Combo with -Micro chp 9- and 1 other

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1) Standard methods of sterilization are not effective in inactivating
A) viruses.
B) bacterial cells.
C) prions.
D) bacterial endospores.
E) fungi.


2) Which of the following statements is true of disinfectants?
A) Disinfectants are effective in destroying endospores.
B) Disinfectants are used on living tissue.
C) Disinfectants are used for sterilization.
D) Disinfectants are used on inanimate surfaces.
E) Disinfectants are only effective for short periods of time (seconds to minutes).


3) Which of the following statements concerning microbial death is FALSE?
A) It can be used to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial agents.
B) It is constant over time of exposure to an antimicrobial agent.
C) It is the permanent loss of a microbe’s reproductive ability.
D) It is the permanent loss of a microbe’s ability to reproduce and can be used to evaluate antimicrobial agents.
E) It is not an effective means of evaluating the efficacy of antimicrobial agents.


4) Which of the following is an example of sanitization?
A) A public toilet is treated with disinfectants.
B) A surgeon washes her hands before surgery.
C) Heat is used to kill potential pathogens in apple juice.
D) An autoclave is used to prepare nutrient agar.
E) A nurse prepares an injection site with an alcohol swab.


5) Aseptic means
A) sterile.
B) free of all microbes.
C) clean.
D) sanitized.
E) free of pathogens.


6) Which of the following would NOT be bacteriostatic?
A) desiccation
B) freezing below 0°C
C) lyophilization
D) autoclaving
E) refrigeration of mesophiles


7) Antimicrobial agents that damage nucleic acids also affect
A) the cell wall.
B) the cell membrane.
C) the viral envelope.
D) endospores.
E) protein synthesis.


8) Seventy percent alcohol is effective against
A) enveloped viruses.
B) nonenveloped viruses.
C) bacterial endospores.
D) protozoan cysts.
E) prions.


9) An instrument that will come into contact with only the skin of a patient should be disinfected with a(n)
A) high-level germicide.
B) low-level germicide.
C) intermediate-level germicide.
D) degerming agent only.
E) germistatic agent only.


10) Which of the following is NOT an effective means of sterilization?
A) ionizing radiation
B) incineration
C) lyophilization
D) autoclaving
E) dry heat


11) Which of the following describes flash pasteurization?
A) heating at 63°C for 30 minutes
B) heating at 72°C for 15 seconds
C) heating at 72°C for 15 minutes
D) heating at 134°C for one second
E) passing liquid through steam at 140°C


12) The dairy creamer used in restaurants is usually sterilized by
A) filtration.
B) ionizing radiation.
C) lyophilization.
D) UHT sterilization.
E) autoclaving.


13) Boiling water for 10 minutes is effective in ridding it of
A) actively growing bacteria.
B) enveloped viruses.
C) bacterial endospores.
D) protozoan cysts.
E) both growing bacteria and enveloped viruses.


14) Which of the following is NOT a feature associated with filtration?
A) nitrocellulose or plastic membrane filters
B) sterilization of heat-sensitive materials
C) varying thicknesses of membrane filters used
D) use of HEPA filters to filter air
E) ability of some filters to trap viruses and proteins


15) Which of the following is a target of pasteurization?
A) Bacillus stearothermophilus
B) Clostridium botulinum
C) Neisseria gonorrhoeae
D) Chlamydia trachomatis
E) Brucella melitensis


16) Which of the following types of radiation is nonionizing and has the shortest wavelength?
A) ultraviolet light
B) infrared radiation
C) microwaves
D) X rays
E) gamma rays


17) Which of the following is used for microbial control in fresh fruits and vegetables?
A) X rays
B) ultraviolet light
C) electron beams
D) microwaves
E) gamma rays


18) Which of the following can be used to disinfect air?
A) HEPA filters
B) ethylene oxide
C) ultraviolet light
D) both HEPA filters and ultraviolet light
E) both ethylene oxide and ultraviolet light


21) Betadine is an example of which of the following groups of antimicrobial agents?
A) alcohols
B) heavy metals
C) halogens
D) phenolics
E) surfactants


24) Which of the following was used in the past to prevent the transmission of gonorrhea from an infected mother to her newborn?
A) hydrogen peroxide
B) beta-propiolactone
C) thimerosal
D) hexachlorophene
E) silver nitrate


25) Which of the following is used to sterilize items that should not, or cannot, be exposed to heat or water?
A) ethylene oxide
B) formaldehyde
C) hydrogen peroxide
D) calcium hypochlorite
E) triclosan


27) Disinfecting agents naturally produced by microorganisms are
A) aldehydes.
B) antimicrobials.
C) halogens.
D) quats.
E) triclosans.


28) A chemical agent that kills pathogenic microbes in general is a(n)
A) sanitizer.
B) germicide.
C) disinfectant.
D) fungicide.
E) antiseptic.


30) The endospores of which of the following microbes are used to measure the effectiveness of autoclave sterilization?
A) Clostridium botulinum
B) Neisseria gonorrhoeae
C) Bacillus stearothermophilus
D) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
E) Mycobacterium bovis


32) Which of the following procedures is currently the standard test used in the United States for evaluating the efficiency of antiseptics and disinfectants?
A) use-dilution test
B) microbial death rate
C) in-use test
D) thermal death point
E) phenol coefficient


34) Disinfectants that damage membranes include
A) alcohol.
B) phenolics.
C) iodine.
D) hydrogen peroxide.
E) both alcohol and phenolics.


36) The process of filtration is a(n)
A) disinfectant method.
B) sterilizing method.
C) sanitization method.
D) antiseptic procedure.
E) ineffective method for removing microbes.


37) Hydrogen peroxide is a(n)
A) sterilizing agent.
B) disinfecting agent.
C) antiseptic.
D) disinfecting and sterilizing agent.
E) ineffective method of disinfecting.


38) The process of incineration is used for
A) sterilization.
B) disinfection.
C) sanitization.
D) both disinfection and sanitization.
E) degerming.


39) Alcohols are used for
A) disinfection.
B) sterilization.
C) antisepsis.
D) both sterilization and disinfection.
E) both antisepsis and disinfection



reduction in the number of microorganisms and viruses, particularly potential pathogens, on living tissue

antisepsis: _ in the number of microorganisms and _, particularly potential _, on living tissue

reduction, viruses, pathogens

antisepsis examples

iodine; alcohol

antiseptics are frequently _ whose strength has been _ to make them safe for living tissues.

disinfectants, reduced


refers to an environment or procedure free of pathogenic contaminants

aseptic examples:

preparation of surgical field; handwashing, flame sterilization of lab equipment

scientists, laboratory technicians, and health care workers routinely follow _

standardized aseptic techniques


suffixes indicating destruction of a type of microbe

germicides include _ oxide, _ oxide, and _

ethylene, propylene, aldehydes


removal of microbes by mechanical means

degerming: removal of_ by _ means

microbes, mechanical

examples of degerming : handwashing, _at site of _

alcohol swabbing, injection

degerming: _ play a secondary role to the _removal of _

chemicals, mechanical, microbes


destruction of most microorganisms and viruses on nonliving tissue

DISINFECTION: _ of most _ and viruses on _ tissue

destruction, microorganisms, nonliving

examples of disinfection: _, alcohols, _, soaps

phenolics, aldehydes

disinfection: the term is used _ in relation to _

primarily, pathogens


use of heat to destroy pathogens and reduce the number of spoilage microorganisms in foods and beverages

pasteurization: use of _ to destroy _ and reduce the number of _ microorganisms in _ and beverages

heat, pathogens, spoilage, foods

examples of pasteurization:

pasteurized milk and juice

pasteurization: heat treatment is _ to minimize _of taste and _; microbes still _ and eventually cause _

brief, alteration, nutrients, remain, spoilage


removal of pathogens from objects to meet public health standards

sanitization: removal of _ from _ to meet _ standards

pathogens, objects, public health

examples of sanitization:

washing tableware in scalding water in restaurants

sanitization: _ of sanitization vary among _

standards, governmental jurisdictions


suffixes indicating inhibition, but not complete destruction of a type of microbe


suffixes indicating _, but not complete _ of a type of microbe

inhibition, destruction

examples of -stasis and -static:

bacteriostatic; fungistatic; virustatic

-stasis, -static: _ agents include some _, refrigeration, and _

germistatic, chemicals, freezing


destruction of all microorganisms and viruses in or on object

sterilization:_ of all microorganisms and _ in or _ object

destruction,viruses, on

examples of sterilization:

preparation of microbial culture media and canned food

examples of sterilization:preparation of _media and _

microbial culture, canned food

sterilization: typically achieved by _ under pressure, _, or _ oxide gas

steam, incineration, ethylene

from most to least resistant microbes to antimicrobial agents

~ prions ~ bacterial endospores ~ mycobacteria ~ cysts of protozoa ~ active stage protozoa (trophpzoites) ~ most gram negative bacteria ~ fungi ~ nonenveloped viruses ~ most gram positive bacteria ~ enveloped viruses

[Methods for Evaluating Disinfectants and Antiseptics]
Use-dilution test:
_ cylinders dipped into broth cultures of _.
Contaminated _ immersed into dilution of _.
Cylinders _, washed, and placed into tube of _.
Most effective agents prevent _ at highest _.
Current _ test in the U.S.
New standard procedure being developed

metal, bacteria, cylinder, disinfectant, removed, medium, growth, dilution,standard

Methods for Evaluating Disinfectants and Antiseptics]
Use-dilution test:

Metal cylinders dipped into broth cultures of bacteria. Contaminated cylinder immersed into dilution of disinfectant. Cylinders removed, washed, and placed into tube of medium . Most effective agents prevent growth at highest dilution. Current standard test in the U.S. New standard procedure being developed.

[Heat-Related Methods]
Effects of high temperatures (all the _ will be broken):
~ Denature _
~ Interfere with _ of _ membrane and _
~ Disrupt _ and function of _
Thermal death point:
~ _ temperature that kills all cells in broth in _ min
Thermal death time:
Time to _ volume of liquid at set_

hydrogen bonds, proteins, integrity, cytoplasmic, cell wall, structure, nucleic acids, lowest, 10, sterilize, temperature

Thermal death point

Lowest temperature that kills all cells in broth in 10 min

Thermal death time

Time to sterilize volume of liquid at set temperature

[Heat-Related Methods]
Moist heat:
~ Kills _ cells of bacteria and_, protozoan _, most _
~ _ is critical
Different _require different boiling times
~ Endospores, _, and some _ can survive boiling

vegetative, fungi, trophozoites, viruses, boiling time, elevations, protozoan cysts, viruses

[Heat-Related Methods]
Moist heat :
a.) Boiling

~ Kills vegetative cells of bacteria and fungi, protozoan trophozoites, most viruses ~ Boiling time is critical Different elevations require different boiling times ~ Endospores, protozoan cysts, and some viruses can survive boiling

[Heat-Related Methods]
Moist heat :
a.) Autoclaving

~ Pressure applied to boiling water prevents steam from escaping ~ Boiling temperature increases as pressure increases ~ Autoclave conditions – 121ºC, 15 psi, 15 min

[Heat-Related Methods]
Moist heat :
a.) Autoclaving
~ _ applied to boiling water prevents _ from escaping
~ _ temperature _ as pressure _
~ Autoclave conditions – _ºC, _psi, _ min

pressure, steam, boiling, increases, increases, 121, 15,15

[Heat-Related Methods]
Moist heat :
a.) Pasteurization
~ Used for milk, ice cream, yogurt, and _
~ Not _
~ _ microbes survive
~ Pasteurization of milk
* Batch method; _ (62.8 ° C) for 30 minutes
* Flash pasteurization; _ (71.7 °C) for 15 seconds
*Ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) pasteurization;
191° F (88.3° C) for 1 second (longest shelf life)

fruit juices, sterilization, heat tolerant, 145° F , 161°F,

[Pasteurization of milk]
Batch method;

145° F (62.8 ° C) for 30 min

[pasteurization of milk]
Flash pasteurization;

161°F (71.7 °C) for 15 seconds

[pasteurization of milk]
Ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) pasteurization;

191° F (88.3° C) for 1 second (longest shelf life)

[Osmotic Pressure]
~ High concentrations of _ or _ in foods to _ growth
~ Cells in _solution of salt or sugar lose _
~ _have greater ability than bacteria to survive _environments

salt, sugar, inhibit, hypertonic, water, fungi, hypertonic

a.) Nonionizing radiation:
~ Wavelengths greater than _
~ Excites _, causing them to make new _
*Affects _ structure of proteins and _
~ _ light causes _ dimers in DNA
~ UV light does not _
~ Suitable for _, _ fluids, and surfaces of objects

1nm, electrons, covalent bonds, 3D, nucleic acids, uv, pyrimidine, penetrate well, disinfecting air, transparent

[Phenol and Phenolics (i.e; Lysol)]
~ _ to low-level disinfectants
~ _ proteins and disrupt _
~ Effective in presence of _
~ Remain _ for _ time
~ Commonly used in _ settings, labs, and _
~ Have _ odor and possible _

intermediate, denature, cell membranes, organic matter, active, prolonged, healthcare, homes, disagreeable, side effects

[Alcohols (both antiseptic and disinfectant)]
~ _ level disinfectants
~Denature _ and disrupt _
~ More effective than _ in removing _ from hands
~ _ of skin with 70% ethanol prior to injection (_)

intermediate, proteins, cytoplasmic membranes, soap, bacteria, swabbing, antiseptic

[Gaseous Agents]
~ _ and _ gases used in closed chambers to _ items
~ Denature proteins and _ by _ functional groups
~ Used in hospitals and dental offices
a.) Disadvantages
*Can be _ to people
*Often highly _
*Extremely _
*Potentially _

microbicidal, sporicidal, sterilize, DNA, cross linking, hazardous, explosive, poisonous, carcinogenic

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