĕn-dō-mē-trē-Ō-sĭs
endo: in, within
metri: uterus (womb)
-osis: abnormal condition; increase
(used primarily with blood cells)

Presence of endometrial tissue outside (ectopic) the uterine cavity, such as the pelvis or abdomen

fibroid
FĪ-broyd
fibr: fiber, fibrous tissue
-oids: resembling

Benign neoplasm in the uterus that is composed largely of fibrous tissue; also called leiomyoma Uterine fibroids are the most common tumors in women. If fibroids grow too large and cause symptoms such as pelvic pain or menorrhagia, hysterectomy may be indicated.

leukorrhea
loo-kō-RĒ-ă
leuk/o: white
-rrhea: discharge, flow

White discharge from the vagina

oligomenorrhea
ŏl-ĭ-gō-mĕn-ō-RĒ-ă
olig/o: scanty
men/o: menses,menstruation
-rrhea: discharge, fl ow

Scanty or infrequent menstrual fl ow

pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)

Potentially life-threatening disorder that usually develops after the 20th week of pregnancy and is characterized by edema and proteinuria. PIH may occur in nonconvulsive or convulsive forms.

preeclampsia
prē-ē-KLĂMP-sē-ă

Nonconvulsive form of PIH If left untreated, preeclampsia may progress to eclampsia. Treatment includes bed rest and blood pressure monitoring.

eclampsia
ē-KLĂMP-sē-ă

Convulsive form of PIH Treatment for eclampsia includes bed rest, blood pressure monitoring, and antiseizure drugs.

pyosalpinx
pī-ō-SĂL-pĭnks
py/o: pus
-salpinx: tube (usually fallopian or
eustachian [auditory] tube)

Pus in the fallopian tube

retroversion
rĕt-rō-VĔR-shŭn
retro-: backward, behind
-version: turning

Turning, or state of being turned back, especially an entire organ being tipped from its normal position (such as the uterus)

sterility
stĕr-ĬL-ĭ-tē

Inability of a woman to become pregnant or for a man to impregnate a woman

toxic shock syndrome (TSS)
TŎK-sĭk SHŎK SĬN-drōm
tox: poison
-ic: pertaining to

Rare and sometimes fatal staphylococcus infection that generally occurs in menstruating women, most of whom use vaginal tampons for menstrual protection

trichomoniasis
trĭk-ō-mō-NĪ-ă-sĭs

Protozoal infestation of the vagina, urethra, or prostate

anorchism
ăn-ŎR-kĭzm
an: without, not
orch: testis (plural, testes)
-ism: condition

Congenital absence of one or both testes; also called anorchia

balanitis
băl-ă-NĪ-tĭs
balan: glans penis
-itis: inflammation

Inflammation of the skin covering the glans penis

cryptorchidism
krĭpt-OR-kĭd-ĭzm
crypt: hidden
orchid: testis (plural, testes)
-ism: condition

Congenital defect in which the urethra opens on upper side of the penis near the glans penis instead of the tip

hypospadias
hī-pō-SPĀ-dē-ăs
hypo: under, below, deficient
-spadias: slit, fissure

Congenital defect in which the male urethra opens on undersurface of the penis instead of the tip

impotence
ĬM-pŏ-tĕns

Inability of a man to achieve or maintain a penile erection; commonly called erectile dysfunction

phimosis
fī-MŌ-sĭs
phim: muzzle
-osis: abnormal condition; increase
(used primarily with blood cells)

Stenosis or narrowness of the preputial orifi ce so that the foreskin cannot be pushed back over the glans penis

sexually transmitted disease (STD)

Any disease that may be acquired as a result of sexual intercourse or other intimate contact with an infected individual and affects the male and female reproductive systems; also called venereal disease

chlamydia
klă-MĬD-ē-ă

STD caused by infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis

genital warts
JĔN-ĭ-tăl WORTZ
genit: genitalia
-al: pertaining to

Wart(s) in the genitalia caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) In women, genital warts may be associated with cervical cancer.

gonorrhea
gŏn-ō-RĒ-ă
gon/o: seed (ovum or spermatozoon)
-rrhea: discharge, flow

Contagious bacterial infection that most commonly affects the genitourinary tract and, occasionally, the pharynx or rectum

herpes genitalis
HĔR-pēz jĕn-ĭ-TĂL-ĭs

Infection in females and males of the genital and anorectal skin and mucosa with herpes simplex virus type 2

syphilis
SĬF-ĭ-lĭs

Infectious, chronic STD characterized by lesions that change to a chancre and may involve any organ or tissue

amniocentesis
ăm-nē-ō-sĕn-TĒ-sĭs
amni/o: amnion
(amniotic sac)
-centesis: surgical puncture

Obstetric procedure that involves surgical puncture of the amniotic sac under ultrasound guidance to remove amniotic fluid

colposcopy
kŏl-PŎS-kō-pē
colp/o: vagina
-scopy: visual examination

Examination of the vagina and cervix with an optical magnifying instrument (colposcope)

hysterosalpingography
hĭs-tĕr-ō-săl-pĭn-GŎG-ră-fē
hyster/o: uterus (womb)
salping/o: tube (usually fallopian or
eustachian [auditory] tube)
-graphy: process of recording

Radiography of the uterus and oviducts after injection of a contrast medium

laparoscopy
lăp-ăr-ŎS-kō-pē
lapar/o: abdomen
-scopy: visual examination

Visual examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope through one or more small incisions in the abdominal wall, usually at the umbilicus

mammography
măm-ŎG-ră-fē
mamm/o: breast
-graphy: process of recording

Radiography of breast; used to diagnose benign and malignant tumors

Papanicolaou (Pap) test
pă-pă-NĪ-kō-lŏw

Microscopic analysis of cells taken from the cervix and vagina to detect the presence of carcinoma Cells are obtained for a Pap test via insertion of a vaginal speculum and the use of a swab to scrape a small tissue sample from the cervix and vagina.

ultrasonography (US)
ŭl-tră-sŏn-ŎG-ră-fē
ultra-: excess, beyond
son/o: sound
-graphy: process of recording

Imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) that bounce off body tissues and are recorded to produce an image of an internal organ or tissue

digital rectal examination (DRE)
DĬJ-ĭ-tăl RĔK-tăl
rect: rectum
-al: pertaining to

Examination of the prostate gland by finger palpation through the anal canal and the rectum

prostate-specifi cantigen (PSA) test
ĂN-tĭ-jĕn

Blood test to screen for prostate cancer Elevated levels of PSA are associated with prostate enlargement and cancer.

cerclage
sār-KLŎZH

Obstetric procedure in which a nonabsorbable suture is used for holding the cervix closed to prevent spontaneous abortion in a woman who has an incompetent cervix

dilation and curettage (D&C)
DĬ-lā-shŭn, kū-rĕ-TĂZH

Surgical procedure that widens the cervical canal of the uterus (dilation) so that the endometrium of the uterus can be scraped (curettage)

hysterosalpingooophorectomy
hĭs-tĕr-ō-săl-pĭng-gō-ō-ŏ-forĔK-tō-mē
hyster/o: uterus (womb)
salping/o: tube (usually fallopian or
eustachian [auditory] tube)
oophor: ovary
-ectomy: excision

Surgical removal of a uterus, a fallopian tube, and an ovary

lumpectomy
lŭm-PĔK-tō-mē

Excision of a small primary breast tumor ("lump") and some of the normal tissue that surrounds it

mastectomy
măs-TĔK-tō-mē
mast: breast
-ectomy: excision, removal

Complete or partial excision of one or both breasts, most commonly performed to remove a malignant tumor Mastectomy may be simple, radical, or modified depending on the extent of the malignancy and amount of breast tissue excised.

total mastectomy

Excision of an entire breast, nipple, areola, and the involved overlying skin; also called simple mastectomy In total mastectomy, lymph nodes are remove

modified radical mastectomy

Excision of an entire breast, including lymph nodes in the underarm (axillary dissection)

radical mastectomy

Most women who have mastectomies today have modified radical mastectomies. Excision of an entire breast, all underarm lymph nodes, and chest wall muscles under the breast

reconstructive breast surgery

Reconstruction of a breast that has been removed due to cancer or other disease Reconstruction is commonly possible immediately following mastectomy so the patient awakens from anesthesia with a breast mound already in place.

tissue (skin) expansion

Common breast reconstruction technique in which a balloon expander is inserted beneath the skin and chest muscle, saline solution is gradually injected to increase size, and the expander is then replaced with a more permanent implant

transverse rectus abdominis muscle
(TRAM) flap

Surgical creation of a skin flap (using skin and fat from the lower half of the abdomen), which is passed under the skin to the breast area, shaped into a natural-looking breast, and sutured into place

tubal ligation
TŪ-băl lī-GĀ-shŭn

Sterilization procedure that involves blocking both fallopian tubes by cutting or burning them and tying them off

circumcision
sĕr-kŭm-SĬ-zhŭn

Surgical removal of the foreskin or prepuce of the penis, usually performed on the male as an infant

transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)

Surgical procedure to relieve obstruction caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (excessive overgrowth of normal tissue) by insertion of a resectoscope into the penis and through the urethra to "chip away" at prostatic tissue and flush out chips (using an irrigating solution)

gonadotropin
gŏn-ă-dō-TRŌ-pĭn
gonad/o: gonads, sex glands
-tropin: stimulate

Hormonal preparation used to increase sperm count in infertility cases

cryptorchidism

____________________ refers to failure of testicles to descend into scrotum.

pyosalpinx

____________________ is pus in the fallopian tube.

sterility

____________________ refers to inability of a woman to become pregnant or for a man to impregnate a woman.

anorchism

____________________ refers to congenital absence of one or both testes.

candidiasis

____________________ is a vaginal fungal infection caused by Candida albicans and marked by a curdy discharge and extreme itching.

chlamydia

____________________ is caused by infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis and occurs in both sexes.

circumcision

____________________ is surgical removal of foreskin or prepuce of the penis.

cerclage

____________________ is an obstetric procedure to prevent spontaneous abortion in a woman who has an incompetent cervix.

leukorrhea

____________________ is a discharge from the vagina; common reason for women to seek gynecological care.

endometriosis

____________________ is a condition in which endometrial tissue is found in various abnormal sites throughout the pelvis or in the abdominal wall.

mammography

____________________ refers to radiography of the breast and is used to diagnose benign and malignant tumors.

gonorrhea

____________________ is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection that most commonly affects the genitourinary tract and, occasionally, the pharynx or rectum.

syphilis

____________________ is a sexually transmitted disease that is characterized by lesions that change to a chancre, may involve any organ or tissue, and usually exhibits cutaneous manifestations.

toxic shock

____________________ is a rare and sometimes fatal staphylococcal infection that occurs in menstruating women who use vaginal tampons.

trichomoniasis

____________________ is a protozoal infestation of the vagina, urethra, or prostate.

D&C

____________________ refers to widening of the uterine cervix so that the surface lining of the uterus can be scraped.

phimosis

____________________ means stenosis of the preputial orifice so that the foreskin does not retract over the glans penis.

impotence

____________________ refers to the inability of a man to achieve a penile erection.

oligomenorrhea

____________________ refers to scanty or infrequent menstrual fl ow.

gonadotropins

____________________ are hormonal preparations used to increase the sperm count in cases of infertility.

prostatomegaly

____________________ means enlargement of prostate gland.

testopathy

____________________ refers to disease of the testes.

testosterone

____________________ is a male hormone produced by testes.

amenorrhea

____________________ is absence or abnormal stoppage of the menses.

estrogen, progesterone

____________________ is a (are) female hormone(s) produced by the ovaries.

oophoritis

____________________ is an inflamed condition of the ovaries.

aspermatism

____________________ is a condition in which there is a lack of male sperm.

gravida 4

____________________ refers to a woman in her fourth pregnancy.

uterus

____________________ is an organ that nourishes the embryo.

prostatic cancer

____________________ is a malignant neoplasm of the prostate.

epididymis

____________________ is a tube that temporarily stores sperm.

hydrocele

____________________ is a collection of fluid in a saclike cavity.

vas deferens

____________________ is a duct that transports sperm from the testes to the urethra.

para 4

____________________ refers to a woman who has delivered four infants.

cervix uteri

____________________ means neck of the uterus.

dysmenorrhea

____________________ refers to painful menstruation.

postmenopausal

____________________ means occurring after menopause.

aplasia

____________________ is failure or lack of formation or growth.

vasectomy

____________________ is a procedure to sterilize a man by cutting the vas deferens, preventing the release of sperm.

PID

____________________ is a collective term for any extensive bacterial infection of the pelvic organs, especially the uterus, uterine tubes, or ovaries.

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