Mastering Biology Ch. 24

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Feathers either play a role, or may have played a role, in _____.

extended hops, courtship, flight, and gliding.

_____ is rapid speciation under conditions in which there is little competition.

adaptive radiation (Why: Adaptive radiation is rapid speciation under conditions in which there is little competition.

Mass extinctions create conditions that promote _____.

adaptive radiation (Why: mass extinctions reduce competition and allow for periods of rapid speciation.)

The appearance of an evolutionary novelty promotes _____.

adaptive radiation (Why: the appearance of an evolutionary novelty may allow for the exploitation of previously unexploited niches.)

The different finch species found on the Galápagos Islands probably arose as a result of _____.

adaptive radiation (Why: The finches that initially immigrated to the Galapagos Islands experienced little competition, the result of which was the promotion of speciation.

What is genetic drift?

A change in allele frequencies caused by random events (Why: Genetic drift is a random change in allele frequencies over time.)

Why are the large finches now living on the Galápagos Islands different from the original source population from a nearby island?

-The separation of habitats reduced gene flow between the populations -Genetic drift occurred in the two populations. -Natural selection favored individuals that were more fit in the new environment (Why: Physical isolation, natural selection, and genetic drift are all events that lead to speciation.)

True or false? The last ice age produced many different species mainly because populations dispersed and colonized new habitats.

False (Why: the last ice age produced many different species mainly because of vicariance events the glaciers physically separated populations from each other.)

Which of the following statements about reinforcement is true?

Reinforcement is a type of natural selection. (Why: Reinforcement is a type of natural selection called disruptive selection, which favors extreme phenotypes over intermediate phenotypes.)

A subset of a population of birds leaves its habitat on the mainland and colonizes a nearby island. The birds, after a period of time, become reproductively isolated. The island sinks and the population of birds that lived on the island returns to its original habitat. Which of the following statements about these bird populations is true?

The populations will not be able to interbreed because they are different species. (Why: different species cannot interbreed)

A population of birds colonizes an area in which the insects upon which they feed live inside trees. Which of the following events accounts for an observed increase in average beak size in the bird population over time?

Increased fitness of large-beaked birds, leading to natural selection (Why: Birds with larger beaks are better able to survive in the new enviornment)

True or false? A flood that separates a population of frogs onto opposite sides of a lake is an example of a vicariance event that may result in allopatric speciation.

True (Why:Allopatric speciation may occur when populations are separated geographically; this type of speciation can begin with a vicariance event, in which a geographic barrier such as water isolates a population, or a dispersal event, in which a subset of a population migrates to a different habitat.)

How long ago do scientists believe life first began on Earth?

3.7 billion years

What process produces Earth’s atmospheric oxygen?


What evidence points to the date of the appearance of the first oxygen-producing organisms?

iron oxides in rock

Which of the following best describes the archaeans described in the video?

They live in extreme habitats.

The red sedimentary rocks of Western Australia resulted from the combination of oxygen and _____.


Achaeans can tolerate which of the following extreme habitats?

near-boiling water, high pressure, very salty water, oxygen-free environments

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