4 Goals of Psychology

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4 Goals of Psychology

1. Describe- What People Do 2. Predict- What They Will Do Next 3. Explain- Why 4. Alter- Ultimate Goal is to Change People

5 Research Methods

1. Observation 2. Case Study 3. Survey 4.Correlation 5. Experiment

3.5 Parts of a Neuron

1. Dendrite- Receives Information 2. Cell Body- Decides if the Signals Important 3. Axon- Transmits .5 Myelin- Makes the Signal Run Faster

Psychoactive Substances

1.Agonist- Imitation Neurotransmitters 2.Antagonists- Prevent Neurotransmitters 3. Reuptake Blockers/ Inhibitors- Prevents Nuerotransmitters from returning

Nervous System

1. Central Nervous System a. spinal cord b. brain 2. Peripheral Nervous System a. Somatic Division -voluntary muscle activation b. Autonomic Division -Sympathetic Division (Generally Activates: Fight or Flight) -Parasympathetic Division (Generally Inhibits: Rest or Digest)

2 Measure of Variability

1. Range 2. Standard of Deviation


1. Brainstem (heartbeat, breathing) 2.Cerebellum (coordination, balance) a. hypothalamus- temperature control b. hippocampus- memory c. amygdala- anger fear d. thalamus- senses 3. Cerebrum/ Cerebral Cortex a. occipital lobe- vision b. temporal lobe- language/ hearing c. parietal lobe- body sensation; touch d. frontal lobe- movement, emotions, executive control, judgemet

Association/ Classical Learning

-Pavlov -A causes C A is equal to B therefore B causes C

Strength of Conditioning

– Frequency: Over and OVer -Timing: Both Reinforcement and Punishing should be instant – Intensity: To teach one thing Reinforcements and Punishments should be as large as possible. To teach multiple things, it should be low intensity ex. ‘the look’ -Reliability: (MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR) 1. punishment- 100% of the time 2. reinforements- continuous: to learn intermittent: persist (gradual)


-Shaping 1. Positive: Give Clean Room= Cash 2. Negative: Take Clean Room= No Chores


1. Positive: Give Watching J.S.= Give Chores 2. Negative: Take Watching J.S.= Take Away Phone


Reinforcement + Punishment

Observational Learning

-Bandura -We can learn by watching other’s consequences

3 measure of Central Tendency

-mean -median -mode

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