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Persons who are 19-40 years of age

early adults

An infant reflex in which the infant starts sucking when his or her lips are stroked

sucking reflex

A bond between an infant and his/her parent or caregiver, in which the infant understands that his/her parents or caregivers will be responsive to his/her needs and take care of him/her when he or she needs help

secure attachment

A type of reasoning in which a child bases decisions on his or her conscience

postconventional reasoning

Persons who are from 1 month to 1 year of age


A person who is 6 to 12 years of age

school age

a disorder in which cholesterol and calcium build up inside the walls of the blood vessels, forming plaque, which eventually leads to partial or complete blockage of blood flow.


An infant reflex that occurs when something touches an infant’s cheek, and the infant instinctively turns his or her head toward the touch.

rooting reflex

formation of a close, personal relationship


An infant reflex in which, when an infant is caught off guard, the infant opens his/her arms wide, spreads the fingers, and seems to grab at things

moro reflex

Areas where the infant’s skull has not fused together; usually disappear at approximately 18 months of age.


Persons who are 41-60 years of age

middle adults

Injury resulting from pressure disequilibrium across body surfaces; for example, from too much pressure in the lungs.


a type of reasoning in which a child looks for approval from peers and society

conventional reasoning

Persons who are 12 to 19 years of age


Persons who are 61 years old or older

late adults

average amount of years a person can be expected to live

life expectancy

persons who are birth to 1 month of age


A bond between an infant and his or her parent or caregiver in which the infant is repeatedly rejected and develops an isolated lifestyle that does not depend on the support and care of others.

anxious-avoidant attachment

Persons who are 1 to 3 years of age


basic filtering units in the kidneys


an infant reflex that occurs when something is placed in the infant’s palm; the infant grasps the object

palmar grasp

Persons who are 3 to 6 years of age


A type of reasoning in which a child acts almost purely to avoid punishment to get what he or she wants

preconventional reasoning

The theory that a person’s mental function declines in the last 5 years of life.

terminal drop hypothesis

A phrase that refers to a stage of development from birth to approximately 18 months of age, during which infants gain trust of their parents or caregivers if their world is planned organized, and routine.

trust and mistrust

In late adults, the amount of air left in the lungs after expiration of the maximum amount of air:

increases, which hampers diffusion of gases because of stagnant air that remains in the alveoli.

Which of the following is an anatomic difference between children and adults?

An infant’s tongue is proportionately larger than an adult’s.

The pulse rate of a child from ages 6 to 12 years is approximately:

70 to 120 beats/min.

The average pulse rate of individuals between 19 and 60 years of age is typically:

70 beats/min.

An infant or small child’s airway can be occluded if it is overextended or overflexed because:

the occiput is proportionately large and the trachea is flexible.

Infants are often referred to as "belly breathers" because:

their rib cage is less rigid and the ribs sit horizontally.

Which of the following statements regarding an infant’s vital signs is correct?

A) An infant’s heart rate generally ranges between 70 and 110 beats/min. (CORRECT) B) An infant’s normal body temperature is typically higher than a preschooler’s. C) By 6 months of age, an infant’s normal tidal volume is 2 to 4 mL/kg. D) An infant’s normal heart rate increases by 10 beats/min each month.

At present, the average life expectancy is ________ years, while the maximum life expectancy is estimated at ________ years.

78, 120

Which of the following is a physical change that typically occurs in the adolescent age group?

Secondary sexual development begins.

You are dispatched to a call for a 4-month-old infant with respiratory distress. While you prepare to take care of this child, you must remember that:

small infants are nose breathers and require clear nasal passages at all times.

Which of the following describes the Moro reflex?

The neonate opens his or her arms wide, spreads his or her fingers, and seems to grasp at something after being startled.

You are assessing a 13-month-old female who is running a fever and has been vomiting. While you are performing your physical examination on this child, you will MOST likely find that she:

A) is unable to track your movements with her eyes. (CORRECT) B) responds to her name but is fearful of your presence. C) will readily allow you to separate her from her mother. D) has bulging fontanelles secondary to severe dehydration.

Which of the following are noticeable characteristics of a 9-month-old infant?

(CORRECT) A)places objects in the mouth, pulls himself or herself up B) knows his or her name, can walk without any assistance C) responds to his or her name, crawls around efficiently D) walks without help, becomes frustrated with restrictions

According to the terminal drop hypothesis:

mental function is presumed to decline in the 5 years preceding death.

Which of the following statements regarding psychosocial development in the adolescent age group is correct?

(CORRECT) A) Antisocial behavior and peer pressure peak around 14 to 16 years of age. B) Family conflict decreases as the adolescent gains control of his or her life. C) Adolescents are less fixated on their public image than younger children. D) Because they think rationally, adolescents are at the lowest risk for suicide.

Which of the following statements regarding age-related changes in the nervous system is correct?

(CORRECT) A) Interconnections between brain cells often prevent a loss of knowledge or skill, despite a loss of neurons. B) The metabolic rate in the brain increases with age, but the consumption of oxygen decreases significantly. C) Generally speaking, the brain increases in size by 10% to 20% by the time a person reaches 80 years of age. D) Because of a decrease in the number of brain cells, a person’s level of intelligence decreases with age.

Which of the following statements regarding toddlers and preschoolers is correct?

A) The normal respiratory rate in toddlers and preschoolers is between 12 and 20 breaths/min. B) Toddlers and preschoolers have well-developed lung musculature, even though they have less lung tissue. C) Muscle mass and bone density decrease in toddlers and preschoolers because of increased physical activity. (CORRECT) D) Toddlers and preschoolers commonly experience upper respiratory infections because of a loss of passive immunity.

The anterior fontanelle fuses together between the ages of:

9 and 18 months.

Breathing is often more labor intensive in older adults because the:

elasticity of the lungs decreases.

A 16-year-old female complains of vaginal bleeding and abdominal cramping that began several hours ago. During your assessment interview, you should:

inquire about the possibility of pregnancy in private, if possible.

At what age does separation anxiety typically peak in infants and small children?

10 to 18 months

When assessing an 80-year old patient in shock, it is important to remember that:

age-related changes in the cardiovascular system may make the patient less able to compensate for decreased perfusion.

Physical changes that typically occur in early adults include an:

increase in fatty tissue, which leads to weight gain.

The human body should be functioning at its optimal level between the ages of:

19 and 25 years.

In preconventional reasoning, children:

act almost purely to avoid punishment and to get what they want.

Factors that contribute to a decline in the vital capacity of an elderly patient include all of the following, EXCEPT:

increased surface area available for air exchange.

Which of the following is NOT a common factor that would affect a 75-year-old patient’s vital signs?

increased weight

When communicating with an older patient, it is important to remember that:

age-related changes diminish the effectiveness of the eyes and ears.

Which of the following statements regarding middle adults is correct?

(CORRECT ) A) Cardiovascular health becomes an issue in this age group, as does the greater incidence of cancer. B) Women in the middle adult age group typically experience menopause in their late 50s or early 60s. C) Significant impairments in hearing and vision begin to occur in persons between the ages of 41 and 44 years. D) Increased cholesterol levels in the middle adult age group often do not respond to exercise and diet.

An infant’s blood pressure typically increases with age because:

blood pressure directly corresponds to body weight.

What is the normal pulse rate of a neonate?

90-180 beats/minute

Clingy behavior and fear of unfamiliar places and people, which usually occurs between ages 10 and 18 months, is called…

separation anxiety

Basic language is usually mastered by what age?

36 months

Children begin to develop their self-concept and self-esteem during what period of growth?

School age

which of the following groups is considered a "toddler"

CORRECT A) 1-3 years B) 2-4 years C) 3-6 years D) 12-18 years

Which age group is most fixated on public image and terrified of being embarrassed

A) 1-3 B) 3-6 C) 6-12 (CORRECT) D)12-18

THe human body should be functioning at its optimal level in what age group?

19-40 years

Increasing cholesterol levels and decreased efficiency of the heart begins to become a concern for which age group?

41-60 years

Which of the following is true regarding the respiratory system of older adults?

A)The size of the airway increases. B) The elasticity of the lungs decreases. C) The strength of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm decreases. (CORRECT) D) all of the above

Statistically, what percentage of the elderly live at home?


Normal pulse


normal respiration


normal systolic blood pressure

(12-18yrs) 90-110, in (19-60yrs) 90-140

normal temp


rooting reflex

infant reflex that occurs when something touches their cheek, and the infant turns his or her head toward teh touch

2 months

recognize ramilair faces, track objects with eyes

3 months

bring objects to teh mouth; can smile adn frown

4 months

reaches out to people; drools

5 months

sleeps thought night; can tell family from strangers

6 months

teething begins, sits upright in a chair, one-syllable words spoken

7 months

afraid of strangers; mood swings

8 months

responds to "no" can sit alone, plays peek a boo

9 months

pulls self up, places objects in mouth to explore them

10 months

responds to name, crawls

11 months

starts to walk, frustrated with restrictions

12 months

knows name, can walk

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