APUSH – Chapter 4 (1607-1692)

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Cash crop that made a profit and saved Jamestown.

Indentured Servants

People who could not afford passage to the colonies could become indentured servants. Another person would pay their passage, and in exchange, the indentured servant would serve that person for a set length of time (usually seven years) and then would be free.

Freedom Dues

The dues of a master to his indentured servant after the servant’s period of indentured servitude. They included simple clothing, tools, one barrel of corn and sometimes a parcel of land.

Headright System

Parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.

William Berkeley

A governor of Virginia, appointed by King Charles I, of whom he was a favorite. He was governor from 1641-1652 and 1660-1677. Berkeley enacted friendly policies towards the Indians that led to Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676.

Nathanial Bacon

Leader that took over when Berkley wouldn’t attack the Indians; Was willing to lead not only against Indians but the governor too; This time was known as Bacon’s Rebellion.

Royal African Company

Chartered in 1672 by the English government to establish a monopoly over the slave trade among British merchants; supplied African slaves to colonies in Barbados, Jamaica, and Virginia.

Middle Passage

The middle portion of the triangular trade that brought African slaves to the Americas.

Slave Codes

Laws that controlled the lives of enslaved african americans and denied them basic rights.

Chattel Slavery

Ownership of human beings; a system of bondage in which a slave has the legal status of property and so can be bought as sold like property.


Unique language created by black slaves that combined English with other African dialects.

Stono Rebellion

The most serious slave rebellion in the the colonial period which occurred in 1739 in South Carolina. 100 African Americans rose up, got weapons and killed several whites then tried to escape to S. Florida. The uprising was crushed and the participants executed.


Huge farms that required a large labor force to grow crops.

Yeoman Farmers

Family farmers who hired out slaves for the harvest season, self-sufficient, participated in local markets alongside slave owners.

Scarlett Letter

Disturbing New England masterpiece about adultery and guilt in the old Puritan era. Referred to the red "A" that was stitched to every piece of clothing the convicted adulterer had.


The oldest college in America, which reflected Puritan commitment to an educated ministry. Focused on preparing children to be ministers.

Town Meetings

A purely democratic form of government common in the colonies, and the most prevalent form of local government in New England. In general, the town’s voting population would meet once a year to elect officers, levy taxes, and pass laws. Only male white land owning Puritans could vote.


A sermon or prophecy recounting wrongdoing, warning of doom, and calling for repentance.


Testimonials by Puritan individuals that they had recieved God’s grace and therefore deserved to be admitted to the church as members of the elect.

Half-Way Covenant

A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.

Yankee Ingenuity

Originally fostered by the flinty fields and comfortless climate of New England; came to be claimed by all Americans as a proud national trait; clever; original.

Leisler’s Rebellion

Jacob Leisler seized control of lower New York from 1689 to 1691. The uprising, which occurred in the midst of Britain’s "Glorious Revolution," reflected colonial resentment against the policies of King James II. Royal authority was restored in 1691 by British troops.

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