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The preeminent psychosocial accomplishment between the ages of 2 and 6 is learning when and how to

regulate emotions.

An angry 5-year-old girl might stop herself from hitting another child because she has developed:

emotional regulation.

Erikson called the psychosocial developmental stage that occurs between 3 and 6 years of age:

initiative versus guilt.

Which factor helps a young child to demonstrate initiative as Erikson details it in his third stage of psychosocial development?

neurological maturity and a longer attention span

_____ makes children believe that they will be good at anything they try to do.

Protective optimism

A child having an imaginary friend is an example of:

intrinsic motivation.

In 1973, Lepper and colleagues conducted an experiment in which children did drawings. Some of the children were promised a reward while others received a surprise reward. The researchers found that the children who received the expected award for drawing:

were unlikely to draw independently at a later time.

Children with a parent who has schizophrenia are likely to:

struggle with emotional regulation.

By age______at which children are unlikely to throw a temper tantrum.


Girls usually develop emotional regulation _____ boys.

earlier than

In a study conducted by Zahn-Waxler, et al., 5-year-old girls acted out a disagreement between two female dolls. The researchers discovered that girls who _____ were more apt to be disruptive at age 9 than other girls.

quickly engaged in apologetic behavior

According to the text, mistreatment may make boys more vulnerable to _____ problems and girls more vulnerable to _____ problems.

externalizing; internalizing

Many developmentalists are concerned that modern children spend too little time:

engaged in active play.

According to the text, people in _____ believe that preschoolers do not need instruction. As a result, their 3-year-old children spend little time engaged in structured learning activities.


What is one of the functions peers provide in active play?


Rough-and-tumble play has been associated with the development of the _____ area of the brain since it helps children to regulate their emotions, practice social skills, and strengthen their bodies.

prefrontal cortex

Rough-and-tumble play between boys and fathers may prevent _____ at a later age.

antisocial behavior

Diana Baumrind is known for her work on:

parenting styles.

The four dimensions of a parenting style are warmth, discipline, communication, and:

expectations for maturity.

When parents expect unquestioning obedience from their children, their parenting style is labeled:


A parenting style characterized by high parent-to-child communication, low warmth, and high expectations of maturity is:


Jose demonstrates warmth and nurturance towards his children. He does not believe in punishment of any sort and does not have any rules for his children. His parenting style is:


As a father, Aahil rates low on nurturance and communication and high on maturity demands. He exhibits the _____ style of parenting.


Authoritarian parents often:

seem stern to their children.

Abida is a nurturing parent and has good communication with her children whom she never disciplines. Her parenting style is:


Parents who set limits, enforce rules, and listen receptively to their children are exhibiting the ______ pattern of parenting.


Annelle’s usual bedtime is 8:30 P.M., and her parents enforce this rule. One evening, Annelle is watching an educational program that ends at 9 P.M. She asks her parents if she can stay up to watch the end of the show. Her parents agree to let her stay up as long as she gets up in time for school in the morning. Which parenting style are Annelle’s parents demonstrating?


Children who lack self-control are most likely to have parents who have the ______ parenting style.


The individual most likely to have grown up with permissive parents is:

Paul, who is unhappy and lacks self-control.

The individual most likely to have grown up with authoritative parents is:

Raquel, who is happy and successful.

What is a criticism of Baumrind’s classification of parenting styles?

She focused more on parental attitudes than on daily interactions.

A detailed 2010 study of Mexican-American mothers of preschoolers found that their parenting style was:

not identified by Baumrind.

By the age of ______, children are convinced certain toys are appropriate for one gender but not the other.


Freud would say that a typical 5-year-old child is in the _____ psychoanalytic stage of development.


Freud’s term for the formation of a conscience that internalizes parental morals is:

the superego.

According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, little boys cope with the guilt of wanting to kill their fathers by:

identifying with their fathers.

To understand a child’s development of gender attitudes and roles, behaviorists stress:

reinforcement and punishment.

Which scenario best demonstrates the behaviorist theory regarding gender development?

Christine wears a dress, and her parents tell her how pretty she looks.

Roderick hits or kicks Edwin on the playground nearly every day. He also encourages other children to laugh at Edwin’s attempts to kick a ball. Roderick is using _____ aggression against Edwin.


Of the different types of aggression, the most worrisome is:


Which type of aggression tends to be most characteristic of 2-year-old children?


Aggression used to obtain a toy or other object is:


Three girls spread a rumor that 7-year-old Heather is a bed-wetter who still uses a pacifier. This is an example of _____ aggression.


Psychological control as a means of discipline relies on a child’s:

feelings of shame, guilt, and gratitude.

Children whose parents use psychological control as a means of discipline are more likely to:

be relationally aggressive.

The most common discipline technique for a child’s misbehavior that North American parents use with preschool children is:

using time-outs.

Karlene is trying to determine how long her 4-year-old daughter should sit in time-out for deliberately pouring her juice on the floor. If she uses the estimate suggested in the textbook, her daughter will be in time-out for:

4 minutes.

_____ is a discipline technique that involves the parent talking to the child and helping the child to understand what he or she did wrong.


Compared to parents in the United States, ______ as many Canadian parents use slapping, pinching, or smacking as a form of punishment.


In which country is physical punishment of a child illegal?


In order to be substantiated child maltreatment, _____ must be verified by the authorities.

abuse or neglect

The idea that child maltreatment is rare and perpetuated by disturbed strangers:

has been disproved by research.

The number of reported maltreatment cases are _____ the number of substantiated maltreatment cases.

four times greater than

What is the MOST probable reason child abuse is underreported?

variation in professionals noticing abuse

Child neglect is _____ times more common than overt abuse.


One study of 807 mistreated children found that 35 years after becoming adults, they had a higher risk of being _____ than their same-sex peers from the same ethnicity, neighborhood, and SES.


With respect to child maltreatment, permanency planning is a _____ level of prevention.


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