k12 history unit 5

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What was the immediate result of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor?

The United States entered the war on the side of the Allies.

Who commanded Allied troops in Europe and was responsible for organizing the invasion of France?

Dwight Eisenhower

To what does the term the Holocaust refer?

the mass slaughter of Europe’s Jews and others by the Nazis

About how many people died in the Holocaust?

11 million

What was the name of the battle in which Germany made its last offensive move?

Battle of the Bulge

Whose work made the atomic bomb possible and urged U.S. leaders to develop one before the Germans?

Albert Einstein

Which was a cause of World War II?

the British and French policy of appeasement

The events that led to the outbreak of World War II in Europe began with German troops occupying the Rhineland and ended with the German invasion of Poland. Which event occurred in between?

Hitler annexed Austria to the German Reich.

What was the first step in Hitler’s strategy to defeat Great Britain?

use his Luftwaffe to eliminate Britain’s air force

Why did Japan attack the United States in 1941?

Japanese leaders were concerned about the need for natural resources, including oil.

Which was a turning point in World War II in favor of the Allies?

Battle of Stalingrad

Who was in charge of organizing and commanding the D-day invasion of France?

Dwight Eisenhower

What was the Holocaust?

the mass slaughter of Europe’s Jews and others by the Nazis

Which describes a policy toward Jews by the Nazi government during World War II?

the death of all European Jews through the use of death camps

What was the consequence of the Nazi government’s "Final Solution"?

the deaths of about 6 million Jews

Which best describes the end of the war in Europe?

Soviet troops captured Berlin one week after Hitler committed suicide.

How did the Allies plan on reaching Japan and ending the war in the Pacific?

by island-hopping across the Pacific Ocean

Why did Harry Truman eventually decide to use the atomic bomb against Japan?

It would bring a quick end to the war and cause fewer American and Japanese deaths than an invasion.

Which best describes the physical and human costs of World War II?

about 60 million dead and parts of Europe and Asia devastated

In which significant way did the United Nations differ from the League of Nations?

The United States joined the United Nations but not the League of Nations.

After World War II, tensions quickly rose between which two nations?

United States and Soviet Union

Why didn’t Western democratic leaders try to stop the building of the Berlin Wall?

Kennedy worried that actions on the part of the United States might start a war with the Soviets.

How did the Cuban Missile Crisis develop?

The Soviets sent missiles to Cuba that could destroy U.S. cities.

What was one way that America responded to the fear of nuclear attack in the postwar years?

Congress began investigating people suspected of being communists or communist sympathizers.

What was one reason for Western Europe’s quick recovery from the devastation of World War II?

European nations cooperated to simplify commercial interactions among themselves.

Which best describes the Cold War?

a tense, forty-year standoff between the Soviet Union and the United States

Which best describes the main goal of the U.S. policy of containment?

to keep communism from spreading around the world

Why did the United States implement the Marshall Plan?

to rebuild Europe after World War II and form strong relationships with democratic nations

Why didn’t the United States try to stop the Soviets from building the Berlin Wall?

Kennedy worried that an attempt to stop the construction might spark a nuclear war.

What was the Cuban Missile Crisis?

a Soviet attempted buildup of nuclear missiles in Cuba that prompted a U.S. response

How did the U.S. economy and society change after World War II?

The economy expanded and more people had money to spend on luxuries.

Which is one way the U.S. government responded to the fear of nuclear war in the postwar years?

The government launched programs to investigate suspected communists.

Which is one reason that European nations joined together after World War II?

They wanted to improve their economies by easing restrictions on commerce.

Which best describes Mikhail Gorbachev’s plans for the USSR?

He wanted to restructure the government to make it more efficient and humane.

Which describes an event that led to the decline of the USSR?

The economy was strained because of the arms race and other military responsibilities.

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