Emotions

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The Cannon-Bard theory states that the emotional stimulus enters our sensory systems which causes us to feel emotions which causes emotional expression responses (somatic, endocrine, and autonomic).
ie. feeling happy makes you smile

What is the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion?

The James-Lange theory states that the emotional stimulus enters our sensory systems and causes emotional expression responses (somatic, autonomic, and endocrine) which causes us to feel emotions.
ie. smiling makes you feel happy

What is the James-Lange theory of emotion?

James-Lange theory

Recent research suggests that although we can lack emotional feelings we can still have emotional responses (somatic, visceral, and endocrine) but we do not have emotional feelings without the emotional responses. What theory does this support?

Broca

Who first identified the limbic lobe and named it?

It is a loop connecting 4 structures, the hypothalamus (mammillary body) connects to the anterior thalamic nuclei via the mammillothalamic tract. The anterior thalamic nuclei connects the the cingulate gyrus which connects to the hippocampal formation which connects back to the mammillary body through the fornix.

Describe the Papez circuit.

Neither

Does the Papez circuit support the James-Lange theory or the Cannon-bard theory?

It actually integrates the Papez loop tying the neocortex together with the cingulate gyrus, the hippocampal formation, and the hypothalamus and it also connects the hippocampus to the hypothalamus through the amygdala.

How is the MacLean concept of the limbic system different from the Papez circuit?

The limbic system is no longer considered a circuit but a system that relays information from various areas to the hypothalamus to create autonomic, behavioral, and endocrine responses.

What is the modern concept of the limbic system?

The frontal lobe.

Phineas Gage suffered an accident that drove a tamping iron through his brain. The change in his demeanor showed that what area of the brain is involved in emotion?

Emotional flatness, inappropriate behaviors, and difficulty concentrating.

Frontal lobotomies were once used to treat certain conditions like schizophrenic patients with uncontrolled aggressive behavior. Although it helped those symptoms what unwanted effects did it have?

Emotional flattening, hyperorality, and inappropriate behaviors including increase in sexual behavior.

Could be caused by a disease process (such as a temporal lobe lesion) or surgical intervention.

The Klüver-Bucy experiments on rhesus monkeys involved the bilateral removal of the anterior part of the temporal lobes including the amygdala. What did this show? When would this be seen in patients?

Amygdala bilaterally. It means that the amygdala plays a crucial role in fear.

Animals can be trained to associate a fear response with a sound until eventually the sound itself provokes the fear response. Removal of what area of the brain causes the animal to lose this learned fear response? What does this indicate about this area of the brain?

Emotionally competent stimulus → thalamus → amygdala.

This system bypasses the cortex interpreting the stimulus and leads to a quicker fear response.

One neural circuit for learned fear i as follows: Emotionally competent stimulus presented → thalamus → sensory cortex → emotional experience examined → amygdala → behavioral, autonomic, and endocrine effects. What other system leads to a quicker response?

The amygdala

In an experiment measuring brain activity in response to different faces, fearful faces caused increased activity of what area?

The amygdala activates the hypothalamus to release CRH whereas the hippocampus inhibits the hypothalamus. So as we learn that a stimulus is not something to be afraid of our hippocampus inhibits the hypothalamic release of CRH which stops the release of ACTH and concomitant release of cortisol.

The hippocampus is involved in memory. How does it help to regulate the stress response?

Increase in amygdala activity or decrease in hippocampus activity.

What two abnormalities lead to an increased stress response?

Hostile and aggressive behavior.

Spontaneous fits of anger or deep sadness.

Temporal lobe tumors that comprise the amygdala may lead to what sort of behavior? Tumors of the hypothalamus are often accompanied by what?

Olfactory or gustatory hallucinations.

Temporal lobe epilepsy leads to what sort of hallucinations?

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