FOS 2001 Exam 3 Guide

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Nutritional Genomics

A science studying the relationship between the human genome, nutrition, and health. It can be divided into two disciplines 1) Nutrigenomics = Studies the effect of nutrients on health through altering genome, proteome, metabolome and the resulting changes in physiology. 2) Nutrigenetics = Studies the effect of genetic variations on the interaction between diet and health with implication to susceptible subgroups.

Lean Body Mass

Consists of muscle, bone, organs, connective tissue, and water. Calculated by subtracting body fat from total body weight : Total body weight is lean plus fat. (LBM = BW – BF)

Older American Act

(OAA) Enacted in 1965, supports a range of home and community-based services, such as meals-on-wheels and other nutrition programs, in-home services, transportation, legal services, elder abuse prevention and caregivers support.

CDC growth charts (How are they used and what values/units are on the axis)

They are used to determine the percentage of children, from ages 2 to 19, who are Obese. The Y-axis consists of the percentage, while the X-axis consists of the age, divided by selected years.

Food Sciences

Where agriculture meets the consumer. The different types are Food microbiology and safety (Microorganisms on food?), Food chemistry and composition (Compounds in foods?), Food processing(Preserve foods and prevent spoilage?), Government regulations(Laws and regulations that govern food industry), Food quality and quality control(Measure flavor, color, texture of foods?)

Taste panels

AKA sensory panel, may be described as a group of testers who have exceptional sensory faculties and can describe products on the basis of taste, smell or feel. Test using two varieties of the same food, generate random 3 number ID codes for each food.

Capital investment

Things like equipment and buildings. This is expensive for a company to take on, and makes getting a new product on the store shelves very difficult, even if it is a really good product. Also, if your getting something on the shelf, that means that something else if coming off.

Value added

the gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy.

gourmet convenience

A degree of innovation that makes a product more attractive to customers and consumers. Includes things such as (Less prep time, Less cooking at home, More convenient sizes, Comfort of a brand name)

Food borne illness

Diseases, usually either infectious or toxic in nature, causes by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food. Every year, results in an estimated 48 million cases (about 1 out of 6 people), 3000 deaths, economic loss between 10-83 billion dollars, 325,000 people hospitalized.


(Bacteria) Can be found on pretty muh any food product that you are likely to consume. Source is from raw produce such as melons, tomatoes, alfalfa sprouts, and orange juice. Raw meats, poultry, milk, and other dairy products, shrimp, frog legs, yeast, coconut, pasta, and chocolate are most frequently involved. Individuals carrying this organism but exhibiting no symptoms of illness could contaminate produce due to poor hygiene practices.

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

An illness that is derived from the bacteria E.Coli.

Listeria monocytogenes

The cause of an outbreak of a food-borne illness was traced to unpasteurized milk; symptoms included fever, nausea, headache. The likely source is:

Clostridium botulinum

produces preformed, heat-labile toxin that inhibits ACh release at the NMJ, causing botulism (flaccid paralysis). In adults, dz is caused by ingestion of preformed toxin. In babies, ingestion of bacterial spores in honey causes dz (floppy baby syndrome). BOTulinum is from bad BOTtles of food and honey.

Food danger zone

40-140 degrees


How microorganisms survive and thrive in foods we eat: Food, Acidity, Time, Temperature, Oxygen, Moisture (conditions needed for bacterial growth)


An organism that causes disease


The spreading of pathogens from one food to another

mad cod disease

Caused by unconventional agents called prions. Prions are an infectious protein that has been altered and is believed to cause diseases of the central nervous system.Deadly brain disease in humans. Humans are possibly infected after consumption of infected cows or cow products that contain infected brain tissue. POPS- persistent organic pollutants. Accumulate in the environment and the human body


Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) is an American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements.


Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points or is a systematic preventive approach to food safety from biological, chemical, and physical hazards in production processes that can cause the finished product to be unsafe, and designs measurements to reduce these risks to a safe level. Program that has established the foundation for others in managing food production to reduce the chances of food borne outbreak. Set forth the seven principles: 1. Conduct a hazard analysis to identify potential hazards that could occur in the food production process. 2. Identify the critical control points (CCPS), the points I the process where the potential hazards could occur and can be prevented hazards could occur and can be prevented and/or controlled 3. Establish critical limits for preventive measures associated with each CCP. A critical limit is as criterion that must be met for each CCP. (Where appropriate critical limits may reflect relevant current regulations) 4. Establish CCP monitoring requirements to ensure that each CCP stays within its limit. Monitoring may require materials or devices (such as thermometers) to measure or otherwise evaluate the process at CCPs. 5. Establish corrective actions if monitoring determines that a CCP is not within the established limits. 6. Establish effective record-keeping procedures that document that the system is working properly Guidelines to promote food safety at every step of food production: the farm, storage, retail stores, restaurants, and consumers.


A set of policies or practices by which societies can ensure that the people of the future have the same access to resources and thus the same economic and environmental opportunities as people living today. 3 major concepts: ecology, economy, and health.

French paradox

French has one-fifth the obesity rate of the United States, which despite French food being high in fat and sugars; French have higher blood cholesterol than Americans but less heart disease

functional food

A modified food that claims to improve health or well-being by providing benefit beyond that of the traditional nutrients it contains. Functional foods may include such items as cereals, breads, beverages that are fortified with vitamins, some herbs, and nutraceuticals.

Gender specific moderate alcohol consumption

Moderate use is up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men – Heavy use is 15 drinks or more a week for men and 8 drinks or more a week for women – Binge drinking usually corresponds to more than four drinks on a single occasion for men or men or more than three drinks on a single occasion for women, generally within 2 hours. – In total, 7% heavy drinkers, 22% moderate, 71% light drinkers

Physiological and social changes and possible effect on nutrition requirements for older adults

Living Alone, Depression, Anxiety, Long-Standing Food Habits, Economic Considerations

Effects of the nutritional status on fertility for men and women

Underweight and, to a larger degree, overweight and/or obesity, are related to the enhanced risk of infertility.

The main nutritional needs of pregnancy

-weight gain: -increased nutrient needs -supplements -hydration caloric needs increase by 250-300 calories per day protein increases by 25 grams per day carbs increase by 175 grams per day vitamins and minerals increases by 30% iron increases from 18-27 mg per day folate, zinc 300mL additional fluid intake

Benefits of breastfeeding for the mother and the baby

Protects babies against childhood illnesses (Diarrhea, respiratory infection, some childhood cancers, autoimmune disease, obesity), Less likely to experience allergies and intolerance, ear infections, vomiting, pneumonia, wheezing, meningitis, sudden infant death syndrome, rich in antibodies; mothers: Lose weight faster, less stress during postpartum period, stronger bonds with baby, decreased risk of breast and ovarian cancer, saves money.

Changes in caloric and protein needs through the life stages, total and per unit of body weight – kcal/kg of body weight and protein in grams per kilogram or pound of body weight. You do not need to remember the exact numbers but know THE TRENDS

increase in the amount of protein decrease in the total calories 2000-1800

Anorexia and bulimia among children (Note that children according to CDC are up to age 20 years

young girls are more susceptible because sensitive about weight/appearance during adolescence. -parents should look 4 signs, discourage meal skipping, discourage bad food habits like skipping breakfast or eating poor food – 2.7% of children

Food related behaviors of teenagers

Sound nutrition can play a role in the prevention of several chronic diseases, including obesity, coronary heart disease, certain types of cancer, stroke, and type 2 diabetes more than two-thirds of adolescents, especially boys, adolescents from rural environments, and overweight adolescents, have unsatisfactory knowledge about dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, diet-disease relationships, and dietary habits

Weight status of children and teenagers in U.S. – trends

18% of children and teens are obese Amount has nearly tripled since 1970

Caffeine and alcohol in breast milk and complementary food recommendations

Breast milk can transfer caffeine from mother to baby, high caffeine intake in nursing can make babies irritable. Small amounts of caffeine and alcohol may be tolerated as baby grows, but daily intake is not recommended. It is recommended that if these are in the system, that they pump first to rid the milk of them, and then breast feed. Avoid milk, peanuts, eggs, and wheat.

In what way microorganisms, freezing, and heating, and salt affect food – flavors, texture, etc.

Heating (Pasteurization) is when food is heated to temperature below boiling point that is high enough to kill any bacteria that would spoil the food. Examples are things such as milk, wine, etc. It keeps the food safe while maintaining the same taste and texture. Salting (Adding of Nitrates and Nitrites) is used in the curing and smoking process that have been used for centuries to preserve meats. It is part of what gives foods such as ham, hot dogs, and lunch meats their pinkish color. When food is salted, it removes much of the moisture and deters bacterial growth. Microorganisms work to spoil and make food dangerous, the other methods are some of the processes used to enhance preservation in food manufacturing.

Agencies/organizations in U.S. and Florida (FL) responsible for safety and production of food.

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) – Oversee the production of meat and dairy products Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS) – Oversee food products that don’t cross the state line, Handle food that is produced and distributed locally, unlike state-line overseers.

Types of "growth" for a company

New Markets, New consumers targeted, Buy out another company and their customers, New products -Organic, Strategic, partnership, internal penetration market expansion product expansion diversification acquisiton

Categories and characteristics of new food products

Line Extension (A variant of an established product, often a new flavor in a line of products) Re-positioned products (The re-purposing of a product, for example the many uses of baking soda. usually requires R&D, new packaging, new marketing strategies, possibly legal review) New for of existing product (Consumers must perceive an added value of the new form, for example Rice Roni to Rice Roni express), Reformulation (Often labeled "new and improved", may be in response to ingredient cost issues, consumer complaints, regulatory issues, problems with getting an ingredient, sometimes there is marketing change but most of the time goal is for consumer to not notice a change) New packaging (Range of R&D effort depends on packaging novelty, Distribution remains same, however will probably require packaging line equipment changes, Recent trend in past 10 years has been towards single-serve portions also transition from glass to plastic) Innovative products (Innovation implies a clever improvement of something already in existence, There is a fairly high degree of risk/expense involved, especially to those who are the trailblazers in a category, May or may not require a lot of R&D; will probably require a lot of marketing and sales support.Example: Baby cut carrots) Creative products (Create implies bringing something completely new into existence, Usually require huge investments in R&D, legal/patents, manufacturing lines, high risk high reward, truly creative products are rare, Often creative foods are ingredients that are then used in other foods, Might even be GMOs, example is a refined sugar for "light" drinks) -Convenience, Shopping, Specialty

Customer and consumer and marketplace

Customer – The purchaser, the one who buys in the marketplace. The gatekeeper Consumer – Uses what is purchased by the customer (the of course can be the same person), consumers can influence the customer (children telling parents what they want to eat) Markets – A market is conceptual (not a place), represents a need that marketers hope to turn into a want, that is an opportunity to sell, example: the market for organic foods) Marketplace – physical retail outlet where products are sold. for example: super and farmer’s markets, vending machine, On-line provisioners)

Characteristics and processes leading to development of successful new food products

Looking at 80-90% failure rate. Companies have their own systems. Most successful companies employ a disciplined plan. Stage 1: Concept development (Brainstorming summary and project title and concept description, Market justification, Product description including potential ingredients and manufacturing, Proposed product development plan) Stage 2: Technical Development (Product formula/manufacturing steps, Detailed costs and potential ingredient suppliers, Prototype of product, Nutrition label, More detailed process flow diagram like for making the product commercially in pilot or large scale quantities, Regulatory aspects of proposed product, including food safety considerations that will be addressed in phase 3) Stage 3: Commercialization (Final formula(s) and manufacturing flow diagrams, and quality and safety program description, Packaging materials, pricing and equipment, Sensory and/or marketing test, Conclusions and justification for launch/no launch

Trends in meal patterns among American in the last 5 years (Required readings)

It has been well-documented that Americans have shifted towards eating out more and cooking at home less

Be able to give examples of nutritional enhanced food crops from required readings

poultry, swine, livestock, rice, corn

U.S. statistic in relation to food-borne illness

CDC estimates that each year roughly 1 in 6 Americans (or 48 million people) gets sick, 128,000 are hospitalized, and 3,000 die of foodborne diseases

Virus and bacteria and the difference between the two

Virus: Even smaller than bacteria and require living hosts — such as people, plants or animals — to multiply. Otherwise, they can’t survive. When a virus enters your body, it invades some of your cells and takes over the cell machinery, redirecting it to produce the virus Bacteria: Single-celled microorganisms that thrive in many different types of environments. Some varieties live in extremes of cold or heat. Others make their home in people’s intestines, where they help digest food. Most bacteria cause no harm to people, but there are exceptions

Fish toxins in food

Scombroid poisoning: caused by fish which have not been refrigerated properly from the time they were caught until the time they were served. Bacteria act on compounds in the fish, releasing histamine Ciguatera fish poisoning: causes nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, joint aches, headache, dizziness, and low blood pressure. A characteristic symptom is "hot-cold reversal"; hot items feel cold and cold items feel hot. Symptoms may begin within 15 minutes to 24 hours after eating affected fish

Food allergy and common allergens and food sensitivity

Food allergy is an immune system reaction that occurs soon after eating a certain food. milk, peanuts, eggs, soy, fish food sensitivity occurs when a person has difficulty digesting a particular food. This can lead to symptoms such as intestinal gas, abdominal pain or diarrhea

Food preservation techniques

Pasteurization, Refrigeration, Freezing, Canning, Irradiation, Additives, bio preservation, curing, drying, fermentation, freeze-drying

Methylmercury and its effect on human health

Elemental and methylmercury are toxic to the central and peripheral nervous systems. The inhalation of mercury vapour can produce harmful effects on the nervous, digestive and immune systems, lungs and kidneys, and may be fatal

Agencies/organization responsible for notifying the public about levels of mercury in fish

a. U.S. Food and Drug Administration b. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

What is resveratrol?

a. Resveratrol is part of a group of compounds called polyphenols. They’re thought to act like antioxidants, protecting the body against damage that can put you at higher risk for things like cancer and heart disease. b. It’s gained a lot of attention for its reported anti-aging and disease-fighting powers. It is a nutrient that stimulates a gene that protects tissues from free radical damage

Description of alcohol in relation to nutrients

a. It does not support growth and development. Its metabolites are toxic and need to be removed from the body, the primary site for this is the liver. b. It may not provide nutrients, but it does provide energy, at 7 kilocalories of energy in each gram. . Alcoholics often eat poorly, limiting their supply of essential nutrients and affecting both energy supply and structure maintenance. Furthermore, alcohol interferes with the nutritional process by affecting digestion, storage, utilization, and excretion of nutrients

Digestion, absorption and metabolism of alcohol

a. small amount of alcohol is not metabolized and is excreted through sweat, saliva, urine, and the breath. In the liver an enzyme known as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) converts alcohol to acetaldehyde. … It must be remembered that alcohol is a lipid that is water soluble, so it can be digested soon after absorption After alcohol is swallowed, it is absorbed primarily from the small intestine into the veins that collect blood from the stomach and bowels and from the portal vein, which leads to the liver. From there it is carried to the liver, where it is exposed to enzymes and metabolized.

Liver diseases induced by excessive alcohol consumption

Many heavy drinkers will progress from fatty liver disease to alcoholic hepatitis to alcoholic cirrhosis over time. Others may have alcoholic hepatitis but never have symptoms. Additionally, alcohol consumption may worsen liver injury caused by non-alcoholic liver diseases such as chronic hepatitis C

Alcohol and coffee – effects on a human health and body and in relation to one another

As a stimulant, caffeine jazzes up your whole body, increasing blood pressure, heart rate and, in some cases, causing heart palpitations and an irregular heartbeat. Caffeine also leads to headaches, jitteriness, agitation, stomach problems and abnormal breathing. It’s the equivalent of an adrenaline rush, Lipshultz said. mixing is bad raise and lower heart rate at the same time

What is a diuretic and its effect on a body?

For high blood pressure, diuretics, commonly known as "water pills," help your body get rid of unneeded water and salt through the urine. Getting rid of excess salt and fluid helps lower blood pressure and can make it easier for your heart to pump

Food sources of phytoestrogens

a. Soybeans and soy products. b. Tempeh. c. Linseed (flax) d. Sesame seeds. e. Wheatberries. f. Fenugreek (contains diosgenin, but also used to make Testofen®, a compound taken by men to increase testosterone). g. Oats. h. Barley.

The main properties of Carotenoids

a. Carotenoids with molecules containing oxygen, such as lutein and zeaxanthin, are known as xanthophylls. b. The unoxygenated (oxygen free) carotenoids such as α-carotene, β-carotene, and lycopene, are known as carotenes.

What do Food Scientists do?

Quality control, Production, Product development, Technical Sales, Sensory testing, Government (FDA, USDA, etc), Academia.

Only undernutrition can negatively impact women fertility


Benefits of breastfeeding include all excluding

It may decrease mother’s bone density

Main factors affecting nutritional status of older adults include all except.


Processes involved in food sciences includes all except


Package size change is one of the categories of products that are classified as new products.


According to product classification, development of genetically engineered food such as yellow rice is an example of a new creative food product.


When cleaning fresh fruit and vegetables it is necessary to use soap or commercial cleaners to kill 100% of bacterial from their surface


Which of the following bacteria can grow in low oxygen environment

Clostridium botulinum

Food-borne illness is described as illness resulting from eating food contaminated specifically by microorganisms


The technique that brings the food just below the boiling temperature while still preserving its quality is called:


Eggs are considered good for 4-5 weeks after sell by date.


The danger zone is a range of temperature in which bacteria are most likely to rapidly reproduce. This temperature zone spans between:

40°F – 140°F

bottle mouth syndrome

Tooth decay in infants caused by bacteria-producing fluids (milk, fruit juice, etc.) that pool around the front teeth.


A condition with unknown causes that is characterized by extended crying in babies that are otherwise healthy and well nourished.


the breast milk produced by mothers in the first few days following birth. It has a thicker consistency than subsequent breast milk, has a slightly yellowish color, and is rich in antibodies.

complementary foods

Solids and liquid foods that join breastfeeding in the normal progression toward adult eating patterns.


A manifestation of pre-eclampsia that can result in convulsions, puts the mother at risk for stroke, and can lead to maternal or fetal death.

fetal alchohol syndrome

A disorder in infants caused by alcohol intake during pregnancy and characterized by growth retardation, facial abnormalities, and central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction.

low birthweight

A birth weight of less than 5.5 lb.


Compulsive eating of nonfood substances such as clay, chalk, or dirt.


The organ formed in the uterus and that provides for nourishment of the fetus and elimination of waste products.


A condition that occurs during pregnancy and is characterized by high blood pressure, edema, and protein in the urine.

pregnancy induced hypertension

A condition in a pregnant woman characterized by a rapid rise in blood pressure, with readings above the normal limits of 140 (systolic) and 90 (diastolic).

umbilical cord

A cord full of arteries and veins that connects the baby to the mother through the placenta.

Folate deficiency in the very beginning of pregnancy has been linked to which of the following?
a. Autism
b. Neural tube defects
c. Anemia
d. Low birthweight


At what time during pregnancy is a fetus most vulnerable to inadequate nutrition, drugs, alcohol, and toxins?
a.At conception
b.During the first trimester
c.During the second trimester
d.During the third trimester


Weight gain during pregnancy is best determined by which of the following?
a.How much fat the mother has gained
b.How much exercise the mother does
c.The mother’s prepregnancy weight
d.The size of the fetus


Which of the following is the most important approach to meeting nutrient needs during pregnancy?
a.Eating extra calories
b.Eating to meet food cravings
c.Eating for two
d.Eating a nutrient-dense diet


Which of the following is not a health benefit of breastfeeding?
a.The infant may have a lower chance of obesity later in life. b.It enhances the infant’s immune system.
c.It prevents anemia.
d.It helps decrease the likelihood of allergies in infants.


When should solids be introduced to the infant?
a.Around 6 months of age
b.As soon as the infant accepts them
c. Not until 12 months of age
d. No specific time


Which of the following is true regarding the recommendations for fat intake for infants?
a.Infants need the same amount of fat as adults.
b.Infants need less fat than adults.
c.Infants need more fat than adults.
d.Infants can follow low-fat diets.


One of the best first foods to introduce to an infant is
a.iron-fortified cereals.
b.any cereal.
c.cow’s milk.
d. cherries.


At 6 months of age, what nutrients have been identified as being inadequate for infants who are exclusively breastfed? a.Thiamin and niacin
b.Iron, zinc, B6, and vitamin A
c.Copper and magnesium
d. Protein


Which of the following is not true about how nutrition and overall health influence a couple’s chance of becoming pregnant?
a. Being underweight reduces a woman’s chance of conceiving
b. Obesity increases testosterone levels in men, reducing fertility
c. Antioxidants protect sperm
d. Obese women have a higher risk for polycystic ovary syndrome


age related macular degeneration

A condition that affects a specific region of the retina known as the macular region and is a cause of blindness in older adults.

anaphylactic shock

A condition in which blood pressure is very low and breathing is shallow. If medical attention is not sought immediately, death can result.


Cloudiness of the lens of the eye that can lead to blindness.

food allergy

A condition in which the body produces antibodies against particular food molecules and physical symptoms result.

food intolerance

An adverse reaction to a food or a food additive without producing antibodies.


A type of arthritis that leads to the deterioration of cartilage and loss of lubrication of the joints.

rheumatoid arthritis

A specific type of arthritis that occurs when the immune system attacks the bone joints, leading to inflammation.


The loss of muscle mass, strength, and function in older adults.

Anemia in older adults is most likely due to
a. a lack of dietary iron.
b. a lack of vitamin C.
c. inability to absorb vitamin B12.
d. decreased muscle mass.


In children, the most accepted definition of overweight is a. 25 lb. or more overweight for one’s age.
b. a BMI of greater than 25.
c. having a BMI at or above the 95th percentile for age. d. having a BMI between the 85th and 95th percentile for height.


Among the following factors that may influence what a child will eat, what is the most significant?
a. The serving size
b. The food’s appearance
c. The food’s temperature
d. Seeing a parent or family member eat the food item


Which of the following individuals probably needs the most dietary iron?
a. A 2-year-old toddler
b. A teenage girl
c. An 8-year-old boy who is physically active
d. An older adult woman


A food allergy differs from a food intolerance in that a food allergy
a. can occur only in young children.
b. always results in difficult breathing.
c. can be medically treated.
d. involves the production of antibodies.


In older adults, which of the following factors is least likely to affect food selection?
a. Loss of neuromuscular coordination
b. Difficulty in reading food labels
c. Type of cooking and food storage facilities
d. Osteoporosis


On a per-weight basis, the amount of protein needed daily as age progresses from infancy to adulthood
a. stays the same.
b. decreases.
c. increases.
d. is based on iron requirements.


Which percentage is closest to the proportion of adolescents in the United States who are obese today?
a. 5 percent
b. 10 percent
c. 18 percent
d. 26 percent


A health condition in older adults that may be linked to an inadequate intake of carotenoids from plants
a. cataracts.
b. rheumatoid arthritis.
c. age-related macular degeneration.
d. sarcopenia.


Of the following age groups, which one needs the most nutrient-dense diet?
a. Toddlers age 2-3
b. Children age 5-8
c. A teenage male football player
d. A retired woman over age 70



A toxic compound resulting from the conversion of ethanol in the liver.

alchohol dehydrogenase

A liver enzyme that converts ethanol into the toxic acetaldehyde.

blood alcohol concentration (BAC)

The percentage of alcohol present in the blood. It is used to measure the amount of intake and to predict correlations with physiological effects.


A polyphenol found in grapes and other plants that protects against free radical damage.


A disease resulting in the hardening and scarring of the liver.


A compound that, when consumed, causes you to urinate more and can lead to dehydration.

fetal alchohol syndrome (FAS)

A set of birth abnormalities in babies born to mothers who consume alcohol during pregnancy, char- acterized by abnormal facial features, abnormal arms and legs, and lower-than-normal intelligence.


Inflammation of the liver.


A polyphenol found in grapes and other plants that protects against free radi- cal damage.


Farming and related food processing operated as a large-scale industry.

aseptic packing

A method in which food is sterilized and then placed in previously sterilized containers, which are then sealed in a sterile environment; used for liquid foods such as concentrated milk and soups.

critical control points (CCPS)

Points in the food production process where the potential hazards could occur and can be prevented and/or controlled.

cross contamination

The transfer of a substance that can cause illness from one food to another, usually on a utensil or a surface such as a cutting board or plate.

danger zone

The temperature range (40-140° F) at which microbial growth is most likely to occur.

emerging pathogen

Microorganisms pre- viously not recognized as human pathogens, or those unexpectedly found in particular foods.

food borne illness

Diseases, usually either infectious or toxic in nature, caused by agents that enter the body through the ingestion of food.

food irradiation

Exposure of food to low-level radiation to prolong shelf life and eliminate pathogens.

hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system

Guidelines established to promote food safety at every step of food production; the farm, storage, retail stores, restaurants and consumers. It provides a detailed manual of educational materials and training workshops for organizations and individuals to follow.

highly susceptible population

People who are more likely than other people in the general population to develop food-borne illness.


A condition in which the liver is in- flamed and the skin may appear yellow.

non renewable resource

A natural resource that is not readily replaced after it has been used.


An organism that derives nourishment and protection from another living organism known as the host.


The process of heating food to temperatures below the boiling point to kill harmful organisms while still maintaining its quality. The process is usually associated with milk and was named after its inventor, the French scientist Louis Pasteur.


Microorganisms or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, mold, and parasites that can be transmitted in food and cause illness.

potentially hazardous foods

Foods that support the rapid growth of disease-causing microorganisms—usually proteins or carbohydrates with high moisture content and low acidity.


An infectious protein that has been altered and is believe to cause diseases of the central nervous system.

renewable resource

A natural resource that can be renewed in a relatively short period of time, such as wind and solar energy.

ultrahigh temperature (UHT)

A sterilization process that raises the temperature of milk even higher than in ultrapasteurization, and the milk is then rapidly cooled and aseptically packaged so it can remain on the shelf without refrigeration.

ultrapasteurization (UP)

A process simi- lar to traditional pasteurization that uses slightly different equipment, higher temperatures, and longer processing times.

use by

A date that is placed on a food package voluntarily by the manufacturer and suggests when the product will start to lose peak quality.

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