Inquizitive Chapter 20-24

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When the first artificial satellite, -, was successfully launched, Americans for the first time felt their technology to be inferior to that of the -. The Eisenhower administration responded by offering federal funds to higher education with the -.

Sputnik, Russians. National Defense Education Act.

The economic boom of the 1950s was caused by a combination of several factors. Identify the causes of this exceptional growth in the 1950s.

the country’s global dominance government policies

Similar to the situation for homosexuals during the 1950s, so-called psychological experts deemed feminism a -, and it was widely – by advertisers and authors. These psychologists went so far as to insist that while individual women might desire to -, their – was caused by a failure to accept the -.

mental disorder, dismissed desire to work for wages, unhappiness, "maternal instinct".

Eisenhower presided over the largest public-works enterprise in American history, the building of the 41,000-mile interstate highway system, in order to ensure armies and civilian populations could move on autobahn-like highways to reduce the casualty in the event of a Soviet attack. Identify the industries that benefited most from this act in the end.

oil companies automakers

Identify the causes of the population increase that followed the baby boom that took place after World War II.

the continued increase in births the availability of "miracle" drugs that extended life expectancy

In what ways did the U.S. government endorse Judeo-Christian religious beliefs to fight communism at the height of the Cold War?

Congress added the words "under God" to the Pledge of Allegiance. "In God We Trust" was added to paper currency.

What does this map reveal about the interstate highway system?

Even-numbered highways generally run in an east-west direction. Odd-numbered highways generally run in a north-south direction. While the interstate system enabled extensive travel throughout the Northeast and South, travel was much more limited in the Southwest.

In 1954, after the French surrendered at Dien Bien Phu to the Vietnamese forces of Ho Chi Minh, the United States’ ever-increasing military involvement in Indochina went even further. With the Geneva Accords, the United States decided to side with the South Vietnamese dictator, Ngo Dinh Diem, below the Seventeenth Parallel. T or F?


Identify the most important issues—both political and personal—in the presidential election of 1960.

the Missile Gap Kennedy’s Christian denomination

Identify the characteristics of "free enterprise" and "people’s capitalism."

people’s capitalism and free enterprise Correct label: embodied individual freedom people’s capitalism Correct label: an increase in individuals investing in Wall Street free enterprise Correct label: an economic system built on private ownership Correct label: also called "consumer capitalism"

In the 1950s, television changed several aspects of the American lifestyle. Identify the key changes that resulted from the growing influence of television.

Americans shifted mealtime from the dining room to the living room. Americans turned to television as their major source for news about public events. Americans chose television to be their leading leisure activity.

Eisenhower’s secretary of state, John Foster Dulles, announced an updated version of the doctrine of containment called "massive retaliation." Identify the statements below that describe massive retaliation and its impacts on the country.

stated that any Soviet attack on the United States would be countered with nuclear assault created a risk that a small conflict could escalate into a nuclear disaster resulted in Americans living in fear of nuclear war, with many building bomb shelters in their backyards

In the 1950s, most women found work in low-paying fields. They did this in most cases to pursue personal fulfillment and obtain a sense of financial independence. T or F?


The Plessy v. Ferguson doctrine of "separate but equal" had permeated American society since the turn of the twentieth century. Put in chronological order the U.S. Supreme Court cases that chiseled away at the Court’s previous decision.

Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada; Mendez v. Westminster; Sweatt v. Painter; Brown v. Board of Education

Unlike the 1870s when railroad construction spearheaded the American economy, during the 1950s, – development and credit availability on – goods were the major cogs in the wheel of economic growth. A renewed hope for the future illustrated by the postwar – associated with new housing development launched a shift from -, which coincided with consumer eagerness to obtain home appliances like television sets and new – to navigate between those new homes to the jobs back in the cities.

How did the end of the war begin to shape the postwar world?
Fill in the blanks to complete the passage describing the atomic bomb.

The decision to drop the atomic bomb was very uncontroversial at the time. Truman ultimately decided to employ it to end the war. Ultimately the bomb was responsible for a greater number of Japanese casualties than Americans suffered during the whole Pacific theater.

uncontroversial,end the war,greater

What did the Neutrality Acts, which started being passed in 1935, forbid?

Selling weapons to countries at war

What did labor leader A. Philip Randolph hope to accomplish with his March on Washington?

an antilynching law an end to segregation

Axis powers

Norway, Finland, and eastern Europe

Allied countries

Soviet Union, Syria, Iraq, and parts of North Africa

Vichy France

countries in North Africa and parts of France under Axis control

Because of the need for high production rates with minimal interruptions, involvement in the Second World War restrained the growth of labor unions in the American economy.


Identify the goals of the National Resources Planning Board.

to redistribute income to expand Social Security to improve access to health care

Roosevelt viewed Hitler’s victories as a direct threat to the United States. But, opponents of the American involvement in Europe, like the America First Committee, supported foreign policy views of isolationism, meaning that they sought to keep the United States out of the European conflicts of the 1930’s and 1940’s. In contrast, groups like the Free World Association believed that intervention was necessary to prevent the spread of fascism.

Threat, isolationism, and intervention

Identify how the Good Neighbor Policy of the 1930s sought to improve relations between the United States and Latin America.

It reduces U.S. military intervention

For whites in America during the wartime years, freedom was viewed as a goal to be achieved, whereas for black Americans, freedom was seen as a possession to be defended.


Identify the Four Freedoms articulated by President Roosevelt as a general Allied war aim.

freedom of speech freedom of worship freedom from want freedom from fear

What was the experience of African-Americans during World War II, either in combat or at home?

It marked the first time American society saw that it had established a system of master races that oppressed non-whites. It reshaped the racial map of the United States, with millions of African-Americans moving to the North and West from the South.

Identify the statements below that are accurate with regard to the Manhattan Project.

Its purpose was to discover ways to access the potentially vast amounts of energy contained within the atom. As vice president, Harry Truman had no knowledge of its existence.

The Second World War unified American society as virtually no other conflict in the nation’s history had. Freedom from want as a wartime ideal addressed the feeling that the Depression would not return after the war, while freedom from fear embraced the ideal of an American’s personal liberty being contrasted with life in a fascist state.

Unified, want, not return, fear and fascist

Which of the following terms were agreed to at the Potsdam conference of 1945?

Nazi leaders would face war-crime trials. After the war, Germany was to come under Allied military government.

A member of the America First Committee would most likely agree with the sentiments of this cartoon.


Why does Wesley believe that black Americans are denied the Four Freedoms?

Because of Americans’ deeply entrenched hatred of Americans of African ancestry.

Which of the following statements about the "Fifth Freedom" are correct?

It embraced the concept of free enterprise as being central to prosperity. The advancement of this ideal came from the private sector. It equated consumer choice with liberty and democracy.

In his use of the phrase "great arsenal of democracy," Franklin Roosevelt meant that it was important for the United States to produce and store up as many weapons as possible in preparation for an American conflict with the Nazis.


In his work "The Price of Free World Victory," Henry Wallace rejected the ideas of The American Century as centering too much on business dominance rather than international cooperation. He felt that wealth should be redistributed from the hands of those who had made it, and not to do so would increase hunger, illiteracy, and poverty.

Henry Wallace, business dominance, redistributed from and increase

Which of the following statements express the ideas of Henry Luce’s The American Century?

America was to be the dominant power on the planet. Free markets were the pathway to liberty.

What does it reveal about World War II in the Pacific?

The Japanese controlled significant parts of the Pacific Ocean, as well as parts of the Asian continent, including Manchuria, Korea, and Burma. Allied forces attacked the Japanese forces from many directions, including by sea, as well as on land through Mongolia and the Soviet Union. All major battles took place on islands in the Pacific Ocean and Japan.

Henry Luce’s 1941 book The American Century called for America to return to a more home-directed, America-First foreign policy after the bloodshed of World War II.


Identify the statements below that describe military service during the Second World War.

The military remained segregated for the duration of the conflict. Military service proved to have a unifying effect on the American servicemen from all regions of the country.

Unlike the war against Germany, which was viewed as a race war due to the Nazis’ treatment of the Jews, the war against the Japanese was seen by most Americans as an ideological struggle between two competing ways of life.


What historical information could you use to challenge the claim that this painting encapsulated American society and its values during the war?

Although this image promotes unity and individual rights, American society was deeply segregated throughout the war years and not all people benefited equally from these rights.

Which of the following were agreed to at the Yalta conference of 1945?

secret plans to divide the political influence in southern and eastern Europe between the British and the Russians Russia would enter into the Pacific war.

World War II accelerated the integration of American society. Unlike World War I’s forced Americanization policies, pluralism was seen as patriotic during the Second World War. By the war’s end, racism and nativism had become intellectually discredited.

accelerated, forced Americanization, and intellectually discredited

Which of the following groups spoke out against Japanese-American internment during World War II?

No group did

With the end of the war, American society expected that the employment changes the war had brought for women would continue.


What were the outcomes of the 1944 Bretton Woods conference?

American foreign policy embraced the reduction of internal barriers to free trade. The United States became the dominant influence in international finance.

The Second World War was historically unique in that it saw fewer civilian deaths as a result of the war than other similar global conflicts throughout history. Instead, the majority of wartime deaths consisted of military personnel, which makes this conflict unusual in the annals of world history.


Which nation was excluded from membership in the United Nations Security Council?


Identify the statements that describe the GI Bill of Rights.

Its purpose was to avoid the economic instability that followed World War I. It led to a massive increase in college attendance after the war.

Identify the act or law in which the United States agreed to provide military aid to countries without receiving payment as long as those countries promised to return the military equipment after the conclusion of hostilities.

the Lend-Lease Act

What was the experience of Japanese Americans during World War II?

Japanese Americans in the West were interned in camps, which represented the biggest violation of civil liberties in America, second only to slavery. Japanese Americans in California lost their land to whites when they were forced into internment camps.

Friedrich Hayek’s work The Road to Serfdom argued that economic planning ultimately threatened liberty. Conservatives used this book to justify a decreased role for the state in the economy, by equating fascism and socialism with the New Deal.

economic planning, a decrease, New deal

What does this map reveal about the election of 1932?

Hoover had strong support only from states in the Northeast. Roosevelt won the election by a landslide.

Identify the missions of the following unions and organizations.

This union was organized based on the craft of a worker, and not by the industry in which the worker worked. Correct label: American Federation of Labor (AFL) This organization wanted to secure "economic freedom and industrial democracy" for American workers. Correct label: Congress of Industrial Workers (CIO) This organization used the sit-down strike as an effective tactic to halt production and force negotiations. Correct label: United Auto Workers (UAW)

During the Depression, there were widespread calls for women to remove themselves from the labor market to make room for unemployed men. Identify the statements that describe women during the Depression.

The profile of women was raised during the era by Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins and First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, who both advised the president. Millions of women were excluded for Social Security, as it did not include domestic servants and women who did not work outside the home. Many employers refused to hire women if their husbands already earned a "living wage."

Celebrating the work and life of everyday people was a central focus of artists during the 1930s, as their contributions were seen as genuine expressions of Americanism. T or F?


Not all voices of protest came from the unions. Identify the political agendas of the following individuals.

He called for the state to utilize disused factories, farms, and homes to create cooperative ventures to provide jobs for the unemployed. Correct label: Upton Sinclair He won wide support for a plan that would issue $200 to older Americans with the requirement they immediately spend it to boost the economy. Correct label: Dr. Francis Townsend He called for a restructuring of the American economy in which wealth would be confiscated and redistributed to provide $5,000 grants and guaranteed jobs with annual salaries. Correct label: Huey Long

Ironically, the anti-modernist fundamentalists seized the modern technology of the radio to spread their messages through radio shows or outright ownership of broadcast stations. T or F?


Identify the statements that describe Mexican-Americans’ experiences during the Depression.

Mexican-American politicians attempted to be classified as white in order to avoid suffering the same discrimination as African-Americans. Mexican-American citizens and Mexicans who recently arrived in the country were encouraged to return to Mexico.

Under the leadership of Commissioner of Indian Affairs John Collier, the administration launched the Indian New Deal. Identify the statements that describe the Indian New Deal.

It ended the policy of forced assimilation and allowed Indians unprecedented cultural autonomy. It ended the policy of dividing Indian lands into small plots for individual families and selling the rest.

What does Roosevelt mean by the difference between the definition of liberty that has existed in the past and his own "broader definition of liberty"?

Roosevelt felt that his New Deal walked a fine line between too much government and too little. Roosevelt equated freedom with economic security and independence, and rejected the liberty of contract, which served the interests of "the privileged few."

While the concept of American liberty was being redefined by activists and the Supreme Court, the new appreciation for freedom of expression was not universal. Identify the outcomes of the following committees and courts in this process.

established in 1938 to investigate disloyalty Correct label: House Un-American Activities Committee made it a federal crime to "teach, advocate, or encourage" the overthrow of the United States government Correct label: Smith Act

The Emergency Banking Act was the first in an unprecedented flurry of legislation passed in the first three months of Roosevelt’s administration, a period known as the Hundred Days. Identify the goals of the following legislation passed during the Hundred Days.

This had a $3.3 billion budget and contracted with private construction companies to build roads, schools, hospitals, and other public facilities. Correct label: Public Works Administration This barred commercial banks from becoming involved in the buying and selling of stocks. The law prevented many of the irresponsible practices that had contributed to the stock market crash. Correct label: Glass-Steagall Act The government would work with business leaders to establish codes that set standards for output, prices, and working conditions. This would eliminate cutthroat competition and industry arrangements would be exempt from antitrust laws. Correct label: National Recovery Administration This provided unemployed men with jobs on projects like forest preservation, flood control, and the improvement of national parks and wildlife preserves. Correct label: Civilian Conservation Corps

The Rural Electrification Agency (REA) was a key piece of legislation of the Second New Deal. Identify the statements that describe the REA.

The goal of the REA was to bring electricity to farms, thus creating a demand for household appliances that would benefit the whole economy. The REA proved to be one of the most successful programs of the Second New Deal.

What was the overall significance of the New Deal and its legacy?

not a significance of the New Deal Correct label: It drastically decreased unemployment and ended the Depression prior to World War II. significance of the New Deal Correct label: It enhanced the power of the national government. Correct label: It made the Democratic Party the majority party in the country for the next thirty to forty years. Correct label: It was the first time that the government intervened to promote the right of labor, by recognizing workers’ right to organize unions.

FDR made a serious political miscalculation regarding the Supreme Court. Identify the statements that describe the Court fight.

The Court fight started because Roosevelt was worried that a court almost wholly appointed by Republicans would invalidate much of his New Deal. FDR’s attempt to pack the court—or add additional justices—raised cries that he was an aspiring dictator. The Court fight resulted in a fundamental shift in court behavior that tended to follow election returns.

The era of the New Deal as a far-reaching social reform was coming to an end by 1941. Why did southern Democrats turn on Roosevelt?

Roosevelt encouraged the election of more liberal politicians in the region in 1938. The "Report on the Economic Conditions in the South" revealed that the South lagged behind the rest of the nation in industrialization, health, and education.

Labor unions became more prominent in American life during the period of the New Deal. Identify the statements that describe labor unions during the New Deal and World War II.

Union membership doubled between 1930 and 1940. Unions had become so powerful that U.S. Steel negotiated with its 200,000 workers and the Steel Workers Organization Committee in order to avoid a strike.

In 1939 Roosevelt put Keynesian economic theory to work by requesting billions of dollars for work relief and farm aid in an attempt to sustain the purchasing power of individual Americans and stimulate the economy. T or F?


The Scottsboro case became an international cause célèbre and highlighted the racism prevalent in the American South. Identify the statements that describe the Scottsboro case.

As a result of the case, the Supreme Court greatly expanded the definition of civil liberties, ensuring that defendants have access to effective representation. The case revolved around nine young black men arrested for the rape of two white women in Alabama in 1931.

The United Auto Workers (UAW) was the first union to unionize an entire industry successfully. Identify the statements that describe the UAW.

The UAW’s membership swelled to 400,000 by 1937. The UAW used sit-down strike tactics to force concessions from management.

FDR consistently linked freedom with economic security and identified entrenched economic inequality as its greatest enemy. T or F?


The one important area of the economy that Roosevelt’s New Deal legislation failed to act on was the housing industry. Roosevelt firmly believed that families and private enterprise had dealt well with housing during the Great Depression, and he was afraid government action would actually cause problems where they did not exist. T or F?


The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) came out of the Hundred Days. Identify the statements that describe the TVA and its mission.

The TVA would provide cheap and easy access to electricity for homes and industry in seven southern states. The TVA was a series of dams designed to control the flooding on the Tennessee River and its tributaries.

In many instances the New Deal reinforced segregation and disappointed blacks who had voted for broad changes to the nation’s race system. Identify the ways in which the New Deal failed African-Americans.

The Civilian Conservation Corps maintained segregation by creating separate camps for blacks and whites. Federal housing policy reinforced existing residential segregation in municipalities in both the North and South. FDR did not succeed in passing antilynching legislation in Congress. In the South, New Deal construction projects refused to hire black workers.

Which of the following acts were designed by the Roosevelt administration to shore up the American finance system beyond the initial Emergency Banking Act?

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Glass-Steagall Act

The Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) was created in 1935 to organize workers by industry rather than by craft, which was the American Federation of Labor’s (AFL) traditional policy. T or F?


The centerpiece of the Second New Deal legislation was the Social Security Act of 1935. Identify the statements that describe the Social Security Act.

The Social Security Act created a system of unemployment insurance, old age pensions, and aid to the disabled, the elderly poor, and families with dependent children. The ideas put into action in the Social Security Act had been promoted by Progressive reformers.

Identify the greatest accomplishments of the PWA.

This was the largest man-made structure in history up to its opening in 1941. It would eventually provide 40 percent of the United States’ hydroelectric power. Correct label: Grand Coulee Dam The highway connects Miami with Key West, Florida, through a complex system of bridges and roadworks. Correct label: Overseas Highway This massive civil engineering project includes three separate bridges that connect the boroughs of New York City. It was designated a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark in 1986. Correct label: Triborough Bridge

While the American version of the welfare state created by the Social Security Act of 1935 was a radical departure from previous U.S. government policy, it was much more decentralized, covered fewer citizens, and was less well funded than that of its European counterparts. T or F?


In the mid-1930s, for the first time in American history, the left enjoyed a shaping influence on the nation’s politics and culture. Identify the statements that describe the communist movement in America.

The Communist Party became a focal point for a broad social and intellectual impulse that helped to redraw the boundaries of American freedom. The Communist Party attempted to form a Popular Front in an attempt to ally themselves with socialists and New Dealers in movements for social change. The Popular Front and its focus on civil liberties brought the Communist Party respectability, helping to create a more pluralistic understanding of Americanism.

In theater, film, and dance, the Popular Front vision of American society sank deep roots and survived much longer than the political moment from which it sprang. Identify the important cultural contributions to the Popular Front.

"Ballad for Americans" Mr. Deeds Goes to Town (1936) Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939)

Southern Democrats held very powerful positions in Congress, and Roosevelt felt it was necessary to placate them to ensure the passage of his New Deal legislation. Identify the statements that describe the political monopoly in the South.

Democratic incumbents were elected election after election, so as a result very few eligible voters bothered to cast ballots in the region. Social Security law excluded agricultural and domestic workers because these were the largest categories of black employment, and southerners wanted to exclude them from the benefits. After blacks lost the right to vote, Republicans had no chance in the South, and as a result Democrats held a political monopoly in the region.

Identify the contributions of the following individuals and groups to the Popular Front.

mobilized popular support for black defendants victimized by a racist criminal justice system Correct label: International Labor Defense American composer whose song "Ballad for Americans" celebrated the religious, racial, and ethnic diversity of American society Correct label: Earl Robinson photographer who captured everyday life of migrants and sharecroppers Correct label: Dorothea Lange

Identify the statements that describe the Works Progress Administration (WPA).

The WPA constructed thousands of public buildings and bridges, more than 500,000 miles of roads, and 600 airports. The WPA hired artists and writers for projects including painting murals, writing guidebooks, and authoring histories of the United States. The WPA was unique in that unlike previous work relief programs it also employed many out-of-work white-collar workers, including doctors and dentists.

The public assistance programs established by Social Security, notably aid to dependent children and to the poor and elderly, were open to all Americans who could demonstrate need. Identify the ways in which blacks were prevented from benefiting from this limited assistance.

States set "moral" standards of eligibility, as determined by local authorities, that discriminated against blacks. States set benefit levels extremely low and set eligibility standards that discriminated against blacks. Because many blacks worked in jobs where they did not pay Social Security taxes, most were eligible only for government handouts that came with a stigma.

During the 1900s and 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan experienced explosive growth as immigrants joined in large numbers to defend traditional American Protestant values. T or F?


The stock market crash of October 1929 itself did not create the Great Depression. There were other indicators that the economy was in serious trouble. Which were long-term indicators of serious trouble prior to October 1929?

Frenzied real-estate speculation in Florida and California had come to a stop. There was stagnation in new automobile sales and household consumer goods after 1926.

Republican influence in big business and their party’s domination of government resulted in a close relationship between big business and the Republican Party. T or F?


With Europe still recovering from the Great War during the 1920s, American corporations invested massive amounts of money into overseas interests. Identify the statements that describe American international trade during this time.

In the 1920s, the U.S. dollar replaced the British pound as the most important currency of international trade. Approximately 40 percent of the world’s manufactured goods were made in the United States in the 1920s.

What are civil liberties?

rights an individual may assert even against democratic majorities

Identify the statements that describe Hoover’s beliefs and actions during the crises of the Great Depression.

He believed that voluntary steps by business and charity would assist the people and nation through the crises. Despite no improvement in the day-to-day lives of most people, Hoover put a positive spin on the conditions in the media. By 1932, Hoover admitted volunteerism was not working and created the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.

American economic prosperity in the 1920’s was driven by the automobile industry. Which of the statements describe the automobile industry in the 1920s?

Automobile production tripled during the 1920s. The automobile industry stimulated the expansion of the oil, rubber, and steel industries.

Voter turnout declined as American citizens started to focus more on private issues, including leisure and the consumption of consumer goods, rather than public issues such as politics. T or F?


William Howard Taft was appointed chief justice of the Supreme Court in 1921. Identify the statements that describe the Supreme Court under Taft.

In Adkins v. Children’s Hospital the Taft Court overturned a minimum wage law. The Court struck down a federal law that barred goods produced by child labor from interstate commerce.

The 1925 Scopes trial in Tennessee threw into sharp contrast the division between fundamentalism and modern secular culture. Identify the key groups and people involved in the famous trial.

lawyer for the prosecution who was a famous populist politician, former candidate for president, and fundamentalist Christian Correct label: Williams Jennings Bryan crucial Scopes defender that believed freedom meant above all the right to independent thought and individual self-expression Correct label: American Civil Liberties Union famous defense attorney who defended Scopes Correct label: Clarence Darrow

One of the most notable protests took place in the spring of 1932 as – marched from all over the country and converged on Washington, D.C., to demand a -. The bonus was due these men in 1945, but economic circumstances led them to plead for an early payment.

World War I veterans bonus payment

The 1920s were a time of great economic change in the United States. Identify the areas of the American economy that were in decline even before the 1929 stock market crash.

agriculture manufacturing

Boston indecency laws led to the phrase -, which became a term of – among those who supported artistic freedom. The Watch and Ward Committee of – banned – books from area bookstores. The works included some of the greatest literary figures in American history, such as Upton Sinclair, Theodore Dreiser, and Ernest Hemingway.

Banned in Boston ridicule Boston sixty-five

In response to the critical economic situation created by the Great Depression, Herbert Hoover quickly and effectively passed the Smoot-Hawley Tariff, which helped to stabilize the American economy in 1930. T or F?


American foreign policy in the 1920s continued to follow Wilson’s internationalism tradition, and, as a result, the United States intervened overseas to address human rights violations and provide economic assistance to less-advanced nations. T or F?


With the achievement of woman suffrage in 1920, passing the Equal Rights Amendment became the next objective of the feminist movement. Identify the statements that describe the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA).

The only women’s group to support the amendment was the National Woman’s Party. The amendment would eliminate all legal distinctions "on account of sex."

The Depression transformed and shattered the expectations of the "American way of life." Which are examples of the new reality of American life during the Depression years?

Thousands of Americans formed shantytowns across the country in parks and fields as they had lost their homes. The Depression reversed the movement of people from farms to cities. Americans looked for work abroad, as they were unable to find jobs in the United States.

Identify the statements that describe Schenck v. United States.

The case upheld the conviction of Eugene V. Debs for giving an antiwar speech. The case upheld the constitutionality of the wartime Espionage Act.

During the Great Migration of World War I, over a million black Americans moved from the rural South to northern urban centers. New York’s Harlem gained a reputation as the "capital" of black America. Identify the statements that describe life in Harlem in the 1920s.

Harlem was dominated by poverty, but it did contain a vibrant black cultural community. A major cultural movement, the Harlem Renaissance, grew out of the area, in which authors and artists explored black culture. West Indian blacks made up a large portion of the Harlem population.

In 1932, the U.S. economy hit rock bottom. Identify examples of the effects these economic events had on the United States between 1929 and 1932.

U.S. steel fell from $262 a share to just $22, and General Motors’ stock dropped from $73 to $8. Correct label: The Gross National Product (GNP), or value of all goods and services produced in the country, dropped. With such high unemployment, there was no demand for products because no one could afford anything (even at reduced costs). Correct label:] Prices on consumer goods decreased. U.S. steel, which had employed 225,000 people in 1929, had none by 1932. Workers who did have jobs took reduced hours and pay cuts. Correct label: Unemployment increased.

The election of 1928 was extremely close, which reflected the relative lack of popularity of both candidates. T or F?


How does the decision in Meyer v. Nebraska expand the definition of liberty protected by the Fourteenth Amendment?

Federal courts needed to overturn laws throughout the country that were meant to restrict immigrants from practicing their religion or culture . The Court decided that the English language is not a test of United States citizenship nor can it be required.

How did the idea of free speech evolve between World War I and the 1920s?

During WWI, the Supreme Court oppressed free speech, but throughout the 1920s it reconsidered these rules and began to defend the Bill of Rights. During WWI, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) was formed in order to defend the right of dissent, but it wasn’t until the 1920s that they were able to successfully mobilize in defense of civil liberties. In the 1920s, the Supreme Court started overturning convictions of people for just expressing their point of view.

During the 1928 election, a Protestant backlash in the South due to anti-Catholicism led several southern states to vote Republican for the first time ever, helping to propel Hoover to the presidency. T or F?


Identify the statements that describe President Calvin Coolidge and his administration.

Foreign affairs continued to reflect the close working relationship between business and government. Coolidge won reelection by a landslide in 1924.

What does this reveal about immigration in the United States in the 1920s?

had the largest quota for new immigrants Correct label: Great Britain and Northern Ireland had the largest immigrant population in the United States in 1914 Correct label: Italy Immigration from this region to the United States was not allowed. Correct label: Asia

The Supreme Court started to change its view on civil liberties in the 1920s. Identify the decisions that demonstrated this shift in the protection of civil liberties.

The Court voided a Kansas law that made it a crime to advocate unlawful acts to change the political or economic system. A federal court overturned the Customs Service’s ban on James Joyce’s novel Ulysses, a turning point in the battle against the censorship of works of literature. The Supreme Court voided a Minnesota law authorizing censorship of the press.

Identify the events that took place during the 1920s that demonstrate the limitations to civil liberties at that time.

Artistic works with sexual themes were censored by the government. The United States Postal Service removed books from the mail that were deemed inappropriate. The film industry adopted the Hays code, which restricted the content of movies.

What do these images reveal about the impact of technological changes on agriculture and manufacturing?

Advances in technology created new efficiencies that led to increased production, and ultimately higher profits. Consumer goods of all kinds, both agricultural and manufactured, proliferated because of new technologies.

Evangelical Protestants in the 1920s felt threatened by new social mores, scientific theories and philosophies, and immigration that challenged their world views. Identify the key beliefs, events, and people during this time.

ormer professional baseball player and fundamentalist preacher Correct label: Billy Sunday a Protestant Christian that sought to integrate science and religion and adapt Christianity to the secular culture Correct label: modernists made the consumption, possession, and sale of alcohol illegal Correct label: Prohibition a Protestant Christian that believed in the literal translation of the Bible as the basis of Christian belief Correct label: fundamentalists

Americans spent more and more of their income on leisure activities like vacations, movies, and sporting events. Where was the center of the film industry located?


In the image, we see President Calvin Coolidge playing the saxophone and a flapper labeled "big business" dancing a jig. Which statements explain why the cartoonist would depict Coolidge and big business in this manner?

The image reflects Coolidge’s pro-business agenda. Big business was happy to have Republicans in the White House.

Warren G. Harding took the office of the presidency in 1921, promising to return the country to "normalcy" after the era of Progressive reform and world war, but his administration quickly became one of the most corrupt in American history. Identify the controversial events and personal scandals that took place during his presidency.

Harding’s Secretary of the Interior was convicted of a felony for accepting payments from businessmen to whom he leased government oil reserves. Attorney General Harry Daugherty accepted payments not to prosecute accused criminals.

Fundamentalist Christians strongly supported Prohibition as it greatly reduced the consumption of ——, public ——- and the related diseases to its abuse.

Alcohol, drunkenness

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