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IT infrastructure

Set of physical devices and software required to operate enterprise. Set of firmwide services including: – Computing platforms providing computing services – Telecommunications services – Data management services – Application software services – Physical facilities management services – IT management, education, and other services "Service platform" perspective. – More accurate view of value of investments

Evolution of IT infrastructure

General-purpose mainframe and minicomputer era: 1959 to present. – 1958: IBM first mainframes introduced. – 1965: Less expensive DEC minicomputers introduced. Personal computer era: 1981 to present. – 1981: Introduction of IBM PC. – Proliferation in 80s, 90s resulted in growth of personal software. Client/server era: 1983 to present. – Desktop clients networked to servers, with processing work split between clients and servers. – Network may be two-tiered or multitiered (N-tiered). – Various types of servers (network, application, Web). Enterprise computing era: 1992 to present – Move toward integrating disparate networks, applications using Internet standards and enterprise applications. Cloud and mobile computing: 2000 to present – Cloud computing: computing power and software applications supplied over the Internet or other network. – Fastest growing form of computing.


A large, expensive, powerful computer that can handle hundreds and thousands of connected users simultaneously.


are the most common types of computers today. The term originally came from the fact that these were the first computers to have their processor on a single chip.

Wintel PC

Any computer that uses Intel microprocessors (or compatible processors) and a Windows operating system.


The user point of entry for the required function in client/server computing. Normally a desktop computer, workstation, or laptop computer.


Computer specifically optimized to provide software and other resources to other computers over a network.

Client/Server Computing

A model for computing that splits processing between clients and servers on a network assigning functions to the machine most able to perform the function.

Two-Tiered Client/Server Architecture

The simplest client/server network consists of a client computer networked to a server computer, with processing split between the two types of machines.

Multitiered Client/Server Architectures

Often called N-Tier, the work of the entire network is balanced over several different levels of servers, depending on the kind of service being requested.

Web Server

A computer connected to the Internet used to store Web page documents.

Application Server

A computer on a network that is dedicated to running applications and delivering applications to client computers.


An operating system used by the majority of PCs.

Cloud Computing

use of web services to perform functions that were traditionally performed with software on an individual computer; i.e. Flickr, Google Docs, etc.

Moore’s law and microprocessing power

Computing power doubles every 18 months (later changed to 2 years). Nanotechnology: Shrinks size of transistors to size comparable to size of a virus. There are at least three variations of Moore’s Law, none of which were ever stated: 1. The power of the microprocessors doubles every 18 months; 2. Computing power doubles every 18 months; and 3. The price of computing falls by half every 18 months.


uses individual atoms and molecules to create computer chips and other devices that are thousands of times smaller than current technologies permit.

Metcalfe’s Law and network economics

Value or power of a network grows exponentially as a function of the number of network members. As network members increase, more people want to use it (demand for network access increases).

Declining communication costs and the Internet

An estimated 3 billion people worldwide have Internet access. As communication costs fall toward a very small number and approach zero, utilization of communication and computing facilities explodes.

Technology standards

Specifications that establish the compatibility of products and the ability to communicate in a network. Unleash powerful economies of scale and result in price declines as manufacturers focus on the products built to a single standard.

Seven Main Components of IT Infrastructure

These components constitute investments that must coordinated with one another to provide the firm with a coherent infrastructure. 1. Computer hardware platforms. 2. Operating system platforms. 3. Enterprise software applications. 4. Data management and storage. 5. Networking/telecommunications platforms. 6. Internet platforms. 7. Consulting system integration services.

Computer hardware platforms

Client machines. – Desktop PCs, laptops. – Mobile computing: smartphones, tablets. Servers. – Blade servers: ultrathin computers stored in racks. Mainframes: – IBM mainframe equivalent to thousands of blade servers. Top chip producers: Intel, AMD.

Blade Servers

are computers consisting of a circuit board with processors, memory and network connections that are stored in racks.

Operating system platforms

Server level: 65% run Unix or Linux; 35% run Windows. Client level: – 90% run Microsoft Windows (Windows 8, Windows 7, etc.) – Mobile/multitouch (Android, iOS). – Cloud computing (Google’s Chrome OS).


Operating system developed by AT&T. It is considered portable, meaning it can run on just about any hardware platform.


Reliable and compactly designed operating system that is offshoot of UNIX and that can run on many different hardware platforms and is available free or at very low cost. Used as alternative to UNIX and Windows NT. – Open-source OS used in high-performance computing. – Used in mobile devices, local area networks, Web servers, Android OS.

Operating Systems

First software loaded on a computer. It manages all the software applications and determines which applications take priority, manages memory requests, and communicates with input and output devices. (Example: Linux, Windows XP, and Macintosh X.)

Chrome OS

Google’s light weight computer operating system for users who do most of their computing on the Internet; runs on computers ranging from netbooks to desktop computers.


An operating system used on mobile devices that is based on the Linux OS and supported by Google.


The operating system owned and developed by Apple and used for their various mobile devices.


A feature on tablets that senses when a user touches more than one location at a time. It is commonly used for pinch and spread gestures.

Enterprise software applications

Enterprise application providers: SAP and Oracle. Middleware providers: IBM, Oracle.

Data management and storage

Database software: IBM (DB2), Oracle, Microsoft (SQL Server), Sybase (Adaptive Server Enterprise), MySQL. Physical data storage: EMC Corp (large-scale systems), Seagate, Western Digital. Storage area networks (SANs): Connect multiple storage devices on dedicated network.

Storage Area Networks (SANs)

connect multiple storage devices on a separate high-speed network dedicated to storage. The SAN creates a large central pool of storage that can be rapidly accessed and shared by multiple servers.

Networking/telecommunications platforms

Telecommunication services: – Telecommunications, cable, telephone company charges for voice lines and Internet access – AT&T, Verizon Network operating systems:Windows Server, Linux, Unix. Network hardware providers: Cisco, Alcatel-Lucent, \Juniper Networks.

Internet platforms

Hardware, software, management services to support company Web sites (including Web-hosting services), intranets, extranets. Internet hardware server market: IBM, Dell, Sun (Oracle), HP. Web development tools/suites: Microsoft (Visual Studio and .NET), Oracle-Sun (Java), Adobe, Real Networks.

Web Hosting Service

Company with large Web server computers to maintain the Web sites of fee-paying subscribers.

Consulting and system integration services

Even large firms do not have resources for full range of support for new, complex infrastructure. Leading consulting firms: Accenture, IBM Global Services, HP, Infosys, Wipro Technologies. Software integration: ensuring new infrastructure works with legacy systems. Legacy systems: older TPS created for mainframes that would be too costly to replace or redesign

Legacy Systems

Older systems current in use in a facility that often cannot be easily replaced but must become part of new systems.

The mobile digital platform

Smartphones (iPhone, Android, and Blackberry). – Data transmission, Web surfing, e-mail, and IM. Netbooks: Small lightweight notebooks optimized for wireless communication and core tasks Tablets (iPad). Networked e-readers (Kindle and Nook). Wearable devices (smart watches, smart glasses).

Tablet Computers

a portable computing device featuring a touch- screen that can be used as a writing or drawing pad.

BYOD (Bring your own device)

Allowing employees to use their personal mobile devices in workplace.

Consumerization of IT

New information technology emerges in consumer markets first and spreads to business organizations. Forces businesses and IT departments to rethink how IT equipment and services are acquired and managed

Quantum computing

Use of principles of quantum physics to represent data and perform operations on the data, with the ability to be in many different states at once and to perform many different computations simultaneously. Dramatic increases in computing speed.


is the process of presenting a set of computing resources (Such as computing power or data storage) so that they can all be accessed in ways that are not restricted by physical configuration or geographic location. – Allows single physical resource to act as multiple resources (i.e., run multiple instances of OS) – Reduces hardware and power expenditures – Facilitates hardware centralization

Public Cloud

is owned and maintained by a cloud service provider, such as Amazon Web Service, and made available to the general public or industry group.

Private Cloud

is operated solely for an organization. It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise.

On-Demand Computing

Firms off-loading peak demand for computing power to remote, large-scale data processing centers, investing just enough to handle average processing loads and paying for only as much additional computing power as they need. Also called utility computing.

Green computing (Green IT)

Practices and technologies for manufacturing, using, disposing of computing and networking hardware. Reducing power consumption a high priority. IT responsible for 2% U.S. power demand.

Multicore Processor

Integrated circuit to which two or more processors have been attached for enhanced performance, reduced power consumption and more efficient simultaneous processing of multiple tasks.

Open Source Software

Software such as Linux that includes its uncompiled source code which can be modified and distributed by programmers. – Produced by community of programmers. – Free and modifiable by user. – Examples: Apache web server, Mozilla Firefox browser, OpenOffice


a computer language, developed by Sun Microsystems, that lets you encode applications, such as animated objects or computer programs, on the Internet.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)

is a page description language for specifying how text, graphics, video, and sound are placed on a web page and for creating dynamic links to other web pages and objects.


Next evolution of HTML, which will make it possible to embed images, video,and audio directly into a document without add-on software.

Web Services

Refer to set of loosely coupled software components that exchange information with each other using universal web communication standards and languages.

XML (Extensible Markup Language)

is a markup language that fixed several html deficiencies and is commonly used for program to program interfaction over the web

Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)

Set of self-contained services that communicate with one another to create a working software application. Software developers reuse these services in other combinations to assemble other applications as needed. – Example: an "invoice service" to serve whole firm for calculating and sending printed invoices. Dollar Rent A Car. – Uses Web services to link online booking system with Southwest Airlines’ Web site.

Software Packages

A prewritten, precoded, commericially available set of programs that eliminates the need for individuals or organizations to write their own software programs for certain functions.

Software Outsourcing

Application Service Provider (firm that delivers a software application or access to by charging a fee) or Internet Business Services (provide web based support by providing order processing, billing and customer relationship management), including offshore outsourcing.

Software as a Service (SaaS)

A form of cloud computing where a firm subscribes to a third-party software and receives a service that is delivered online. (Leading examples are Google Apps)

Service Level Agreement (SLA)

an agreement between the IT organization and the customer that details the service(s) to be provided; the IT organization could be an internal IT department or an external IT service provider, and the customer is the business.


Composite software applications that depend on high speed networks, universal communications standards, and open source code and are intended to be greater than the sum of their parts. (Combinations of two or more online applications, such as combining mapping software (Google Maps) with local content)


small pieces of software that run on the internet, on your computer, or on your mobile phone or tablet and are generally delivered over the internet. Refer commonly to mobile applications – iPhone, Android – Tie user to platform


refers to the ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to serve a large number of users without breaking down.

Total cost of ownership (TCO) model

All of the costs associated with the design, development, testing, implementation, documentation, training and maintenance of a software system. – Analyzes direct and indirect costs. – Hardware, software account for only about 20% of TCO. – Other costs: Installation, training, support, maintenance, infrastructure, downtime, space, and energy.

Competitive forces model for IT infrastructure investment

Addresses the question of how much your firm should spend on IT Infrastructure. 1. Market demand for firm’s services. 2. Firm’s business strategy. 3. Firm’s IT strategy, infrastructure, and cost. 4. Information technology assessment. 5. Competitor firm services. 6. Competitor firm IT infrastructure investments. (See page 203 for details)

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

Customers use processing, storage, networking, and other computing resources from cloud service providers to run their information systems.

Platform as a Service (PaaS)

Customers use infrastructure and programming tools supported by the cloud service provider to develop their own applications.

Which of the following is an operating-system and hardware-independent programming language that is the leading interactive programming environment for the Web?


Technology for running a company’s internal networks, services from telephone service companies, and technology for running Web sites linking to other computer systems through the Internet are examples of which component of IT infrastructure?

Networking and telecommunications technology

Large mainframes, servers, desktop and laptop computers, and mobile devices for accessing corporate data and the Internet are examples of which component of IT infrastructure?

computer hardware

__________ refers to programs written for a specific application to perform functions specified by end users.

application software

Which of the following best describes cloud computing?

In cloud computing, firms and individuals obtain computing power and software as services over a network, including the Internet, rather than purchasing and installing the hardware and software on their own computers.

When dealing with platform and infrastructure change, __________ refers to the ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to serve a large number of users without breaking down.


From an IT perspective, __________ is the process of predicting when a computer hardware system becomes saturated.

capacity planning

Instead of buying and installing software programs, subscribing companies rent the same functions from these services, with users paying either on a subscription or per-transaction basis.
The scenario describes which kind of external software source?

a cloud-based software service

The system software that manages and controls the computer’s activities is called __________.

the operating system

Which of the following is not one of the major IT infrastructure components?

a mainframe

Which of the following best defines a mainframe?

A mainframe is a large-capacity, high performance computer that can process large amounts of data very rapidly.

Keyboards, computer mice, touch screens, magnetic ink, and digital scanners are all examples of __________.

input devices

Which of the following is NOT a challenge of managing IT infrastructure?

consulting with shareholders on best practices

__________ is an operating system created by the open source community.


When firms outsource software work outside their national borders, this practice is called __________.

offshore software outsourcing

Which of the following best defines IT infrastructure?

IT infrastructure is the shared technology resources that provide the platform for the firm’s specific information system applications.

A location specified to include IT infrastructure such as​ storage, security, and system backup is called​ a:

data center

A​ ________ is a​ large-capacity, high-performance computer that can process large amounts of data very rapidly.


Which is TRUE of a​ multi-tiered network?

The work of the entire network is balanced over several levels of servers.

The Windows operating system is an example of​ ______________ software


Software such as Sequel Server 2014 which is used to manage business data​ (i.e., inventory) is an example of​ _______________ software.

data management

A common approach of networking multiple computers as opposed to a single computer is​ called:

distributed processing

a server dedicated to managing HTML pages is called​ a(n):

web server

______________ is an upgrade to traditional HTML because it allows the addition of multimedia features​ (i.e., video) without cumbersome​ add-ons.


Configuring a server to run a variety of instances of an operating system to appear like many different machines to the end user is an example​ of:


The Apple watch is a new type of mobile digital computing​ called:

wearable computing.

Hitachi’s new wearable device that can track office​ temperature, interactions, and even movements around the office is called​ the:

Hitachi Business Microscope​ (HBM).

Disney is using​ a/an ___________ technology in the form of a wristband to help improve the guest experience by combining a​ guest’s room​ key, park​ ticket, and eventually a​ vacation-planning system to make the experience more efficient with reduced wait times.

radio-frequency identification​ (RFID)

Developing effective apps is considered a critical element to successful adoption​ of:

wearable computing.

Compared to​ in-house hosting,​ cloud-based hosting​ ________.

minimizes the risk of investing in technology that will soon become obsolete

In cloud​ computing, resources are said to be​ "pooled" because:

organizations share the same physical hardware through virtualization.

Connecting geographically remote computers in a single network to create a​ "virtual supercomputer" is called​ ________.

grid computing

Why are legacy systems still​ used

They are too expensive to redesign.

Major products including Bluemix and​’s are considered​ a:

Platform as a Service​ (PaaS).

Which of the following is an example of a popular open source operating​ system?


______ uniquely allows for​ presentation, communication, and storage of data. It is often used to transfer data from one organization to another.


Which operating system does the iPad​ use?


Which type of software is created and updated by a worldwide community of programmers and is available for​ free?

Open source

Which of the following refers to the capability of a​ computer, product, or system to add additional​ features?


Software applications that are based on combining different online software applications are​ called:


Which model can be used to analyze the direct and indirect costs to help firms determine the actual cost of specific technology​ implementations?

Total cost of ownership​ (TCO)

David creates a central database by extracting, transforming, and loading metadata from various internal and external sources of information. He plans to use this database for executing various functions such as intelligence gathering, strategic planning, and analysis.
This central repository of information is referred to as a __________.

data warehouse

__________ involves the process of creating small, stable, yet flexible data structures from complex groups of data when designing a relational database.


The organization’s rules for sharing, disseminating, acquiring, standardizing, classifying, and inventorying information are specified by __________.

information policies

You’ve probably used __________ to find the best airfare on the Internet, get directions to a restaurant, do a search on Google, or connect with a friend on Facebook.


In a database, each row represents __________.

a record

Which of the following can be used to automatically enforce consistency among different sets of data?

Data cleansing

Which of the following best describes a data quality audit?

a structured survey of the accuracy and level of completeness of the data in an information system

__________ is a type of intelligence gathering that uses statistical techniques to explore records in a data warehouse, hunting for hidden patterns and relationships that are undetectable in routine reports.

data mining

In a database, __________ is used to uniquely identify each record for retrieval or manipulation.

a key field

Organizations perform data quality audits to __________.

determine accuracy and level of completeness of data

In a database, each column represents __________.

an attribute or a field

Data definition is __________.

a DBMS capability that specifies the structure and content of the database

Which of the following best describes a data manipulation language?

a data manipulation language is associated with a database management system that end users and programmers use to manipulate date in the database

Online analytical processing (OLAP) is best defined as __________.

the capability for manipulating and analyzing large volumes of data from multiple perspectives

__________ would specify that only selected members of the payroll and human resources department would have the right to change sensitive employee data, such as an employee’s salary and social security number, and that these departments are responsible for making sure that such employee data are accurate.

an information policy

__________ breaks a big data problem down into sub-problems, distributes them among up to thousands of inexpensive computer processing nodes, and then combines the result into a smaller data set that is easier to analyze.


Which of the following functions of an organization is responsible for information policy, as well as for data planning, data dictionary development, and monitoring data usage in the firm?

data administration

The __________ functions of an organization are responsible for defining and maintaining a database. These functions are performed by a database design and management group.

database administration

Which of the following is NOT a step a firm might take to make sure they have a high level of data quality?

using in-memory computing

Some of the roles of an information policy are __________.

to identify which users and organizational units can share information, where information can be distributed, and who is responsible for updating ad maintaining the information

Which of the following statements about the power of a relational DBMS is false?

the relational database has become the primary method for organizing and maintaining data in information systems because it is so rigidly controlled

Which of the following is not a step a firm might take to make sure they have a high level of data quality?

using data mining

Which of the following best describes a data dictionary?

an automated or manual tool for storing and organizing information about the data maintained in a database

Why is a relational DBMS so powerful?

Relational database products are available as cloud computing services.

Which of the following is not a step a firm might take to make sure they have a high level of data quality?

using in-memory computing

A(n) __________ key uniquely identifies a row or record in a table.


_______________ databases are by far the most popular type of database on the market today.


Relational databases enforce​ ______________ integrity to​ ensure, for​ instance, that a teacher​ can’t be assigned to a CLASS table unless they already exist in the TEACHER table.


The most popular data manipulation language and method to​ "question" a database is called​ ______________.

Structured Query Language

Which tool enables users to view the same data in different ways using multiple​ dimensions?


The special organizational function whose responsibilities include the technical and operational aspects of managing​ data, including physical database design and​ maintenance, is called​ ________.

database administration

In a student​ database, a column called LastName would be an example of​ a(n) _____________.


Which of the following statements is FALSE about business intelligence​ (BI) systems?

BI systems only support​ decision-making activities.

In a student​ database, a row that describes the top​ student, including his or her​ LastName, FirstName, and​ StudentNumber, is an example of a​ ______________.


The data​ _______________ language would allow you to retrieve information from the database​ (i.e., using the​ SELECT, FROM, WHERE​ commands).


Among the following​ statements, which one is NOT applicable to big​ data?

Big data can be processed with traditional techniques.

What is the first step you should take in managing data for a​ firm?

identify the data needed to run the business.

Which of the following is NOT a rule in an​ organization’s information​ policy?

What the relationships inside the data are

A​ ________ is represented by a 0 or 1. Eight together make a byte​ (i.e., 00101100).


In a student​ database, a collection of related attributes such as​ LastName, FirstName, and​ Student# creates​ a(n) _______________.


The most common use of nonrelational database management systems is​ for______________

managing extremely large data sets

If you needed a DBMS for large commercial use on a​ mainframe, _____________ would be a viable option.

Microsoft SQL Server

Which of the following is NOT a function of a data​ warehouse?

Filter data

Which of the following involves searching for patterns and relationships among​ data?

Data mining

Microsoft Azure SQL is an example of a​ _________________ database.


​A(n) __________ is a popular way to describe relationships​ (i.e., one-to-one,​ one-to-many) in a relational database.

entity relationship diagram

A​ ________ in a database represents a single character such as a letter or number.


Which of the following statements is NOT a characteristic of​ Hadoop?

Hadoop extracts data from multiple tables that have a relationship.

Relational tables need to be​ ______________ to help avoid duplicate data.


Among the​ following, what is the best way to distinguish between reporting tools and data mining​ tools?

The complexity of techniques used

What technology trend raises ethical issues related to the limitless data that can be collected about​ you?

Data storage costs rapidly decline

Which of the following is a powerful analysis technology that crunches data from multiple sources to find hidden connections and typically used by the​ government?


Among the five identified moral dimensions of the information​ age, which addresses the question of liability related to information​ systems?

Accountability and control

What is it called when companies combine data from multiple sources and create electronic dossiers of detailed information on​ individuals?


Among the five identified moral dimensions of the information​ age, which addresses the question​ "which cultural values are supported by information​ technology?"

Quality of life

If someone at your work accuses you of sending inappropriate​ emails, you should be afforded​ _________________

due process

____ is a feature of political systems in which laws permit individuals to recover damages done to them by the actions of others.


If you accept a position as an information systems​ manager, you have​ a(n) ____________ to accept the​ costs, benefits, and obligations for the decisions you make.


Professional organizations like the American Medical Association have​ _____________________, which includes specific conduct guidelines such​ as, do no harm.

professional codes of conduct

Andrew analyzes an ethical issue at​ work, evaluates the outcomes of various​ options, and chooses the one that achieves the greatest value. Which ethical principle is Andrew​ applying?

Utilitarian principle

What is the understanding that most American and European privacy law is based​ on?

Fair Information Practices​ (FIP)

​A(n) _____ is a mechanism that enables the U.S. government to extend consumer protection beyond U.S. borders through private policies and​ self-regulation that meet U.S. guidelines.

safe harbor

If you return to a website that welcomes you back by​ name, you likely have small text file on your computer with information about your prior visits called a​ ___________.


A formal name to describe​ self-regulating policies is called​ _____________.

safe harbor

The use and regulation of trade​ secrets, copyrights, and patents is the U.S.​ government’s attempt to protect​ ________.

intellectual property

In the​ U.S., while there are many people that have access to technology and​ information, there are many that do not. This creates a​ ______ that leads to unequal opportunities.

digital divide

Computer Vision Syndrome​ (CVS)

It is an equalizer for social classes and minorities.

A computer​ _________________ causes the most repetitive stress injuries.


Putting a key logger on your​ boss’s computer without permission would be considered​ a(n) ___________.

computer crime

What does Data Management Software do with business data regarding​ inventory, customers, and​ vendors?

Data Management Software​ organizes, manages, and processes business data.

IT professionals working to make a new system work with an existing system is focusing​ on:

systems integration

The IT infrastructure computer software component includes both​ ____________ and​ __________ software categories.

system; application

_____ is when a firm connects numerous computers together into one network to create​ one, very powerful computer system that has coordinated processing

Grid computing

Collectively, the coordination of computer​ hardware, software, data​ management, networking, and technology services collectively is​ termed:

IT infrastructure.

What type of computing involves connecting computers that are not near one another into a signal network and combining the computational power of the computers on the​ network?

Grid computing

____ is the process of presenting computing resources that are accessed in ways that appear to not be restricted by physical configuration or geographic location.


The popular USB​ "thumb" drive uses a storage technology very similar​ to:

solid state drives.

What is a widely used form of distributed​ processing?

Client/Server Computing

In​ client/server computing, a client normally consists of​ a:

desktop computer.

Taking application components from various​ resources, ________ mixes and matches to create a​ new, customized Internet experience.

a mashup

Google Apps is a popular​ cloud-based:

software as a service​ (SaaS).

What is​ service-oriented architecture​ (SOA)?

A set of​ self-contained services that communicate with each other to create a working software application

______________________ is an open source operating system for mobile devices.


Which of the following is the best example of a software​ suite?

Microsoft Office 2013

ZipReality, which uses both Zillow and Google​ Maps, is an example of​ a:


Frustrated customers angry about a site not working is an example of which IT cost of ownership​ (TCO)?


Companies use a​ _______ model to analyze the costs of obtaining and maintaining an IT system to determine if it is feasible to have the information system as internal or outsourced.


What is the process of predicting when a computer hardware system will become​ saturated?

Capacity planning

Numerous companies choose​ a(n) _________ model where they retain some infrastructure ​in-houselong dash—primarily their critical systemslong dash—with the​ less-essential systems outsourced to a third party.

hybrid cloud

The most common type of database is a​ __________.

relational database

In a relational database generalized categories represent​ a(n) __________, and each category has characteristics called​ ______________.

​entity; attributes

With regard to relational​ databases, which of the following is false​?

Each table must have a​ one-to-one relationship to another table.

A​ _______________ is used to link the SUPPLIER and PART tables by entering SupplierID in the PART table.

foreign key

A​ _______________ is represented as a column in a database table that represents things like a​ person’s first​ name, last​ name, and age.


An organization interested in the most popular open source DBMS on the market would adopt​ _____ SQL.


As part of a​ DBMS, a(n)​ _________ documents information about a database.

data dictionary

What is a specific software for​ creating, storing,​ organizing, and accessing data from a​ database?


Which of the following is false about Microsoft​ Access?

Microsoft Access does not have report generation capability.

(A) _______________ is the formal name for questioning or making a data request from the database.


What is the term for data sets with volumes so huge that they are beyond the ability of typical DBMS to​ capture, store, and​ analyze?

Big Data

If a firm wants to learn more about its​ users, behaviors, and marketing​ effectiveness, they might turn to​ ____, relying on the huge amount of data available through the Internet.

Web mining

__________________ is the most popular​ open-source program that allows for storage of big data.


The term​ ____________ describes data sets like​ Google’s database that are too big for traditional DBMS to handle.

big data

A(n) _____________ is a database whose content focuses on historical organizational data.

data warehouse

What would an organization use to specify rules for​ sharing, disseminating,​ acquiring, standardizing,​ classifying, and inventorying​ information?

An information policy

A data​ __________ is a method using a survey to determine the accuracy of a data set.


When thinking about managing and controlling data within a​ company, which of the following is false​?

The actual physical database is never created by the database administration of a company.

___________________ is a term used by companies looking to detect and correct​ incomplete, redundant, or incorrect data.

Data scrubbing

The​ _________ actually works with the​ databases, creating relations between tables and implementing controls that would minimize data issues and provide security for the data.

database administration

Edward Snowden, NSA technology contract worker

used web crawler (automatically moves from website to website, following links embedded in each document, and copies everything in its path) to get data out of NSA he was concerned, data provided to government from data gathering giants (google, facebook, twitter, microsoft, yahoo) PRISM helps identify terrorists by collecting metadata, this was what sacred snowden court ruled that it wasnt justified to gather that much, but the thing itself wasnt illegal

5 steps of ethical analysis

1. Identify and describe the facts clearly 2. Define the conflict or dilemma and identify the higher-order values involved 3. identify the stakeholders 4. identify the options that you can reasonably take 5. identify the potential consequences of you options

Principles of right and wrong that you use to make choices are called?


A store printing out receipts based on your buying patterns is related to the? trend, ___________, where technology trends raise ethical issues

data analysis advances

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