AP Gov Ch. 9

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Which of the following organizations is not an ideological group?


Grass roots lobbying is based on the assumption that officials will respond to

pressure from constituents.

A set of lobbyists, legislators, policy experts, and executives who come together temporarily in debate over a complex policy issue is

an issue network.

The citizens of _____ are most actively involved in interest groups and community causes.

the United States

According to Theodore Lowi’s theory of interest-group liberalism, the effect of groups on policy

(All of the above) -constitutes a partial and wrongful abdication by government of its authority over policy. -results in a system of rule by minorities rather than by a majority. -results in an inefficient use of society’s resources. -results in both a system of rule by minorities rather than by a majority, and an inefficient use of society’s resources.

The largest citizens’ group, with over thirty million members, is

the AARP.

About _____ percent of people who regularly listen to National Public Radio do not donate money to their local station.


Effective inside lobbying is based upon

providing useful and persuasive information to key officials.

James Madison’s solution to the problem of factions (special interests) has, in the modern policy process, actually contributed to the problem by

resulting in a fragmentation of authority among policymakers, and thereby providing groups more opportunities to get their way.

Another name for an interest group is

a faction.

Which of the following statements would not be accepted by supporters of the pluralist view of interest groups?

The opinion of the majority should always prevail in a policy dispute over the opinion of a more intense and directly affected minority.

Economic groups have an advantage over non-economic groups because

they have greater access to financial resources.

Ideological groups are distinct from single issue groups in

the number of issues with which they are concerned.

The support of _____ was critical to passage of a controversial prescription drug program for the elderly in 2003.

the AARP

Interest group activity is basic to the democratic process because it

serves to promote the concerns of various interests in society.

The largest number of PACs are those associated with


The situation where individuals are tempted not to contribute to a cause because they will get the benefits even if they do not participate is called

the free-rider problem.

A basic reason for the existence of so many interest groups in the United States is

(all these answers are correct) -the American tradition of free association. -the extent of diverse interests in American society. -America’s federal system of government. -both the American tradition of free association and America’s federal system of government.

James Madison argued

for regulation of interests through a governing system of checks and balances.

Today, the largest labor unions are those that represent

service and public employees.

The air we breathe is an example of a

collective good and public good.

An interest group that focuses on policy benefits for senior citizens would be an example of a(n)

single issue group.

In acknowledging the dilemma inherent in group activity, James Madison

worried that government would be overly dominated by groups, but recognized that a free society is obliged to permit the advocacy of self-interest.

Public interest groups are distinguished by the fact that

their members receive no direct economic benefit from attainment of the group’s goals.

Members of the _____ generate more mail to Congress than any other group.


According to E. E. Schattschneider, the interest group system has

a strong upper-class bias.

A main difference between iron triangles and issue networks is

issue networks are generally less stable than iron triangles, such that the members of an issue network may change as the issue develops.

In order to overcome the free-rider problem, non-economic groups have

used internet resources and computer-assisted mailing lists to target potential donors.

In recent decades, lobbyists in Washington, D.C. have increasingly

targeted the executive branch in their efforts to influence policy decisions.

The influence of interest groups through the courts occurs through

both initiating lawsuits and lobbying for certain judges to be appointed to the bench.

_____ wrote that "Liberty is to faction what air is to fire."

James Madison

The theory that nearly all interests are adequately presented through group activity is


State and local governments

lobby in Washington, D.C., most effectively through organizations representing groups of states and localities.

A pluralist could be expected to argue that

the sum of people’s separate interests is nearly the equivalent of the collective public interest.

The group system politically favors those interests that

are already favored by the economic system.

By definition, the interest-group system consists of all interests that are _____ and seek _____ goals.

organized; political

Outside lobbying does not include

developing and maintaining close contacts with policymakers.

During his visit to this country in the 1830s, Alexis de Tocqueville described the United States as "a nation of


Critics of pluralist theory argue that

there is no collective interest in a system where each special interest determines which policy benefits it receives.

Some groups pursue public or collective goods. A public good is one that

cannot be selectively granted or denied to individuals; it must be shared.

There are roughly _____ political action committees (PACs) in the United States.


In the dynamics of an iron triangle, what benefit do interest groups provide to friendly bureaucratic agencies?

lobbying support for agency programs

Interest group liberalism refers to

the disproportionate influence of interest groups over policy in their respective areas of concern.

Most lobbyists receive support from elected officials in direct exchange for


According to James Madison, the source of most interest groups or factions is

the unequal distribution of property.

The most significant resource that most groups offer congressional candidates is


The limits of interest groups’ influence might be gauged by the Democratic backlash against the _____, which had tried to block NAFTA in 1993.


A purposive incentive is defined as

the opportunity to promote a worthwhile public cause.

The most fully organized interests are those that represent


Under federal law, PACs can contribute _____ per candidate per election.


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