apush 37

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International Business Machines, was part of the historic shift to a mass consumer economy after World War II, and symbolized another momentous transformation to the fast-paced "Information Age."

Strategic Air Command

a part of the US Air Force formed in the late 1940s, to engage in long-range bombing missions and to prepare for nuclear strikes

Cult of domesticity

This term, also known as the cult of true womanhood, reflected the early 19th century middle-class ideal about the role of women in society. In an increasingly industrial society, husbands began to work away from the home in factories or offices, and their wives stayed at home and engaged in domestic pursuits. This helped create a view that men should support their families while women stayed at home where they were sheltered from the cold realities of politics and capitalism. Work became increasingly associated with men, and the home became female identified.

The Feminine Mystique

written by Betty Friedan, journalist and mother of three children; described the problems of middle-class American women and the fact that women were being denied equality with men; said that women were kept from reaching their full human capacities

Joseph McCarthy

1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov’t, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential; "McCarthyism" was the fearful accusation of any dissenters of being communists

Army-McCarthy Hearings

The Trials in which Senator McCarthey accused the U.S. Army of harboring possible communists.These trials were one of the first televised trials in America, and helped show America Senator McCarthey’s irresponsibility and meanness.

Dynamic Conservatism

Eisenhower’s philosophy of being liberal in all things human and being conservative with all things fiscal. Appealed to both Republicans and Democrats.

Anti-polio vaccine

Indian New Deal

1930’s legislation that gave Indians greater control of their own affairs and provided further funding for schools and hospitals.

Interstate Highway Act

1956 Eisenhower 20 yr plan to build 41,000 mi of highway, largest public works project in history

Nikita Khrushchev

Soviet statesman and premier who denounced stalin (1894-1971), ruled the USSR from 1958-1964; lessened government control of soviet citizens; seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation, Stalin’s successor, wanted peaceful coexistence with the U.S. Eisenhower agreed to a summit conference with Khrushchev, France and Great Britain in Geneva, Switzerland in July, 1955 to discuss how peaceful coexistence could be achieved.

Massive Retaliation

The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950’s was to threaten "massive retaliation" with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.

Mohammed Reza Pahlevi

Shah of Iran who was deposed in 1979 by Islamic fundamentalists (1919-1980), a Shah that was placed in Iran by the CIA in 1953 and he planned to westernize and secularize Iran. He was overthrown in January 1979 by Muslim Fundamentalists. When he was overthrown Iran was left in chaos and Iranian oil production was stopped which led to higher oil prices for Americans.

Suez Crisis

July 26, 1956, Nasser (leader of Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal, Oct. 29, British, French and Israeli forces attacked Egypt. UN forced British to withdraw; made it clear Britain was no longer a world power

Eisenhower Doctrine

policy of President Eisenhower that stated that the United States would use force to help any nation threatened by communism


Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; international cartel that inflates price of oil by limiting supply; Venezuela, Saudi Arabia and UAE are prominent members


In October 1957, the Soviet Union surprised the world by launching Sputnik, the first artificial satellite to orbit the earth. The resulting outcry in the United States, especially fears that the Soviets were ahead in both space exploration and military missiles, forced the Eisenhower administration to increase defense spending and accelerate America’s space program.


Inter Continental Ballistic Missile. They have the power to shoot a missile from one country to another. This makes it easier to attack a country without getting to close to them.


The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, an organization that oversees the United States’ space program, established in 1958

U-2 Incident

The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.

Fidel Castro

Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927), led the revolution of Cuba and took control of Cuba in 1959; resented past dictators; made Cuba communist

Kitchen debate

was a famous discussion between Richard Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev. It signaled that the U.S acknowledged their setback in technology since Nixon focused on technological luxuries.

Election of 1960

Brought about the era of political television. Between Kennedy and Nixon. Issues centered around the Cold War and economy. Kennedy argued that the nation faces serious threats from the soviets. Nixon countered that the US was on the right track under the current administration. Kennedy won by a narrow margin.

Tennessee Williams

author of "Streetcar;" called "the greatest American playwright;" homosexual, had traumatic upbring; also wrote "the glass menagerie" about his mother; sister was mentally ill as was his mother

James Baldwin

United States author who was an outspoken citic of racism (1924-1987) – "Go Tell It On the Mountain" and "Blues for Mister Charlie"

Emmett Till

Murdered in 1955 for whistling at a white woman by her husband and his friends. They kidnapped him and brutally killed him. his death led to the American Civil Rights movement.

Jackie Robinson

The first African American player in the major league of baseball. His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.

Sweatt v. Painter

this case involved a black man who was refused admission to the University Of Texas Austin School Of Law. At the time there was no law school open only to blacks in Texas, according to the Plessy v. Ferguson "separate but equal" requirement. The case continued for six months, while a new school of law for blacks was created in Texas. However, the resulting school was in no way equal to the UT Austin Law School due to the lack of faculty and resources in the library. This case is significant because it does not overturn separate but equal factor and the Supreme Court rules that in the case of graduate education intangibles must be considered as being equal. This decision reflects how severe racial discrimination was, especially within our own school system we attend today and how there is a wide range of races who attend UT Austin today.

Rosa Parks

United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)

Montgomery Bus Boycott

In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal., the first organized movement by african americans to fight segregation; intended to oppose the city’s policy of racial segregation on its public transit system. Many historically significant figures of the civil rights movement were involved in the boycott

"To Secure These Rights"

A report by the President’s Committee on Civil Rights, it was given a year after the Committee was formed, and helped pave the way for the civil rights era. It recommended that the government start an anti-lynching campaign and ensure that Blacks got to vote.

Great African-American Migration

during war years many blacks migrated from the South to the North to take advantage of the labor shortages there and since cotton crops were destroyed by boil weevils which caused high unemployment in the South

Brown v. BOE

The decision was reached in May 1954. The learned justices ruled the segregation in the public schools was "inherently unequal" and thus unconstitutional. The uncompromising sweep of the decision startled everyone.

"Declaration of Constitutional Principles" of 1956

location: deep South–>more than 100 senators and congressman pledged their unyielding resistance to desegregation, this pledged the unyielding resistance to desegregation.

Orval Faubus

The Governor who opposed the integration of Central High, Sent the Little Rock National Guard to keep them out. Then gave them no protection at all., He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of Little Rock public schools during the Little Rock Crisis, in which he defied the United States Supreme Court by ordering the Arkansas National Guard to stop African American students from attending Little Rock Central High School

Little Rock Integration

A group of African-American students who were enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. The ensuing Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus, and then attended after the intervention of President Eisenhower, is considered to be one of the most important events in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. On their first day of school, troops from the Arkansas National Guard would not let them enter the school and they were followed by mobs making threats to lynch.


Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success

Sit-in Greensboro, NC

The ________________________, in 1960 reflected the mounting frustration at the slow pace of racial change., Feb. 1, 1960 at Woolworht’s all white lunch counter. 4 students from Carolina A & T decided to sit at counters in civil protests. Three weeks they took turns sitting at the counters and they were taunted by groups of white people and pelted with food. Sit ins spread throughout hte country in 126 cities. Facilitated by SNCC.


(Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee)-a group established in 1960 to promote and use non-violent means to protest racial discrimination; they were the ones primarily responsible for creating the sit-in movement

Ho Chi Minh

Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969), 1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable

Vietn Minh

English League for the Independence of Vietnam, organization that led the struggle for Vietnamese independence from French rule. The Viet Minh was formed in China in May 1941 by Ho Chi Minh. Although led primarily by Communists, the Viet Minh operated as a national front organization open to persons of various political persuasions.


Where the French were defeated in 1954, giving Vietnam its independence, Big battle between France and Vietnam when the French lost.

Geneva Accords

a 1954 peace agreement that divided Vietnam into Communist-controlled North Vietnam and non-Communist South Vietnam until unification elections could be held in 1956, temporarily divided vietnam along the 17th parallel

17th Parallel

line of latitude that separated North and South Vietnam, line on the map that divided Vietnam; north of this latitude was communism, south of it was anti communism

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