Chapter 8 Practice Test Questions – Sociology Questions

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A common micro-level pattern involving social interaction is that.

People tend to socialize with others of about the same social position

Which of the following concepts refers to change in social position during a person’s lifetime?

Intragenerational social mobility

Social stratification is a concept that refers to

Ranking categories of people in a hierarchy

Which of the follow areas of the United States has the highest rate of poverty.

Urban areas

Relative poverty

Is found everywhere

If you believe that people living in central cities are likely to be poor because there are few jobs available in these areas, you are in agreement with

William Julius Wilson

The idea that social inequality is harmful and divides society is associated with the

Social-conflict approach

Roughly 40 to 45 percent of the U.S. population falls within the

Middle Class

The family of actor Will Smith and actress Jade Pinkest Smith would be best described as

Lower-Upper Class

Who coined the concept "survival of the fittest"?

Herbert Spencer

The concept "conspicuous consumption" refers to

The practice of buying things to make a statement about one’s social position.

According to Karl Marx, which class forms the core of the industrial proletariat?

The working class

If you lived in a society with a traditional caste system, you would expect your marriage to be


The degree of status consistency is

Higher in caste than class systems

The concept "feminization of poverty" refers to the fact that, in the United States

More and more women are becoming poor.

According to the Davis-Moore Thesis

More important jobs must provide enough rewards to attract the talent necessary to perform them.

The concept "meritocracy" refers to social stratification

Based entirely on personal merit

According to Davis and Moore, a system of unequal rewards increases productivity by

Encouraging people to want an important job, encouraging people to gain the schooling and skills needed to perform more important jobs, and motivating people to work longer, harder and better.

The wealthiest 1 percent of U.S. families controls about how much of the nation’s privately held wealth?


People of low social position are more liberal on (….) issues and more conservative on (…) issues.

Economic, social

In 2010, the median income for U.S. families was


Ravi was born into a caste system in a small village. He can expect to

Have the same social standing as his parents.

A caste system is defined as

Social stratification based on ascription or birth

In the United States, which age category has the highest poverty rate?

Children and young adults under 24 years of age.

Which of the following factors tend to raise your social standing?


In the United States, people of ____ are most likely to vote

High social position

The historical replacement of caste systems with class systems

Replaces one kind of inequality with another

Which of the following concepts refers to earnings from work or any investments.


The concept of structural social mobility refers to.

Change in the social position of many people due to changes in society itself.

The idea that social inequality benefits society is associated with the.

Structural-functional approach


concept of social mobility refers to changes in people’s positions in the social hierarchy. (T or F)


Social Stratification is found in most but not all societies. (T or F)


Caste systems are typical of high income societies. (T or F)


People who marry and stay married accumulate only half as much wealth as people who remain single. (T or F)


In the wake of the recession that began in 2007, the majority of U.S. adults say their belief that their family can achieve the American dream has declined. (T or F)


Class systems assign social position based on both birth and individual achievement. (T or F)


Intergenerational moblity refers to changes in social position within an individual’s lifetime. (T or F)


The more a society meritocracy the great the society’s level of social mobility. (T or F)


For most people in the US, social standing remains much the same over the course of a lifetime. (T or F)


In general, white-collar occupations have more prestige than blue-collar occupations. (T or F)


The Davis-Moore thesis implies that societies without social inequality would be the most productive. (T or F)


In class systems, social categories are more clearly and rigidly defined than they are in caste systems. (T or F)


Structural social mobility refers to an individual’s upward or downward social movement due to personal effort or in some cases, good or bad luck. (T or F)


In recent decades, William Julius Wilson claims many central cities no longer have enough jobs to support the families who live there. (T or F)


Today on average, African American families have about the same income and wealth as white families (T or F)


Because education is a right in the US, there is very little inequality in schooling. (T or F)

Social Stratification

A system which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy.

Social mobility

A change in position within the social hierarchy.

Caste System

Social stratification based on ascription or birth.

Class System

Social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement.


Social stratification based on personal merit.

Status consistency

The degree of uniformity in a person’s social standing across various dimension of social inequality.

Structural Social Mobility

A shift in the social position of large numbers of people due more to changes in society itself than to individual efforts.


Cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements, including patterns of inequality.

Davis-Moore Thesis

The functional analysis claiming that social stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of society. Claim that we have many jobs to be filled in a society and some are more important than others and should be valued as such.


People who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits.


People who sell their labor for wages.


The experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness.

Blue-Collar Occupations

Lower-prestige jobs that involve mostly manual labor.

White-collar occupations

Higher-prestige jobs that involve mostly mental activity.

Socioeconomic Status

A composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality.

Conspicuous Consumption

Buying and using products because of the "statement" they make about social position.


Earning from work or investments


The total value of money and other assets, minus outstanding debts.

Intragenerational social mobility

A change in social position occurring during a person’s lifetime.

Intergenerational social mobility

Upward or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents.

Relative Poverty

The lack of resources of some people in relation to those who have more.

Absolute Poverty

A lack of resources that is life-threatening.

Feminization of poverty

The trend of women making up an increasing proportion of the poor.

Upward Social Mobility

Earning a higher degree, landing a higher paying job or marrying sometime wealthy will result in this trend of social mobility.

Horizontal Social Mobility

Changing jobs at the same class level is an example of what?

Downward Social Mobility

Becoming divorced or losing a job might result in what?

Oscar Lewis

Claimed that the poor get trapped in a culture of poverty.

William Julius Wilson

Claimed that society is primarily responsible for poverty

Status Consistency

The degree of uniformity in a person’s social standing.

Status Inconsistency

The lack of uniformity in a person’s social standing.

Social Mobility

Movement up or down the social class ladder.

Structural Mobility

A changing that occurs between generations when grown up children end up on a different social rung than their parents.

Exchange Mobility ****COME BACK!!

When large number of people move up and down the social class ladder but the of social classes remains the same.

Karl Marx

He believed that social stratification benefits some people and disadvantages others. Also, the thought that the proletarians would eventually rebel, take over the businesses from the capitalists and distribute the wealth equally.

Max Weber

Saw socioeconomic status as a combination of 3 different factors. (Wealth, power and prestige)


The total value of everything someone owns minus their debts.


The ability to carry out your will, even over the resistance of others.


Respect or regard.

Symbolic Interaction Theory

Claims that social stratification serves to separate people and that there is social inequality as a result of this.

The Occupy Wall Street Movement

Claims that the 1% of the population is running away with the country, while the remaining 99% are left behind.

Upper-Upper Class

"Blue Bloods" – less than 1% of the population…almost always an ascribed status…very wealthy.

Lower-Upper Class

"Working Class" – usually achieved status, think new money. This class is very wealthy.


Above average income, often have prestige and well educated.

Average Middles

Average income and this class holds less prestigious occupations. Usually high school or college graduates.

Lower Middle

"Working Class" Below average income, often blue collar workers. The people of this class hold little prestige in jobs that are closely supervised.

The Lower Class

This class rarely owns their homes and about half complete high school. Most live in urban areas or rural communities.

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