Chapter 5- Earthquakes

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San Francisco

The ________ earthquake was accompanied by extensive fire damage.

elastic rebound

The mechanism by which rocks store and eventually release energy in the form of an earthquake is termed ________.

crust and uppermost mantle. rigid outer layer.

The lithosphere is defined as ________.

Which one of the following statements is correct?

They have relatively small amplitudes compared to their very long wavelengths

Which one of the following best characterizes tsunamis?

Upper mantle below lithosphere

The asthenosphere is located ________.


________ is the maximum possible damage designation on the Mercalli scale.


The average composition of the oceanic crust is thought to approximate that of ________.

design of structures, intensity and duration of vibrations and nature of the surface material

The amount of destruction caused by earthquake vibrations is affected by ________.


The average composition of the continental crust most closely approximates that of ________.


Major earthquakes are often followed by somewhat smaller events known as ________.

seismic waves

Most of our knowledge about Earth’s interior comes from ________.


The instrument that records earthquake events is termed a ________.


The crust and mantle are solids; the inner core is thought to be solid.

surface waves

Overall, this type of seismic wave is the most destructive.


Oceanic crust is mainly basaltic in composition; the mantle is more like the igneous rock peridotite in chemical composition.


The position on Earth’s surface directly above the earthquake source is called the ________.

Weak electrical currents associated with fluid motions

The Earth’s magnetic field originates by ________.

Reid; San Francisco earthquake

The elastic rebound theory for the origin of earthquakes was first proposed by ________ following the ________ earthquake

primary waves

________ have the highest velocities.

surface waves

On a typical seismogram, ________ will show the highest amplitudes.


The record of an earthquake obtained from a seismic instrument is a(n) ________.


The time between the first P-wave and S-wave arrivals is a measure of the distance from a receiving station to the epicenter of the earthquake.


Tsunamis are caused by sudden displacement of large volumes of seawater.


The epicenter of an earthquake is on the surface of the Earth directly above the focus.


S waves can travel through solid and liquid media.


The Richter earthquake magnitude scale is based on the total amount of energy released by the earthquake


Earthquakes result from the sudden release of elastic strain energy previously stored in rocks surrounding a zone of fault movement


The mantle is composed mainly of metallic iron with small amounts of magnesium silicate minerals.


Unconsolidated, water-saturated soils or sediments provide good foundation materials for buildings and other structures

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