FOS 3042 Final Exam

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Air drying is a method used to

dehydrate foods

What is the quality defect associated with a hard layer on the outside of foods when undergoing

case hardening

Which of the following is a factor associated with the drying rate of food?

air velocity

Which of the following is TRUE regarding drying curves?

bound water is harder to remove compared to free water

Which of the following is considered a quality downgrade in raw poultry?

broken bones

When eggs undergo candling

the egg is passed by a light source to check the position of the yolk and size of aircells

Egg substitutes most often

remove the fat from the yolk

In poultry, dark meat contains

more fat compared to white meat

Which of the following affect tenderness, flavor, cook losses, and yield in the quality evaluation of meat?

All of the above

The more marbling in red meat is equivalent to

increased tenderness of the cut

The cooking of red meat before rigor mortis sets in results in

extra tender meat

Muscle composition of red meat contains

all essential amino acids

Hexadecanoic fatty acid is also known as

palmitic acid

Cod liver oil comes from what animal?

a fish

Which of the following lipids comes from a plant source?

palm & palm kernel oil

Which of the following is associated with the palatability of ice cream?

fat content

Homogenization is an example of

Size reduction

Moving food through pipes is an example of

Fluid flow

Which preservation method allows the safe transportation of milk in a lunchbox
at room temperature?

UHT Pasteurization

In thermal processing, it is a good practice to have an Fvalue

3.0 or above

Which of the following is desirable in frozen foods?

fast freezing

During what decade was cold preservation commercialized in the United States?


Among the ones listed below, which type of freezer provide the fastest heat transfer?

Plate freezer

What is the name of the method used to freeze liquid or semiliquid

scraped surface freezing

Which processing method is classified as an additive according to the Food Additives Amendment?


What is the compliance date for the new Nutrition Facts Label which became effective in July 2016?

July 2018

Which is not a U.S. food law?

Agricultural Labeling Act

What kind of a claim is "Helps support your immune system"?

Structure/Function Claim

Which of the following is not one of the 9 certified colors approved for food use?

colorant derived from beets

Which of the following is not required to be on the new Nutrition Facts Label?

Vitamin C

What is the name of a claim made on the label of a food, that characterizes the relationship of any
substance to a disease or healthrelated

Health Claim

Regulations written by FDA are published in _____________, under Title ______.

Code of Federal Regulations, 21

By definition, the ripe ovary and surrounding seeds is considered a


The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act

made nutritional labeling mandatory

How many calories or kcals does a gram of protein have?


What is the most common acid added to food?

citric acid

Which fatty acid is also called 18:2?

linoleic acid

Which of the following are ways consumers judge food quality using their senses?

all of the above

The use of thermal and nonthermal processing techniques to minimize the number of pathogenic and spoilage
organisms in food, making them safe and giving them extended shelflife
is a definition for

food preservation

The acronym "IQF" stand for

Individually Quick Frozen

the aircell size in eggs

gets bigger as the egg gets older

Who made the earliest peanut butter?


Which of the following statements is incorrect about the job of the International Public Health & Trade
Manager at FDA whom you were introduced to one of the additional videos of Module 1?

Inspecting beef carcasses in the Maryland Abattoir

In which of the following countries the consumers spent the lowest percent of their income on food
consumed at home in 2013?


What does IFT stand for?

Institute of Food Technologists

Which fruit contains the most amount of potassium per 100 g?


What does a bomb calorimeter determine in a food sample?

Its caloric content

Which of the following is not true for almond milk?

It is higher in protein than milk, yogurt or cheese

Which of the following categories from the food manufacturing industry is not represented in MyPlate?

Sugar and confectionery products

Mediterranean Diet is known to be

high in monounsaturated fat.

How many calories or kcals does a gram of fat have?


Which of the following is not a correct match?

Vitamin B1Riboflavin

The process where sugars and proteins form characteristic flavor compounds and brown melanoidin
compounds is called

All of the above

Which of the following are considered organic acids in foods?


Water Activity (Aw) is defined as

the ratio of substance vapor pressure / vapor pressure of pure water

Which of the following sugars is typically called "table sugar"?


Which of the following are factors effecting bioavailability?

All of the above

Which of the following are classifications of carbohydrates?


Three fatty acids attached to a glycerol backbone is called


Which fatty acid is also called 18:3?

linolenic acid

Substances that quench oxidative reactions are


Which is not a type of taste testing?

square test

Which of the following are aspects of food quality?


The process in beer production that produces carbon dioxide and ethanol is known as


Which is NOT true about tea?

Yeast is added to start fermentation in oolong or black tea processing.

Which is NOT a method used to decaffeinate coffee?

Chill proofing

Roasted coffee is often vacuum packaged because

the flavor is very sensitive

Soft drinks are made up mostly of


Which is a juice box made of?

Paper, aluminum foil and plastic

What causes temporary hardness in water?

Calcium and magnesium salts which can be removed by boiling

Where does the air in a milk shake come from?

Both from the ice cream and whipping with milk

All of the following statements about enzymes are correct EXCEPT:

Pectin methyl esterase causes browning of cut fruit.

Heat applied to make scrambled eggs

denature proteins

Which of the following preservation methods will not inactivate enzymes?


Which is correct about commercial sterility?

A commercially sterile product may contain a viable spore that cannot grow due to various properties of the food.

Which microorganism is otherwise known as STEC?

E. coli O157:H7

Contamination of organisms that cause foodborne illness is uncommon in

commercially processed foods

The most common way of reducing foodborne pathogens in food is

to properly cook the food

Fermentation and pickling of vegetables are examples of

controlled spoilage

High amounts of isoflavones are found in


Resveratrol is found in

the skin of red grapes

Regarding food composition, you can find an accurate percentage of water and nutrients in

the USDA Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

Regarding the optimal quality of fish fillets, it is important to

wait until rigor mortis has concluded before freezing

Which of the following is a beginning stage of rigor mortis?

muscle tissue becomes very tough

Which term is associated with high quality of red meat by visually evaluating fat dispersed throughout muscle


Lactic acid is one of the main products of

bacterial fermentation

Thermophilic bacteria prefer

higher temperatures

Which of the following are factors causing deterioration?

All of the above

Bacteria, yeast, and molds are

found everywhere

Triglycerides are also known as

TAG or triacylglycerol

Hydrogenating vegetable oils

forms transfatty acids

Saturated fatty acids

do not contain double bonds in the carbon chain

Which of the following instruments measure color?


What is the name for the study of flow and deformation characteristics of (food) materials?


The process of heating a food, usually liquid, to a specific temperature for a definite length of time, and then
cooling it immediately is known as


In canning, the target heat treatment is considered the _____ reduction of Clostridium botulinum


Which of the following are considered cryogenic freezing methods?

liquid nitrogen

As it is associated with the freezing of foods, the water that has yet to be frozen after significant heat removal

difficult to freeze

Refrigeration is considered

a mild form of food preservation

Which of the following conditions might occur when foods are frozen?

crystal nucleation

A typical poultry processing plant will slaughter approximately

1 million birds a week

Which government agency oversees the harvesting of poultry?

US Dept. of Agriculture

Lipids in food are commonly known as

fats and oils

Which of the following is NOT due to CO2 in carbonated beverages?

brown color

Which of the following statements about Black Tea Processing is FALSE?

Yeasts are added for fermentation of tea leaves

What is malt?

Germinated barley (or other grain) in which starch breaking enzymes are activated.

Which is FALSE regarding coffee production?

Coffee grows best at sea level.

From which animal source is there an organism that might take 10 years to show symptoms and last for 20 to
30 years after infection?


Which of the following organisms is associated with the direct contact of cat feces?

Toxoplasma gondii

Infant botulism might be obtained by the consumption of


Which of the following are considered functional groups in foods?


Which line below shows the food items in decreasing order of water content? Hint: If you are not sure, check
the USDA Nutrient Database.

Apple juice, apples, bread, honey, flour, vegetable oil

In reference to food additives, the acronym GRAS stands for:

Generally Recognized As Safe

Butylated Hydroxytoluene is an example of

an antioxidant

What is the name of the seal required on the label of irradiated foods?


Spray drying

atomizes liquids into small solid particles

Which of the following are reasons to concentrate foods?

reduces the weight and volume of the food

Frozen pepperoni pizza offered for sale in interstate commerce falls under the jurisdiction of ________.


Food Safety and Modernization Act aims to ensure the U.S. food supply is safe by shifting the focus from
responding to contamination to

preventing the contamination.

The Food Code sets forth model provisions for keeping food safe in restaurant, cafeteria, and institutional
food operations. These model provisions may be adopted by local governments as legal requirements for
food service establishments within their jurisdiction. Which agency publishes the Food Code?


What drives heat transfer?

Temperature gradient

Addition of folic acid to foods is an example of

Nutrient fortification

Which of the following is NOT an example of separation in food processing?


What microorganism is considered the most heat resisitant pathogen found in food?


Enzyme activity in foods that undergo freezing conditions

slows down

Immersion freezing can be


Which of the following statements is TRUE about frozen foods?

Food freezes from the outside in.

Which of the following is a disadvantage of sun drying?

Usually can’t get moisture content below 15%

Which of these make a better meat marinade for dry heat cooking?

i think lemon juice

The process that skims boiled animal fat in water is known as


If an animal is stressed before harvest, which of the following will occur?

fast rigor mortis

Which of the following answers is associated with the quality of red meat and fish?

age of the red meat or fish

Why is it better for tougher cuts of meat to be cooked slowly at low temperatures?

maybe both of these?

butter contains approximately

80% fat

Fats and oils are otherwise known as


Food companies can legally add water to meat and fish using


fats are

crystalline in nature

Which of the following statements about the Swiss Water Process is FALSE?

Caffeine is removed from the beans by osmosis (i think)

What are adjuncts in beer making?

Cereals like corn and rice added used to cut down cost and add flavor

Which of the following ingredients does not lower the pH of a carbonated beverage?


How do calcium and magnesium affect brewing?

All of the above explain how these minerals affect brewing.

What is the very first method of food processing discovery?


Understanding the changes in the quality of produce on the way to the grocery store is possible with the
knowledge of:

Materials Science (I THINK)

Which of the following is a correct match of a field of study and its benefit to the food scientists?

Biotechnology: Enzymes for cheese manufacturing

Beef, pork and poultry are part of what category in the food manufacturing industry?

animal slaughtering and processing i think

Which of the following is NOT a method used for proximate analysis of food composition?

Tasting for sweetness as an indication of carbohydrate content

What nutrient is not added back to a refined grain that has been enriched?


What is another name for Vitamin B2?


What vitamin is formed in the body when skin is exposed to sunlight?

vitamin D

Foods are ___________ composed of elements from the periodic table.

inorganic i think


helps form jams and jellies

Which of the following is considered a natural food colorant?

carminic acid

Which of the following is an antioxidant used in food products?


Which of the following are potential hazards in foods?


From which animal source is there an organism that might take 10 years to show symptoms and last for
20 to 30 years after infection?


What organism was the number one cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States in 2012?


Which of the following is a parasitic hazard in raw pork?


Which of the following enzymes cause browning of apple slices?

Polyphenol oxidase

Why would one sometimes see rice salt shakers?

Rice helps salt flow freely by binding excessive moisture.

Which of the following does not act like a photosensitizer?


which of the following is not a possible result of microbial activity

crystallization of water

Excessive heating of foods during preparation or storage will cause




Each of the following indicates a desirable characteristic of a chemical preservative except:

Enhances flavor and color of the product

Which of the following is the major cause of microbial death during drying?

High temperature-low moisture conditions that last throughout cooling

Which of the following is not added to foods with the purpose of controlling microbial growth?


Which of the following is not a correct match?

Polysorbate in squeezable relish-Antioxidant

Which of the following accurately explain(s) why someone may want to add a few grains of rice to
their salt shaker?

To absorb moisture from ambient air so that those water molecules are not available for a saturated salt solution on salt crystals.

Why is raw milk "off limits" according to the authors of the book "Food Bites"?

because of listeria

Milk is fermented by bacteria to produce


Which of the following gets the biggest share of each dollar spent by the U.S. consumer on domestically produced food?

retail trade

cellulose is

a polysaccaride

Which of the following is similar to cellulose because it is insoluble dietary fiber?


What illustrative educational tool is intended for an easy way for consumers to remember which food groups to eat the most of and which to eat the least of?


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