Chapter 4 & 5 nutrition

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Which of the following is not a monosaccharide?


Major fructose sources include

fruits and high fructose corn syrup.

After absorption, galactose is converted to ________ in the liver.


A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of

two monosaccharides.

Simple sugars in large quantities have been shown to

promote tooth decay.

In the U.S. diet, carbohydrate supplies approximately what percentage of total kilocalories?


The process that plants use to make glucose from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of the sun’s heat and light is called


What is the major monosaccharide found in the body?


Glucose also is known as


Which of the following is true?

Glucose and galactose form lactose.

The term "simple carbohydrates" refers to

monosaccharides and disaccharides.

Of the following, which is a major source of sucrose?

Sugar cane

Which of the following is a major source of lactose?

Skim milk

The monosaccharides important in nutrition are

fructose, glucose, and galactose.

Which of the following is true about carbohydrate digestion?

Carbohydrate digestion is assisted by cooking, which softens tough skins.

What enzyme is responsible for carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine?

Pancreatic amylase

Carbohydrate digestion begins in the

mouth with salivary amylase.

Amylase is

an enzyme that digests starch.

What is the fate of disaccharides not digested in the small intestine?

They pass into the colon and are fermented by bacteria.

Which of the following describes the process of starch digestion?

Starch to maltose to glucose

Glucose is absorbed via ______ absorption


Which of the following is not true of carbohydrate absorption?

Maltose is transported through the portal vein to the liver.

Lactose intolerance is caused by

lactase deficiency.

Those with lactose intolerance usually can consume all the following except

milk shakes made with skim milk

The main function of glucose is to

supply energy.

Which organ will first receive sugars after they are absorbed into the blood?


Which of the following hormones corrects a hyperglycemic state?


When insulin is released, it causes

muscle and fat cells to increase glucose uptake.

Which of the following hormones is released to correct a hypoglycemic state?


Which of the following hormones is released during stressful times to increase blood glucose levels, making more energy available for use?


For which of the following is glucose most critical as an energy source?


You are on a diet and eating less than 50 grams of carbohydrate per day. The claim made in the diet educational materials is that carbohydrate is the main culprit in being overweight, so it must be restricted. Which of the following will happen as a result of this low carbohydrate diet?

Proteins in muscles, heart, and other vital organs will be broken down into amino acids to make needed glucose, over time weakening the muscles and organs.

A Glycogen is

a highly branched polysaccharide.

Starch is comprised of hundreds and perhaps thousands of which molecule?


Amylose is

a long, straight glucose chain.

Which of the following has the most starch?

1 cup of kidney beans

The major storage sites for glycogen are

muscles and liver.

Dietary fibers primarily are


Which of the following is not true of dietary fibers?

They are absorbed in the large intestine.

Which of the following is not a nonfermentable (insoluble) fiber?


Which of the following is not a viscous (soluble) fiber?


Viscous (soluble) fibers

can lower blood cholesterol

Which of the following is not a rich source of viscous (soluble) fibers?

Whole wheat bread

Dietary fiber may play a key role in the prevention of which cancer?


A reasonable and recommended goal for daily dietary fiber intake is how many grams?

25 to 38

John Fibernugget wants to increase his fiber intake. Which of the following would be the safest way for him do this?

Eating more fruits and vegetables and not removing the edible peels

Which of the following foods would have the most fiber?

Kidney beans

When eating a high-fiber diet, one should

increase fluid intake

What is the minimum number of grams of carbohydrate, per day, humans must consume to avoid ketosis?


The World Health Organization recommends limiting added sugar intake to ______ percent of our total kilocalories.


Which of the following breakfasts would be highest in carbohydrate

8 ounces orange juice, 2 cups Cream of Wheat with 2 tablespoons sugar, English muffin with jelly, 1 cup whole milk

Medical conditions related to metabolic syndrome are

type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke.

Which of the following is not characteristic of type 1 diabetes mellitus?

Arises most commonly in adulthood

All of the following are characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus except

the least common form of diabetes

The most important dietary approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus is to

lose body fat.

If you had the condition phenylketonuria, which should you not use?


Sucralose (Splenda®) is ______ times sweeter than sucrose.


Sucralose (Splenda®) is made by adding

chlorines to sucrose.

Which of the following is not a metabolic syndrome risk indicator?

High HDL cholesterol

Sterols are similar to triglycerides in which of the following ways?

They do not dissolve in water.

All of the following are true of lecithin except

It has sterol like functions.

Phospholipids differ from triglycerides in which of the following ways?

A compound containing phosphorus replaces at least one fatty acid.

A monounsaturated fatty acid contains

one double bond.

In which form are most dietary lipids found?


Which of the following describes a fatty acid that has one double bond?


A saturated fatty acid contains

2 to 12 double bonds.

Which of the following would you buy if you wanted the highest polyunsaturated fatty acid content?

Liquid, squeezable margarine, made from sallflower oil

What is the composition of the triglyceride form of fats?

Fatty acids and glycerol

Most fats in foods and the body are composed of

fatty acids and glycerol.

The three-carbon structure to which fatty acids are attached in triglycerides is called


How many carbons do long-chain fatty acids contain?

12 or more

A diglyceride consists of

1 glycerol and 2 fatty acids.

Which of the following is true about cholesterol?

It is found only in animal products

Which of the following is true about Olestra?

It cannot be digested, therefore it leaves the body.

Hydrogenation produces what kinds of fat?

Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL)

Cholesterol is found in all of the following except

corn oil.

If a fat contains mostly saturated fatty acids, it is likely to be ________ at room temperature.


Which of the following is not a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids?

Palm oil

All of the following are sources of cholesterol except A

peanut butter.

Olive oil contains abundant amounts of which type of fatty acid?


Triglycerides in food are said to have satiety value primarily because

they are high in kilocalories.

"Hidden" fat includes

fat in crackers and other grain products.

The main reason for hydrogenating fats is to

change a liquid fat to a solid fat.

Timothy wants to avoid eating too much hydrogenated fat. All of the following are appropriate ways except using little or no stick margarine.

eating packaged cookies and desserts made with vegetable shortening

Which of the following is true about the fate of fatty acids after their absorption?

Fatty acids of less than 12 carbons enter the blood and then the liver via the portal vein.

When triglycerides are digested, before being absorbed, they are converted to a mixture of

monoglycerides and fatty acids.

The major fat-digesting enzyme is

pancreatic lipase.

After chylomicrons leave the intestinal cells, they are transported via what system?


After absorption, long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides inside intestinal cells are

reformed into triglycerides.

Which lipoprotein is responsible for picking up cholesterol from dying cells and other sources so it can be transported back to the liver for excretion?

High-density lipoprotein

Lipoproteins contain all of the following components except


Once the chylomicrons arrive at their destination via the bloodstream, the triglycerides in the chylomicrons are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids by an enzyme associated with the blood vessel called ___________ lipase.


The main regulator of blood cholesterol levels is the


To be transported throughout the body, fats are packaged in structures called


Immediately after a meal, newly absorbed dietary fats appear in the blood as


Which of the following is true about trans fatty acids found in hydrogenated fats?

When consumed, they can raise serum LDL cholesterol.

An essential omega-3 fatty acid with 18 carbons and 3 double bonds is called

linoleic acid.

Which of the following contains a rich supply of omega-3 fatty acids?


Name an omega-3 fatty acid with 20 carbons and 5 double bonds, found in fatty fish and synthesized from alpha-linolenic acid.

Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)

Studies of Greenland Eskimos, among others, have demonstrated a relationship between the consumption of fish and the risk for heart disease. What is the most likely mechanism for the reduction of heart disease risk when fish is consumed?

Fish supplies fatty acids that decrease blood clotting.

One of the richest plant sources of omega-3 fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid, and also a good source of plant sterols is


The safest way to get measurable heart disease risk-reducing benefits from consuming omega-3 fatty acids, would be to

eat oily fish, such as salmon, 2 times a week.

The body energy that can be stored in almost unlimited amounts is


Which of the following does not describe a function of fat?

Best source of energy for the brain

All of the following describe the characteristics of fat cells except

the number of fat cells decreases when fat is lost from the body.

Phospholipids are the main components of

cell membranes.

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend getting no more than ______ percent of your total kilocalories from fat.


Which of the following breakfasts has the highest fat content?

1 granola bar, 1 orange, 1 cup low-fat milk

Good suggestions for eating in a heart-healthy way would be to

trim fat off meat before and after cooking.

According to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, what is the upper limit of fat, in grams, that should be consumed by a healthy person requiring 2,000 kilocalories per day?


The major dietary factor to be concerned about in relation to heart disease is

total fat.

A desirable total serum cholesterol level is less than ____ milligrams per deciliter.


In terms of heart disease risk, which of the following is true?

As LDL cholesterol levels increase there is an increased risk.

The plant stanols/sterols, also called phytosterols, work by

reducing cholesterol absorption in the small intestine and lowering its return to the liver.

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