A&P II Chapter 25 Reading

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Polycystic kidney disease always affects both kidneys instead of only the right or left kidney because ______.

it is a genetic disease

Hydronephrosis may be caused by all EXCEPT which of the following?

renal failure

Which of the following is the most likely to cause pyelonephritis?

infection of the urinary bladder

Identify the functional area of the kidney at letter B.

renal pyramid

Which letter represents the region that combines several minor calyces to form two or three major calyces?


The area at C will eventually drain urine into the __________.


Which arteries branch off the arcuate arteries?

cortical radiate arteries

Which vessels are most intimate with the nephron loop and serve as a point to collect ions and water back into the blood?

vasa recta

Which vessels supply the cortical tissue of the kidney with blood?

cortical radiate arteries

Which of the following is the site where we would expect to see the majority of the nephron loops?

renal pyramid

Which of the following is NOT a function of the kidneys?

to regulate body fluid by controlling excretion from sweat glands

Which statement does NOT accurately describe the renal gross anatomy?

The left kidney is lower in position because of crowding by the liver.

The __________ collect(s) urine, which drains continuously from the papillae; the urine is then emptied into the __________.

calyces; renal pelvis

Efferent arterioles supply blood to the glomerulus.


What two structures constitute the renal corpuscle?

glomerulus and glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule

Which part of the renal tubule is lined with cuboidal epithelial cells bordered by dense microvilli?

proximal convoluted tubule

In which kidney region are all renal corpuscles located?

renal cortex

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the cortical nephrons?

Their nephron loop is closely wrapped with vasa recta.

Where does the efferent arteriole of the juxtamedullary nephron carry blood to?

vasa recta

Which capillary bed produces filtrate?


What is the function of the macula densa cells of the juxtaglomerular complex (JGC)?

monitoring the NaCl content of the filtrate

Which cells of the juxtaglomerular complex secrete renin?

granular cells

Which of these cells is located interspersed between the capillaries of the glomerulus?

glomerular mesangial cells

What is the juxtaglomerular complex?

a system that regulates the rate of filtrate formation and systemic blood pressure

Which of the following processes would be considered as a secretory rather than an excretory activity?

aldosterone release by the adrenal glands

Which of the following is NOT a major urine formation process?


Which of the following is NOT a cause of anuria?

vasodilation of afferent arterioles

What is the chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtration membrane of the glomerulus?

hydrostatic pressure in glomerular capillaries (HPgc)

Suppose that a patient has a failing liver and is unable to make normal levels of albumin for the blood plasma. If all other factors remain the same, what would be the effect on the amount of filtrate produced?

Filtrate production would increase.

Calculate the net filtration pressure if blood pressure in the glomerulus is unusually high, around 68 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).

23 mm Hg

Which pressure accounts for the other three?

net filtration pressure

Capsular hydrostatic pressure is the chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood and across the filtration membrane.


A relatively large afferent arteriole on one side of the glomerulus compared to a relatively smaller efferent arteriole creates an increase in hydrostatic pressure that drives glomerular filtration.


Secondary active transport of solutes involves all of the following EXCEPT __________.

energy expenditure

What hormone promotes active tubular secretion of potassium ions into, along with sodium reabsorption from, filtrate in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and collecting ducts?


What area of the nephron is responsible for the reabsorption of most of the water from the filtrate as well as most nutrients?

proximal convoluted tubule

In what part of the renal tubule does parathyroid hormone (PTH) promote the reabsorption of calcium ions?

distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

Where in the nephron does most solute reabsorption occur?

proximal convoluted tubule

Approximately 80% of the energy used for active transport is devoted to the reabsorption of __________.


Under normal conditions, the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) reabsorbs all of the glucose, lactate, and amino acids in the filtrate and 65% of the Na+ and water.


Upon reaching what point in the nephron is reabsorption (1) dependent upon the body’s needs at the time and (2) regulated by hormones?

distal convoluted tubule

The ascending limb of the loop of Henle is permeable to water.


Which of the following promotes the formation of dilute urine?

decreased osmolality of extracellular fluids

Vasa recta blood osmolality is critical to maintaining the countercurrent mechanisms of the nephron. Where is vasa recta blood osmolality the highest?

in the deep medulla

Where does antidiuretic hormone (ADH) exert its effects to promote water reabsorption?

collecting duct

Which hormone(s) is/are required for facultative water reabsorption in the collecting ducts?


External chemicals that enhance urinary output are called __________.


The longer the nephron loop descends into the medulla, the less concentrated the urine will be.


Since most patients with renal failure produce little or no urine, hemodialysis often involves removal of water from the blood. However, side-effects may develop if too much fluid is removed from the blood. Which of the following is NOT one of the potential side-effects?

vasoconstriction of afferent arterioles

A nonfasting urine sample from an individual who had previously ingested donuts and a soft drink showed the presence of sugar (glucose). Which of the following statements explains the presence of glucose in the urine?

The individual exceeded the transport maximum.

Which of these should NOT normally appear in urine?


When renal calculi obstruct a ureter, pain is perceived to radiate from the lower back to the anterior abdominal wall on the same side. This is an event that ______.

is called referred pain

The frequency of cystitis in men is lower than in women because ______.

the male urethra is longer than the female urethra

Urinary incontinence may occur if a person has ______.

an overactive detrusor muscle

Why is it difficult for someone to defecate when stressed?

The external anal sphincter under conscious (voluntary) control does not receive a brain signal to relax.

Which of the following best describes the function of the urethra?

transport of urine from the bladder to the outside of the body

What region of the male urethra runs through the urogenital diaphragm, extending about 2 centimeters from the prostate to the beginning of the penis?

intermediate part of the urethra (membranous urethra)

What defines the trigone of the urinary bladder?

the ureter entrances and the opening to the urethra

Which urinary structure serves as the transporter for urine toward the bladder?


Which part of the brain controls the micturition reflex?


The __________ is a skeletal muscle under conscious control that allows urine to leave the bladder.

external urethral sphincter

Which of the following is NOT one of the things that must happen for micturition to occur?

The extrusor muscle must relax.

Which of the following would NOT inhibit micturition?

detrusor contraction

Given the correlation between urine color and urine concentration, which of the following statements is true about Max’s urine?

Max’s urine is most dilute before exercise.

Max needs to drink more water before exercise to avoid dehydration.


Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which regulates urine concentration and dilution, is __________.

lowest before Max exercises

Max is curious about the protein content of his urine. Which of these statements provides an accurate basis for Tracey’s response, explaining normal conditions?

Few proteins are small enough to pass through the glomerular membrane, but the few that do are reabsorbed. So, proteins are not usually present in urine.

Tracey knows that the large pizza Max consumed just prior to collecting his third urine sample caused a transient increase in his blood glucose levels. What can be accurately said about the relationship between glucose in the blood and the amount of glucose filtered through the glomerular membrane?

The higher the blood glucose concentration, the more glucose is filtered through the glomerular membrane.

Tracey explains to Max that his transiently elevated blood glucose leads to "spilling" of glucose into his urine. Why does this happen?

Reabsorption of glucose is limited by transport proteins.

During strenuous exercise, Max’s body produces lactic acid and his blood pH begins to decline. His kidneys go to work to preserve acid-base balance by doing all of the following EXCEPT __________.

reabsorbing hydrogen

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