Chapter 25 Cold War

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The United States stockpiled more than 10,000 weapons by 1971. When did the Soviet Union reach the same number of nuclear weapons?


When did stockpiles of strategic nuclear weapons begin to decline in the United States?

the mid 1990s

Which countries remained under Soviet control after the end of World War II?

Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria

Who first spoke of the "iron curtain"?

Winston Churchill

One goal of the Marshall Plan was to

make European countries strong enough to start buying American goods.

In order to try to gain control over West Berlin, the Soviet Union

set up a total blockade cutting off that section of the city.

NATO and the Warsaw Pact were examples of

military alliances made for "collective security."

In China’s civil war, the United States backed

the Nationalists, led by Jiang Jieshi.

In 1950, what event began the conflict on the Korean peninsula?

The North Korean army invaded south of the 38th parallel.

General MacArthur chose what port city for a counterattack against North Korea?


How did the American public view General MacArthur after President Truman fired him?

They still saw him as a hero.

What impact did the Korean War have on U.S. budgets?

Military spending increased and became a larger proportion of future budgets.

What happened on September 2, 1949, that caused a sudden change in U.S.-Soviet relations?

The Soviet Union set off an atomic bomb.

After President Eisenhower withdrew his offer to fund the Aswan Dam, Egyptian President Nasser

nationalized the Suez Canal.

John Foster Dulles, Eisenhower’s secretary of state

promoted the policy of brinkmanship.

What made it unlawful yo teach about or advocate the violent overthrow of the US government?

Smith Act

General in charge of US forces in the Korean War

Douglas MacArthur

American diplomat who stressed the need to contain communism within its current borders

George Kennan

Weaker country under the control of a stronger country

satellite state

Allowed the FBI to screen federal employees for signs of disloyalty

Federal Employee Loyalty Program

How was Khrushchev different from Stalin?

He was less cruel and suspicious.

The CIA participated in the Cold War by

carrying out secret operations in other countries.

What was one place on the globe where the Cold War was "hot" and U.S. soldiers fought and died?


In 1954, after he had worked on developing the atomic bomb, J. Robert Oppenheimer was investigated and denied future access to classified information because

he had friends and family who belonged to the Communist Party

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were charged, convicted, and executed specifically for

passing secrets about nuclear science to the Soviets.

Where did Senator McCarthy first announce that the State Department was infested with communists?

at a campaign rally

What led to Senator McCarthy’s downfall?

the broadcast of the McCarthy hearings on television

In response to NATO, with whom did the Soviet Union form the Warsaw Pact?

Eastern European nations

A reason for communist victory in China

The Nationalists were reluctant to fight.

Why did the United States send several billion dollars to aid the Nationalists in China?

because leaders feared that a Nationalist defeat would create a communist superpower

What event in 1956 threatened the flow of Middle Eastern oil to Europe?

Khrushchev becoming leader of the U.S.S.R.

What was the Eisenhower Doctrine?

The United States would use force to help any Middle Eastern nation threatened by communism.

What was HUAC responsible for?

holding hearings about communist ties to the entertainment industry

What was a result of the Hollywood Ten trial?

Movie executives blacklisted entertainers with alleged communist ties after the hearings.

term used to describe extreme, reckless charges


war to achieve specific goals rather than the total defeat of the enemy

limited war

endless race to acquire greater numbers of more and more powerful weapons

arms race

fear of communists, both outside and within the United States

Red Scare

having so many weapons that both sides would be totally destroyed in an all-out war

Mutual Assured Destruction

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