Chapter 30

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microspores or megaspores

What are the products of meiosis in the life cycle of a seed plant?

mature ovary

A fruit is most commonly a

within an ovule contained within an ovary of a flower

Where in an angiosperm would you find a megasporangium?

human population growth

What is the greatest threat to plant diversity?


Human survival literally depends on the produce of

one embryo involving one sperm cell and an endosperm involving a second sperm cell.

Angiosperm double fertilization is so-called because it features the formation of

modified sporophylls

Carpels and stamens are


Angiosperms are different from all other plants because only they have

presence or absence of a protective covering over the ovule

The major difference between angiosperms and gymnosperms comes from the

4 → 2 → 3 → 1

Within a gymnosperm megasporangium, what is the correct sequence in which the following should appear during development, assuming that fertilization occurs? 1. sporophyte embryo 2. female gametophyte 3. egg cell 4. megaspore

have pollen

Gymnosperms differ from both extinct and extant (living) ferns because they

protection for the embryo

The seed coat’s most important function is to provide


consists of embryo and food supply surrounded by protective coat

all seed plants

____ include reduced gametophytes, heterospory, ovules, and pollen


envelopes and protects megasporangium layer of sporophyte tissue


a structure in the ovary of a seed plant that contains an embryo sac and that develops into a seed after fertilization megasporangium+megaspore+integuments

pollen grain

In seed plants, a structure consisting of the male gametophyte enclosed within a pollen wall.


the transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants

gymnosperms vs. angiosperms

gymno: reporduction takes place in cones- two types of cones…pollen- male pollen grains seed cones- female angio: flowering plants, flowers are reproductive organs, specialized leaves


a group of Devonian plants that were heterosporous but lacked seeds; Gymnosperms probably descended from this


cone-bearing plants


all angiosperms are in Phylum


the reproductive structure of an angiosperm sepals petals stamens carpels


green, leaflike part of the plower that covers and protects the flower bud before it opens


modified leaves which are usually bright in color to attract pollinators.


The pollen-producing male reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and filament.


The female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of the stigma, style, and ovary.


wall of tissue surrounding an angiosperm seed

cross pollination

a reproductive process in which pollen from one plant is transferred to the stigma of another plant


in the ovules of seed plants, the opening in the integuments through which the pollen tube usually enters


a seed leaf that stores food


angiosperms that have only one seed leaf


angiosperms that have two seed leaves


where megaspores are produced from meiosis of megaspore mother cells


where the microspores are produced from meiosis of microspore mother cells


eliminates the need for a film of water and can be dispersed great distances by air or animals

evolutionary advantage of seeds

They may remain dormant for days to years, until conditions are favorable for germination Seeds have a supply of stored food They may be transported long distances by wind or animals


were better suited than nonvascular plants to drier conditions

Gymnosperm 4 phyla

Cycadophyta (cycads) Gingkophyta (one living species: Ginkgo biloba) Gnetophyta (three genera: Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia) Coniferophyta (conifers, such as pine, fir, and redwood)

Three key features of the gymnosperm life cycle

Dominance of the sporophyte generation Development of seeds from fertilized ovules The transfer of sperm to ovules by pollen

two key adaptions of angiosperms

Flowers Fruits

triploid endosperm

after one sperm unites with the egg, the other two unite with polar nuclei, provides nutrtion to the embryo


influence the evolution of plants and vice versa


Clades with ______ symmetrical flowers have more species than those with radially symmetrical flowers

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