CH.13 Endocrine System

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A hormone is a _______ and the target cell is __________.

molecule that has a metabolic effect on another cell; a cell that has receptors for a specific hormone

Secretetions that effect only nearby cells are termed


Exocrine glands differ from endocrine glands in that exocrine glands

secrete through ducts or tubes to the bodies exterior

A sweat gland is an example of


Endocrine means

Internel secretion

The specificity of hormone action derives from

target cell receptors that are unique for the hormone type

What regulates metabolism, aid membranes transports, helps regulate water and electrolyte balance and blood pressure and has functions in growth and development and reproduction


Compared to the nervous system the endocrine system

may be longer lasting effect

All hormones are

organic compounds

What form of hormone is soluble in lipids, combines with protein receptor molecules, cause messenger RNA synthesis, and consists of complex organic rings

Steroid hormone

Non steroid hormones cause _______ in their target cells

activation of adenylate cyclase

A nonsteroid hormone acts on a target cell by

causing synthesis of a second messenger

A steroid hormone acts on a target cell by

directly causing protein synthesis

Hormones that the posterior pituitary secrets are synthesized in the


An up regulated cells an increase in

the number of receptors available for binding

Up-regulation of a target cell can occur in response to

prolonged decreased in the level of a hormone

Down-regulation of a target cell can occur in response to

Prolonged increased in the level of a hormone

________ controls hormone concentrations

Negative feedback

A hormone with an effect that lasts for days would have a

Long half life

A hormone has a half life of 20 mins. After an hour ____ percent of the original number of molecules remains.


Tropic hormones

stimulates certain endocrine glands to secrete hormones

Nerve fibers in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland secrete


What enhances the movement of amino acids into cells, increases the rate of protein synthesis, increases the rate of fat metabolism and enlarges cells

Growth Hormone

Which of the following hormones primarily effects the reproductive organs

Follicle-stimulating hormone

Target cells for releasing hormones are in the

anterior pituitary gland

Which of the following hormones requires a releasing hormone from the hypothalamus for its secretion


Another name for antidiuretic hormone is


the blood concentration of a growth hormone

rises at puberty and levels off after adolescence

Jerry drinks a few beers and soon has to urinate the alcohol has

Inhibited secretion of ADH

Diabetes insipidus is caused by

ADH deficiency

Oxytocin is administered to women following childbirth to stimulate

uterine contractions

ADH and Oxytocin are secreted by

Neurosecretory cells

Growth hormone signals the release of IGF-1 from the


Growth hormone signals the release of


_________ inhibits secretion of prolactin

Dopamine from the hypothalamus

One of the hallmarks of Graves disease


The _____ secretes triiodothyronine


Cretinism is caused by


Maxwell has a very high metabolic rate he is skinny and has protruding eyes, These are symptoms of


Graves disease, the most common form of hyperthyroidism is caused by

an autoimmune disorder


enhances the rate at which protein are synthesized

Simple goiter is most prevalent where the soil lacks


Cretinism results from

a deficiency of thyroid hormones at birth

What stimulates excessive osteoclasts activity, softens bones, increases risks of spontaneous fractures, is most often caused by a tumor


In addition to a drop in blood calcium concentration, a symptom of hypoparathyroidism is

muscle cramps

the secretion of parathyroid hormone is controlled primarily by the

concentration of blood calcium

The hormone that stimulates calcium deposition into bone is


A type of hormone that the adrenal medulla secretes is a


Aldosterone promotes the homeostasis of ions causing the kidneys to

conserve sodium and excrete potassium

what stimulates the production of glucose from noncarbohydrates


Hormones from the adrenal medulla increase

blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate, force of cardiac muscle contraction

Hyposecretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex leads to

Addisons disease

What causes hypersecretion of cortical hormones, elevates blood glucose, elevates sodium concentrations, decreases tissue proteins

Cushing Syndrome

Secretion of insulin causes

a decrease in the concentration of blood glucose

Which of the following has both endocrine and exocrine functions


The pineal gland is located


The hormone that the pineal gland secrets is


The thymus gland secretes hormones called ______ and _______

endocannabinoids; create a euphoric state

Bubble boy was born without a thymus gland.. he later had a bone marrow transplant but then died of an infection

the thymus produces white blood cells which fight against infection

As a result of the general stress response, blood concentration of epinephrine

and cortisol rise

A person who is stressed usually has increased

Blood pressure

With age

levels of GH decrease but ADH increase

Pheromones differ from hormones in that

they are transmitted through members of the same species

Athletes abuse EPO because this hormone

Increases the number of red blood cells

What disease causes weight loss, inulin must be taken or drugs must be given to help the body utilize insulin, the pancreas cannot produce insulin

Diabetes Mellitus

President John F. Kennedy had

Addisons disease

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is

a disorder of the immune system

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is

a deficiency of insulin and insensitivity of cells to insulin

Treatment of type 2 diabetes includes

regularly watching weight, exercising, drugs, maintaining healthy diet

A hormone is a secreted molecule that is carried in the bloodstream to where it on target cells that bear specific receptors for that hormone


An autocrine secretion affects cells far away


The nervous system releases hormones at synapses and the endocrine system releases neurotransmitters into the blood stream


Nonsteroid hormones include peptides, proteins, glycoproteins and amines


Steroid hormones diffuse through cell membranes, then bind with receptors, where as non steroid hormones bind receptors on the target cell memebrane


A tropic hormone prevents endocrine glands from releasing their hormones, there by maintaining homeostasis


the target cells of releasing hormones are in the anterior pituitary gland


the thalamus controls secretion of pituitary hormones


Oxytocin stimulates the kidneys to conserve water


The extra follicular cells of the thyroid gland secrete calcitonin


Parathyroid hormone stimulates the activity of bone-reabsorbing osteoblasts


the sex hormones from the adrenal cortex are primarily androgens


Glucagon is called hypoglycemic factor


A person under stress may have lowered resistance to infection


______ a secretion affects the cell that secretes them


The nervous system releases neurotransmitters into synapses. In contrast, the endocrine system releases _______ into the blood stream


Adenylate cyclase causes ATP molecules to become _______ _________ molecules

Cyclic AMP

The hormone that stimulates the release of growth hormone is called ______ _______ _______ ______

Growth hormone releasing hormone

The thyroid gland has special ability to remove the element ______ from the blood


Calcitonin is produced in the _______ gland


The central region of the adrenal gland is the adrenal ______


The pancreas functions as part of the endocrine system and as a part of the ______ system

Exocrine/digestive system

The ______ gland is located deep between the cerebral hemispheres attached to the roof of the third ventricle


The condition produced by factors that tend to cause changes in the body internal environment and threaten its survival is called ______.


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