Ch 5 – 6 Digestive System-Ch 6 Add’l Suffix & Digestive Terms

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Combining form of the first part of the large intestine is … ?

cec/o (cecum)

Pertaining to the abdomen

celiac (celi/o), belly, abdomen (abdominal)

Muscular wave-like movement to transport food through the digestive system

Peristalsis (rhythmic contractions of the tubes of the gastrointestional tracts and other tubular structures)

Part of the tooth that contains a rich supply of nerves and blood vessels

Pulp (soft tissue within the tooth)

Gingiv/o means … ?

Gums, gum tissue. Gingivitis is an example of inflammation of the gum tissues.

Buccal means … ?

Pertaining to the cheek. (-al = pertaining to, bucc/o = cheek)

high blood levels of a pigment released by the liver with bile (can lead to jaundice)

hyperbilirubinemia (-emia = abnormal blood condition, billirubin = byproduct of dead red blood cells, hyper- = an excessive amount of or more than normal, fast.

carries bile into the duodenum

Common Bile Duct (aka: choledochus) -us = structure, doch/o = duct, chole = gallbladder)

Enzyme to digest starch


Chronic inflammation of the intestional tract

Chron disease

ring of muscles


specialist in gums

Periodontist – (specialist in tissues supporting the teeth, alveolar bone, gingiva (gums)


mouth (an opening)


Labi/o = LIP (cheil/o and labi/o both mean "lip")

stone in a salivary gland

sailadenolithiasis (-asis = abnormal condition, lithi = stone, aden/o = gland, sial/o = salivary

membrane that connects parts of small intestine

mesentery (part of peritoneum – holds organs in place – lies in middle of intenstines) (-y = condition or process), (enter/o = intestines), (mes- = middle)

New opening from the large bowel to the surface of the body

colostomy (-stomy = new opening, col/o = colon)

Lack of appetite

Anorexia "no appetite"

Another term for jaundice

Hyperbillirubinemia. — HYPER — BILLIRUBIN — EMIA . (abnormal blood condition of excessive billirubin in the blood)

esophageal varices are … ?

swollen twisted veins, in the esophagus (varices = varix = enlarged tortuous vein, artery, or lymphatic vessel) (-al = pertaining to) the esophagus

abnormal side pockets in a hollow organ, such as the intestine

diverticula (condition of is called diverticulosis, an active inflammation or attack is called diverticulitis)

Telescoping of the intestine


Difficulty in swallowing

Dysphagia (-ia = condition, phag = swallow, dys- = difficulty)

white plaques on the mucosa of the mouth

Oral Leukoplakia (oral = mouth, plakia = plaques, leuk/o = white)


First part of the Large intestine


First part of the Small intestine


small sac – under the liver – stores bile


organ under the stomach – produces insulin and enzymes


"the Large Intestine"


tube connecting the throat – to the stomach



swollen, twisted veins in the rectal region are… ?


chronic liver disease resulting from alcoholism and malnutrition is called… ?


failure of peristalsis (wave-like motions)

ileus (intestional obstruction – prevents peristalsis from occurring)

calculi in the sac that stores bile

cholecystolithiasis (gallstones)

sore or lesion of the mucous membrane in the stomach or duodenum

peptic ulcer (peptic = stomach, ulcer = sore, lesion)

inflamed intestines often caused by bacterial infection

dysentry (-y = process or condition), (dys- = painful), (enter/o = intestines)

Chronic inflammation of the large bowel WITH ulcers

Ulcerative Colitis (colitis = inflammation of the colon or large bowel), (ulcerative = pertaining to the presence of ulcers)

group of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with stress, but without inflammation of the intestines

"Irritable Bowel Syndrome" or IBS


fats are improperly digested and appear in the feces (-rrhea = flow or discharge, steat/o = fats)

Inflammation of the liver caused by Type A, Type B, or Type C virus.

Hepatitis (-itis = inflammation, hepat/o = liver)

Spitting up blood from the respiratory tract and lungs is called

hemoptysis (hemo = blood, -ptysis = spitting)

The suffix which means "suture"

rrhaphy, as in "herniorrhaphy"

(Procedure to create) new opening between two parts of the jejunum

jejunojejunostomy (jejunum = pertaining to the jujeno. 2 parts = jejuno to jejuno, -stomy = opening)


dilation of a lymph vessel (-ectasis = dilation, lymph = lymph, angie = vessel)


difficult digestion (pepsia = digestion, dys- = difficult)

bursting forth of blood from the spleen is called … ?

splenorrhagia (-rrhagia = bursting forth of blood, splen/o = spleen) note the change from spleen to splen.

Narrowing of the opening between the stomach and intestine is called …?

Pyloric stenosis (stenosis = narrowing of a duct or canal, pylorus = distal aperture of the stomach, opening to the duodenum)

WHICH TEST would tell the presence of melena? (melena = black tarry stools; feces containing digested blood.)

Stool guaiac (hemoccult, -occult = hidden, hem/o = blood) Guaiac is pronounced gwee-ack.

An ulcer would most likely be detected by which test?

Gastroscopy (-scopy, visual examination w/scope, gastr/o = stomach)

congenital lack of continuity of the esophagus is called … ?

esophageal atresia (atresia = congenital absence of a normal body opening, esophageal = pertaining to the esophagus.)

what is Lipase?

An enzyme that digests fat. (-ase = enzyme, lip/o = fat) A lipase is any enzyme that catalyzes the clevage of a fatty acid anion from a triglyceride or phospholipid.

Name the procedure to surgically repair the roof of the mouth.

palatoplasty (-plasty = surgical repair, palat/o = palate / roof of mouth.)

The following ARE liver function tests. Serum Bilirubin, ALP (alkaline phosphatase), AST (SGOT), ALT (SGPT).

ERCP (Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) is NOT a liver function test.

TEST which would demonstrate choledocolithiasis? (stones in the bile duct)

Transhepatic cholangiography (trans- = through, hepatic = pertaining to the liver, chol = gallbladder, angi/o = vessels, graphy = record) X-Ray exam of the biliary system – after injection of contrast into the bile ducts (via needle into liver)

OPPOSITE of suffix -ectasis (= stretch, widen, dilate)

-stenosis (tighten, stricture, narrowing)

Define the suffix -rrhea

Flow, discharge

Give an example of "Anastomosis" (surgical connection between two parts, vessels, ducts, bowel segments)

Cholecystojejunostomy (surgical connection between gallbladder & jejunum)


common bile duct (chole = gallbladder, doch/o = duct)

Forward protrusion of the eye.

Proptosis = forward displacement or bulging, especially of the eye.


Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdomen. (para = near, nearby, close to) (-centesis = puncture to drain accumulated fluids – puncture and aspiration of…)

twisting of part of the intestine upon itself is called … ?

Cecal volvulus (cecal = pertaining to the cecum / first part of the large intestine) (volvulus = twisted intestine)


PERIDONTAL PROCEDURE to remove gingiva tissue (-ectomy = remove, resect)


bursting forth, HEAVY menses. (men/o = mensruation, menses) (-rrhagia – bursting, heavy, excessive flow)


Visual examination of the abdomen using a scope (-scopy = using scope, lapar/o = abdomen)


salivary stones (lithiasis = condition of presence of stones) (sial/o = salivary)


surgical repair of the eyelid (-plasty = surgical repair, blephar/o = eyelid)


incision of a ring of muscles (-tomy = incision, sphincter/o = sphincter)


removal of the gallbladder (-ectomy = removal, chole = gallbladder, cyst/o = urinary bladder)


suture of a weakened muscular wall (rrhaphy = suture, herni/o = hernia)


new opening of the first part of the colon to the outside of the body (-stomy = new opening, cec/o = cecum, first part of ascending large intestine)

gastroduodenal anastomosis

pertaining to a new surgical connection between the stomach and the first part of the small intestine. (anastomosis = surgical connection of parts, -al = pertaining to, duoden/o = duodenum (first part of the small intestine), gastr/o = stomach)


removal of gum tissue (-ectomy = removal, gingiv/o = gum tissue

abdominal ultrasonography

sound waves are used to image abdominal organs

liver biopsy

percutaneous removal of liver tissue followed by microscopic analysis (biopsy is the study of life w/scope)

serum bilirubin

measure of bile pigment in the blood (bilirubin is byproduct of the breakdown of red blood cells)

barium enema

x-ray examination of the lower gastrointestinal tract (contrast is administered via the anus)

percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography

contrast material is injected "through the liver" (transhepatic) and x-rays are taken (graphy) of bile vessels (choleangio).

stool culture

feces are placed in a growth medium for bacterial analysis

CT of the abdomen

transverse x-ray pictures of abdominal organs (CT = Computed Tomography)

nasogastric intubation

tube inserted through the nose – into the stomach.

stool guaiac (hemoccult)

test to reveal hidden blood in feces. Guaiac (gwee-ack), (hem/o = blood, -occult = hidden)

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography

Contrast is injected through an endoscope, x-rays taken of the pancreas and bile ducts. (-graphy = process of recording), (pancreat/o = pancreas), (angi/o = vessels), (chol/o = gallbladder)

upper gastro-intestional series

x-ray images of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine after administering barium by mouth.

Liver Scan

radioactive material is injected and image recorded of uptake in liver cells.

Digestive or gastrointestinal system
performs four main functions:

ingestion digestion absorption elimination

Introduction: ? Ingestion and Digestion

Ingestion—Food material taken into mouth Digestion—Food is broken down and travels through the gastrointestinal tract. Digestive enzymes aid breakdown of complex nutrients. Proteins → amino acids Sugars → glucose Fats → fatty acids or triglycerides


Digested food passes into bloodstream through lining cells of small intestine. Nutrients travel to all cells of the body Cells burn nutrients to release energy stored in food


Digested food passes into bloodstream through lining cells of small intestine. Nutrients travel to all cells of the body Cells burn nutrients to release energy stored in food.


Digested food passes into bloodstream through lining cells of small intestine. Nutrients travel to all cells of the body Cells burn nutrients to release energy stored in food.


Body eliminates solid waste materials that cannot be absorbed into bloodstream. The large intestine concentrates feces. The wastes pass out of the body through the anus.

Organs of the Digestive System

The gastrointestinal tract begins with the oral cavity.

Oral Cavity

1. bucc/o= cheek 2. chell/o labi/o=lip 3. palat/o= hard palate 4. palat/o = soft palate 5. uvul/o=Uvula 6. gloss/o- lingu/o = Tongue 7. tonsill/o = tonsil 8. gingiv/o = gums 9 dent/i – odont/o = teeth

Oral Cavity (cont’d)/
Upper permanent teeth within the dental arch

left side of mouth labial surface , buccal surface, facial surface, lingual surface, mesial surface, distal surface, occlusal surface, and incisal edge.

Oral Cavity (cont’d)/Upper permanent teeth within the dental arch

1. Central incisor 2. Lateral incisor 3. Canine 4. first premolar 5. Second premolar 6. First molar 7. Second molar 8. Third molar

Oral Cavity (cont’d)-Anatomy of a tooth

Right side upper 1 crown Lower right side 2 Root. Left 3 enamel upper tooth 4 dentin 5 Pulp in order, next Gingiva pink gum area the cementum Root canal Periodontal membrane Bone Blood vessel and nerves.

Oral Cavity (cont’d)-Salivary glands

Pharynx (cont’d)-Deglutition

1. nasal cavity 2. pharynx 3.Bolus of food 4. Epiglottis (closed) 5. Larynx (voice box) 6. Esophagus 7. Trachea (windpipe)


The esophagus is a 9 or 10 inch muscular tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach.

Small Intestine

Villi in the lining of the small intestine

Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas

Parts of the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas

Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas (cont’d)

Besides producing bile and releasing bilirubin, the liver: helps maintain normal blood glucose levels manufactures blood proteins necessary for clotting removes toxins and poisons from the blood

What happens if bilirubin cannot leave the body and remains in the bloodstream?

Correct answer is C: hyperbilirubinemia (jaundice) which can show yellow discoloration of the skin, whites of the eyes, and mucous membranes.

Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas

The pancreas is both an exocrine and endocrine organ. As an exocrine organ, it produces enzymes to digest starch (amylase), fat (lipase), and proteins (protease) As an endocrine organ it secretes insulin. What is the function of insulin?

Food Pathway through the GI Tract

Food enters through the oral cavity and exits through the anus

Food Pathway through ?the GI Tract (cont’d)

Food enters through the oral cavity and exits through the anus

Which term is the first part of the large intestine?

Correct answer is A: the cecum is the first part of the large intestine.

3. Which term means swallowing?

Correct answer is B: deglutition means swallowing.

Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Terminology

Combining For, Meaning,Terminology. bucc/o -cheek- buccal mucosa celi/o-belly, abdomen-celiac dent/i-tooth-dentibuccal esophag/o-esophagus-esophageal osialaden/o-salivary gland-sialadenitis

Combining Forms, SuffixThree types of anastomoses

Anastomoses- end to end.end to side and side to side.

Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Terminology (cont’d)

Suffix-Meaning-Terminology -ase -enzyme-lipase -chezia- defecation-hematochezia -iasis- abnormal condition- choledocholithiasis -prandial-meal- postprandial

4. Which term means inflammation of the lip?

Correct answer is D: cheilitis.

Pathology ?of the Digestive System

Examples of signs and symptoms: anorexia – Lack of appetite ascites – Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen eructation – Gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth steatorrhea – Fat in the feces; frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter

Pathologic Conditions?Oral Cavity and Teeth

aphthous stomatitis – inflammation of the mouth with small, painful ulcers dental caries – tooth decay herpetic stomatitis – inflammation of the mouth by infection with the herpesvirus. oral leukoplakia – white plaques or patches periodontal disease – inflammation and degeneration of the gums, teeth and surrounding bone.

Pathologic Conditions?Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

achalasia – Failure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) muscle to relax

Pathologic Conditions?Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

esophageal varices – Swollen, varicose veins at lower end of the esophagus. gastric carcinoma – Malignant tumor of the stomach.

Pathologic Conditions?Upper Gastrointestinal Tract

Pathologic Conditions?Upper Gastrointestinal Tract (cont’d)

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) – Solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach peptic ulcer – Open sore or lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum.

Pathologic Conditions?Upper Gastrointestinal Tract (cont’d)

hernia – Protrusion of an organ or part through the muscle normally containing it.

Pathologic Conditions?Lower Gastrointestinal Tract:? Small and Large Intestines

anal fistula – Abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus. colonic polyposis – Polyps protrude from the mucous membrane of the

Pathologic Conditions?Lower Gastrointestinal Tract:?Small and Large Intestines (cont’d)

colorectal cancer – Adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum or both.

Pathologic Conditions?Lower Gastrointestinal Tract:?Small and Large Intestines (cont’d)

Crohn disease – Chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract. diverticulosis – Abnormal side pockets (outpouchings in the intestinal wall

Pathologic Conditions?Lower Gastrointestinal Tract:?Small and Large Intestines (cont’d)

dysentery – Painful, inflamed intestines hemorrhoids – Swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region ileus – Failure of peristalsis with resulting obstruction of the intestines

Pathologic Conditions?Lower Gastrointestinal Tract:?Small and Large Intestines (cont’d)

intussusception – Telescoping of the intestines IBS – Irritable bowel syndrome- group of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with stress and tension ulcerative colitis – Chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers volvulus – Twisting of the intestines on itself

Pathologic Conditions ? Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas

cirrhosis – Chronic degenerative disease of the liver pancreatitis – Inflammation of the pancreas viral hepatitis – Inflammation of the liver caused by a virus

Pathologic Conditions ?Liver Gallbladder, and Pancreas (cont’d)

cholelithiasis – gallstones in the gallbladder

Chapter Goals

Define new suffixes and use them with digestive system combining forms. List and explain laboratory tests, clinical procedures, and abbreviations common to the digestive system. Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical terms in their proper context, such as medical reports and records.


-ectasis, -ectasia -emesis -lysis -pepsia -phagia -plasty -ptosis -ptysis

Suffixes (cont’d)

-rrhage, -rrhagia -rrhaphy -rrhea -spasm -stasis -stenosis -tresia

Suffixes (cont’d)

Suffixes that are also terms: emesis (emetic) lysis spasm stasis stenosis

Which term means difficulty in swallowing?

Correct answer is B: dysphagia. (A, dysphasia means difficulty speaking; C, dysplasia means abnormal formation or development; D, polyphagia means excessive appetite.)

Which term means to control or stop bleeding?

Correct answer is A: hemostasis.

Combining Forms ?and Terminology

bucc/o-cholangi/o cec/o-cholecyst/o celi/o-choledoch/o cheil/o-col/o chol/e-colon/o


dent/i-gloss/o duoden/o-gluc/o enter/o-glyc/o esophag/o-hepat/o gastr/o-herni/o gingiv/o-ile/o

Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d)

jejun/o – odont/o labi/o – or/o lingu/o – palat/o lip/o- pancreat/o lith/o- proct/o

Combining Forms and Terminology (cont’d)

pylor/o rect/o sialaden/o splen/o steat/o stomat/o

3. Which term means enlarged liver?

Correct answer is C: hepatomegaly.

Laboratory Tests and?Clinical Procedures

Laboratory Tests Liver function tests (LFTs): tests for enzymes and bilirubin in blood Stool culture: test for microorganisms in stool Stool guaiac test or Hemoccult test: test to detect blood in feces

Which of the following tests for the clear fluid that remains after blood has clotted (serum)?

Correct answer is D: LFTs—liver function tests which test for the presence of enzymes and bilirubin in serum.

Laboratory Tests and?Clinical Procedures

Clinical Procedures X-rays Lower gastrointestinal series (barium enema) Upper gastrointestinal series Cholangiography Computed tomography (CT scan)

Laboratory Tests and?Clinical Procedures (cont’d)

Clinical Procedures Ultrasound Examination abdominal ultrasonography endoscopic ultrasonography Magnetic Resonance Techniques Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Laboratory Tests and?Clinical Procedures

Other Procedures Gastric bypass or bariatric surgery: reduces stomach size Gastrointestinal endoscopy: visual examination of the GI tract Liver biopsy: removal of liver tissue Nasogastric intubation: insertion of tube through the nose into stomach Paracentesis (abdominocentesis): puncture to remove fluid from abdomen

Which procedure below is a surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdomen?

Correct answer is D abdominocentesis—the suffix -centesis means to surgically puncture to remove fluid.


Alk phos: alkaline phosphatase ALT, AST: alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase BE: barium enema BRBPR: bright red blood per rectum BM: bowel movement

Abbreviations (cont’d)

CT scan: computed tomography EGD: esophagogastroduodenoscopy ERCP: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography EUS: endoscopic ultrasonography GB: gallbladder GERD: gastroesophageal reflux disease

Abbreviations (cont’d)

GI: gastrointestinal HBV: hepatitis B virus IBD: inflammatory bowel disease LFTs: liver function tests

Abbreviations (cont’d)

MRI: magnetic resonance imaging NG tube: nasogastric tube NPO: nothing by mouth PEG tube: percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube

Abbreviations (cont’d)

PEJ tube: percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy tube PTHC: percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography PUD: peptic ulcer disease

Abbreviations (cont’d)

TPN: total parenteral nutrition T tube: tube placed in the biliary tract for drainage

Review Suffixes (cont’d)

ase enzyme -centesis surgical puncture to remove fluid -chezia defecation; elimination of wastes -ectasia stretching; dilation; expansion -ectasis stretching; dilation; expansion -ectomy removal; excision; resection -emesis vomiting -emia blood condition -genesis producing; forming

Review Suffixes (cont’d)

-graphy process of recording -iasis abnormal condition -lysis breakdown; separation; destruction; loosening -megaly enlargement -orexia appetite -pathy disease; emotion -pepsia digestion -phagia eating; swallowing

Review Suffixes (cont’d)

-prandial meal -plasty surgical repair -ptosis droop; sag; prolapse; fall -ptysis spitting -rrhage bursting forth (of blood) -rrhagia bursting forth (of blood) -rrhaphy suture -rrhea flow; discharge

Review Suffixes (cont’d)

-scopy visual examination -spasm sudden contraction of muscles -stasis stop; control; place -stenosis tightening; stricture -stomy new opening (to form a mouth) -tomy process of cutting -tresia opening

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