MGT 3100 Chapter 15

If you are nervous in a job interview, it is best that you admit it

FALSE

Poor communication between staff and managers has a financial cost to organizations

TRUE

Communication is the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another

TRUE

You are an efficient communicator when your intended message is accurately understood by the other person.

FALSE

Encoding is defined as an attempt to disguise a message so that only the desired recipient can interpret it

FALSE

Bret had many spelling and grammar mistakes in his report, some of which made the content difficult to understand. This is an example of poor decoding

FALSE

The pathway by which a message travels is called the medium

TRUE

Eli shut his eyes and dropped his head into his hands when his boss announced the holiday schedule. This is an example of feedback

TRUE

Noise is defined as any physical sound that interferes with accurate communication between two people

FALSE

The sun was right in Sienna's eyes, so she looked away and missed the coach's demonstration of a defensive technique. In this case, the sun acts as noise in the communication process

TRUE

Noise can affect written and spoken messages, and even nonverbal ones

TRUE

The communication process begins with the transmission of a message through a medium

FALSE

Media richness indicates how well a particular medium conveys information and promotes learning

TRUE

Face-to-face communication is the leanest form of communication

FALSE

A rich medium of communication is best for nonroutine situations and to avoid oversimplification

TRUE

If you must tell your subordinate that he is facing a sexual harassment investigation, you should use a lean medium of communication

FALSE

The danger of using a lean medium for nonroutine matters is overloading; the medium typically provides more information than is necessary

FALSE

A telephone call is a richer medium than a personal letter

TRUE

A speaker that isn't working properly at a fast-food drive-through is an example of a communication barrier

TRUE

Neha did not receive an important e-mail from a client because, unbeknownst to her, her company's e-mail server was down. This is an example of a receiver barrier

FALSE

Time-zone differences can be a physical barrier to communication

TRUE

When a supervisor tells you, "We need to get this done right away," the supervisor has created a semantic barrier to the communication process

TRUE

The study of the meaning of words is called semantics

TRUE

Jargon is the use of foreign language terms to represent concepts in American business

FALSE

Jargon is an example of a physical barrier to communication

FALSE

Trust between parties is an important element in preventing communication problems

TRUE

One's ego can affect how receptive that person is to being influenced by others

TRUE

Effective communication begins with challenging, at least mentally, what you have heard

FALSE

A stereotype consists of harmful beliefs that suppress minority groups of people

FALSE

Nonverbal communication consists of messages sent using written rather than spoken media

FALSE

Eye contact signals the beginning of conversation; people typically tend to look at others when beginning to speak

FALSE

A smile does not convey the same emotions in different countries

TRUE

Folding one's arms can be interpreted as defensiveness

TRUE

According to research, touching is typically detrimental to teamwork

FALSE

One of the ways to improve communication is to show animation

TRUE

Women are slightly more likely than men to negotiate their starting pay

FALSE

Among gender difference in communication is the idea that men are more likely than women to ask questions

FALSE

According to Deborah Tannen, women are more tactful than men when it comes to giving feedback.

TRUE

More often than not, a male executive who wants the advice of an executive coach will turn to a woman

TRUE

Vertical communication refers solely to the flow of messages down the hierarchy, or in other words, bosses communicating with subordinates

FALSE

When a subordinate recommends to her manager that their department get additional help for the inventory process, it is considered vertical communication

TRUE

The main purpose of horizontal communication is coordination between and within work units

TRUE

Vertical communication is impeded by rivalry between work units

FALSE

Management by wandering around is an example of a formal communication channel

FALSE

The grapevine is faster than formal channels of communication

TRUE

Management by wandering around helps reduce the distortion that occurs with formal communication flowing up a hierarchy

TRUE

Foregoing the use of an agenda for a work meeting makes it harder for participants to add excessive items and thus helps streamline the meeting

FALSE

Multicommunicating represents the use of technology to participate in several interactions at the same time

TRUE

Texting and checking one's e-mail during group meetings has become commonplace and accepted in the workplace

FALSE

Compensation is the most important factor for Millennials in choosing employment

FALSE

Research finds that reducing an organization's travel budget also reduces its revenue and profitability

TRUE

High-definition videoconference systems that simulate face-to-face meetings between users are known as virtual conference technology

FALSE

Telecommuting is more common for jobs that involve brain work requiring concentration and limited interruptions

TRUE

Telework is a broad term than encompasses not just working from home but working from anywhere

TRUE

A system of safeguards for protecting information technology from threats is known as cyber-defense.

FALSE

The right of people not to reveal information about themselves is known as privacy

TRUE

Among users of social networks, the older the user, the more likely that person carefully monitors the content of the profile and who has access to it

FALSE

The average worker receives 200 e-mails a day

TRUE

The greater the use of e-mail within an organization, the more connected coworkers feel

FALSE

Most people would rather give up their TVs or the Internet than their mobile phones

TRUE

Today, problems with smartphones are mere annoyances

FALSE

Internet-based and mobile technologies used to generate interactive dialogue with members of a network are collectively known as social media

TRUE

Diminished ethics by businesspeople is one of the drawbacks commonly associated with the use of social media

FALSE

People comprehend less than half of a typical verbal message

TRUE

The main purpose of those with an evaluative listening style is to try to determine the speaker's main message and important points

FALSE

To be a better listener, you should not distract the speaker with questions

FALSE

By and large, speed reading isn't effective because it does not work well for difficult or unfamiliar material

TRUE

Advice to help streamline your reading includes asking subordinates to screen, scan, or summarize it for you

TRUE

Top-down reading requires managers to summarize important information in reading and to share it with subordinates

FALSE

When your reader is attached to a solution other than the one you propose, your writing should order points from most controversial to least

FALSE

One study found that the top predictor of success and upward mobility is how much a person enjoys public speaking and how effective the person is at it

TRUE

An audience is unlikely to remember more than a few points from a speech

TRUE

If you have little experience, the top selling points about yourself in a job interview should be

A. related to your level of education.

B. about your parents and their accomplishments.

C. your personal qualities.

D. predictions you have made for your future.

E. extracurricular activities in which you've taken part.

C. your personal qualities.

Communication is

A. speaking or writing so that another is able to comprehend the meaning.

B. interpretation of messages sent via any media.

C. the combined activities of speaking and listening.

D. the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another.

E. a process involving only the sender, message, and receiver.

D. the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another.

When your intended message is sent accurately in the least amount of time, you are a(n)

A. economical communicator.

B. efficient communicator.

C. formal communicator.

D. collaborative communicator.

E. effective communicator.

B. efficient communicator.

Which of the following is not an element of the communication model?

A. Sender

B. Feedback

C. Decoder

D. Noise

E. Message

C. Decoder

The process of translating a message into understandable symbols or language is called

A. encoding.

B. transforming.

C. mediating.

D. decoding.

E. enriching.

A. encoding.

When the band came out on stage and the lead singer shouted, "Hello, San Antonio!" the crowd roared with applause. The crowd's response is an example of

A. decoding.

B. medium selection.

C. noise.

D. encoding.

E. feedback.

E. feedback.

Which of the following is not an example of noise in the communication process in a typical classroom?

A. A student in the back of the classroom texting a friend.

B. Groundskeepers mowing the lawn outside the classroom window.

C. A student responding to a professor's request for questions.

D. Uncomfortable classroom desks.

E. An attractive person walking by the open classroom door.

C. A student responding to a professor's request for questions.

Which of the following is a step in the communication process?

A. Noise is eliminated from the message.

B. The sender decodes the message.

C. Possible receivers are considered.

D. The message is transmitted through a medium.

E. The receiver selects the medium.

D. The message is transmitted through a medium.

A(n) ______ form of media allows receivers to observe multiple cues, such as body language and tone of voice, and allows senders to get feedback.

A. encoded

B. rich

C. dense

D. complex

E. formal

B. rich

Which of the following is the most appropriate media for a manager advising employees of a revision to the company's bonus structure?

A. E-mail to all those affected.

B. Telephone call to each.

C. Posting an announcement near the office coffee machine.

D. Face-to-face meeting.

E. Personal note to each.

D. Face-to-face meeting.

Of the following, which medium is the richest?

A. Company newsletter

B. Telephone

C. E-mail

D. Memos

E. Videoconferencing

E. Videoconferencing

Of the following, which medium is the least rich?

A. Flier on a bulletin board.

B. Instant messaging on the Internet.

C. E-mail.

D. Handwritten notes.

E. Conference telephone calls.

A. Flier on a bulletin board.

A manager wants to tell employees that the quarterly project management training will start on April 12, about two months from now. Generally, which of the following should the manager use?

A. Videoconferencing

B. Telephone

C. Personal notes

D. Face-to-face meeting

E. Newsletter

E. Newsletter

Executives at Davidson Engineering want to let middle managers know that the company is going to be acquired by its largest competitor. Assuming any of the following are possible, how should executives communicate this?

A. Send a memo to all managers.

B. Call a meeting of managers.

C. Post a notice on all bulletin boards.

D. Send an e-mail to all managers.

E. Schedule a conference phone call.

B. Call a meeting of managers.

Claire wanted to tell her employee about the seminar, but she put the flier in a stack of papers and forgot about it until after the deadline to sign up. This is an example of what type of barrier to communication?

A. Sender barrier

B. Encoding barrier

C. Medium barrier

D. Feedback barrier

E. Receiver barrier

A. Sender barrier

Yue worked on a global team for an American company, and all her work had to be completed in her second language, English. Sometimes her teammates misinterpreted her meaning. This is an example of a(n) ______ barrier to communication.

A. decoding

B. sender

C. feedback

D. receiver

E. encoding

E. encoding

Rodrigo was in meetings all day and didn't get a chance to check his e-mail before he had to pick up his children from daycare, so he missed an important message from a client. This is an example of what type of barrier to communication?

A. Medium barrier

B. Decoding barrier

C. Feedback barrier

D. Receiver barrier

E. Encoding barrier

D. Receiver barrier

Sunjata works part time in a coffee shop. Some of the equipment is so noisy it prevents him from correctly hearing the customer orders. This is an example of a(n) ______ barrier to communication.

A. feedback

B. semantic

C. personal

D. encoding

E. physical

E. physical

Tricia, working at a research facility in North Carolina, needs to communicate with Romain, who is in Grenoble, France, about a project they are working on. Romain has perfect command of English, but they are still facing a(n) ______ barrier to communication.

A. semantic

B. personal

C. encoding

D. medium

E. physical

E. physical

The study of the meaning of words is called

A. jargon.

B. lexicography.

C. rhetoric.

D. semantics.

E. cartology.

D. semantics.

______ is likely to cause a semantic barrier to communication.

A. Jargon

B. Technology

C. Gossip

D. The grapevine

E. Rhetoric

A. Jargon

Which of the following is not a personal barrier to communication?

A. A small vocabulary

B. Obsolete technology

C. Lack of credibility

D. Different frame of reference

E. Large ego

B. Obsolete technology

Kelly was recently promoted to manager. Though he used to take advice from his peers, he seems no longer willing to listen to even his superiors and is really running the project how he thinks best. This is an example of which personal barrier to communication?

A. Tendency to judge others' messages.

B. Variable skills in communicating effectively.

C. Oversized ego.

D. Inability to listen with understanding.

E. Variation in interpreting information.

C. Oversized ego.

The statement, "Single old ladies are cat people," reflects a(n)

A. accepted generalization.

B. stereotype.

C. finding of the grapevine.

D. type of jargon.

E. statement of fact.

B. stereotype.

Which of the following is not a way in which nonverbal communication is expressed?

A. Writing a thank-you note.

B. Making someone wait an hour in the lobby.

C. Looking away while talking to someone.

D. Grimacing.

E. Touching someone's shoulder.

A. Writing a thank-you note.

Most people tend to ______ when conveying bad news or negative feedback.

A. smile

B. avoid eye contact

C. nod their heads

D. lean forward

E. yawn

B. avoid eye contact

Which of the following is a "don't" when attempting to improve communication?

A. Occasionally nod in agreement.

B. Lean toward the speaker.

C. Speak in a quiet, reassuring tone.

D. Smile and show animation.

E. Close your eyes.

E. Close your eyes.

Which of the following is a "do" when attempting to improve communication?

A. Close your eyes.

B. Smile.

C. Look away from the speaker.

D. Speak very slowly.

E. Turn away from the speaker.

B. Smile.

Compared to women, men tend to

A. give more tactful feedback.

B. indicate their uncertainties.

C. be indirect when admitting fault.

D. pay more compliments.

E. make more apologies.

C. be indirect when admitting fault.

According to Deborah Tannen, men are more likely than women to

A. pay more compliments.

B. temper criticism with praise.

C. ask more questions.

D. apologize frequently.

E. boast about achievements.

E. boast about achievements.

Ginger, a marketing manager, uses a sports car metaphor to explain a concept to her male counterpart in accounting. She is said to be

A. emasculating.

B. wordsmithing.

C. genderflexing.

D. miscommunicating.

E. ingratiating.

C. genderflexing.

A person's characteristic speaking patterns, such as the use of pacing, pausing, questions, and stories, is known as a

A. linguistics style.

B. communication device.

C. nonverbal model.

D. horizontal communication.

E. multicommunication.

A. linguistics style.

Channels of communications that follow the chain of command and are considered as official are termed

A. formal.

B. prescribed.

C. vertical.

D. horizontal.

E. external.

A. formal.

Which of the following indicates how official communications should be routed?

A. Grapevine

B. Organization chart

C. Lateral networks

D. Corporate culture

E. Personnel files

B. Organization chart

A manager who is directing her subordinate about work tasks is communicating

A. vertically.

B. horizontally.

C. externally.

D. through the grapevine.

E. informally.

A. vertically.

The more management levels through which a message passes

A. the more important the message is.

B. the higher the chance the message will become external.

C. the more informal the organization.

D. the more distorted the message may become.

E. the more disorganized the organization.

D. the more distorted the message may become.

The dean at Corbin Business College disseminated a new five-year strategic plan to department chairs. This is an example of

A. external communication.

B. downward communication.

C. corporate communication.

D. horizontal communication.

E. informal communication.

B. downward communication

Xiangcong, a marketing manager, shares some of the market research her department has analyzed with the research and development group. Xiangcong is communicating

A. by wandering around.

B. upward.

C. horizontally.

D. through the grapevine.

E. externally.

C. horizontally.

Shortly after the end of the fiscal year, Stavanger Investments released an earnings report to clients. This is an example of communicating

A. vertically.

B. upward.

C. horizontally.

D. downward.

E. externally.

E. externally.

______ communication channels develop outside the organizational structure and do not follow the chain of command.

A. Customary

B. Vertical

C. Horizontal

D. Informal

E. External

D. Informal

Gossip and rumor in an organization are part of the _____, which itself is a type of ______ communication channel.

A. organization chart; horizontal

B. culture; horizontal

C. organization chart; informal

D. grapevine; horizontal

E. grapevine; informal

E. grapevine; informal

The grapevine is

A. a horizontal communication channel.

B. almost wholly inaccurate.

C. slower than formal channels.

D. used by employees when threatened or insecure.

E. a morale enhancer.

D. used by employees when threatened or insecure.

A manager who literally wanders around her organization and talks with people across all lines of authority is doing

A. COO.

B. MBWA.

C. MBO.

D. TQM.

E. JIT.

B. MBWA.

Which of the following is not a norm of the Millennial generation?

A. Desire to accept facts and authority at face value.

B. Desire to experience new and different things.

C. Desire to have personalized products and choice.

D. Desire to keep things moving and interesting.

E. Desire to have instant feedback.

A. Desire to accept facts and authority at face value.

Using video and audio links along with computers to allow people at different locations to see, hear, and talk with each other is called

A. telecommuting.

B. collaborative computing.

C. videoconferencing.

D. telecollaborating.

E. using the extranet.

C. videoconferencing.

______ can be quite expensive, requiring a specially designed room with multiple cameras and high-definition video screens.

A. Telepresence technology

B. Telecommuting

C. Videoconferencing

D. Teleworking

E. Netconferencing

A. Telepresence technology

Which of the following is characteristic of telecommuting?

A. Increased capital costs.

B. Attractive to people with high social needs.

C. More difficult recruiting.

D. Increased turnover.

E. Increased ability to hire certain workers, such as disabled people.

E. Increased ability to hire certain workers, such as disabled people.

The key to protecting digital communication systems against fraud, hackers, identity theft, and other threats is

A. using file-sharing services.

B. hiring ethical employees.

C. creating a well-funded IT department.

D. using prevention techniques like strong passwords.

E. minimizing turnover.

D. using prevention techniques like strong passwords.

When thieves use your name and good credit rating to get cash or buy things, it is known as

A. personal data theft.

B. credit mishandling.

C. identity theft.

D. credit exploitation.

E. misuse of standing.

C. identity theft.

Which of the following is not a disadvantage of e-mail?

A. The sheer number that must be handled by the average worker.

B. Decrease in other forms of communication, like greetings.

C. Emotions are often poorly communicated.

D. Considered rude to use in crowded places.

E. The greater the use of e-mail, the less connected coworkers feel.

D. Considered rude to use in crowded places.

Which of the following is appropriate for workplace e-mail?

A. Trimming the sender's e-mail when replying.

B. Complicated topics.

C. Jokes.

D. Informality and grammar errors.

E. Sensitive personal issues.

A. Trimming the sender's e-mail when replying.

The source for crowdsourcing is most often

A. executive advisory councils.

B. professional associations.

C. boards of directors.

D. the online community.

E. competitors.

D. the online community.

Generally, people comprehend about ______ of a typical verbal message.

A. 5%

B. a third

C. half

D. two-thirds

E. all

B. a third

The average speaker communicates about ______ as many words as the average listener can process.

A. one-fourth

B. half

C. just

D. twice

E. four times

A. one-fourth

What do good listeners do during the information gap between what someone says and how fast we process?

A. Daydream.

B. Decide what they will say next.

C. Think about other things.

D. Mentally summarize what's been said.

E. Make a convincing argument against what is being said.

D. Mentally summarize what's been said.

The process of actively decoding and interpreting verbal messages, which requires full attention and processing, is known as active

A. empathizing.

B. comprehension.

C. listening.

D. hearing.

E. evaluation.

C. listening.

A(n) ________ listener tries to determine the rationale of the speaker's argument, preferring logical presentations without interruptions, focusing on relationships among ideas, and waiting until all information is available before expressing opinions.

A. evaluative

B. comprehensive

C. appreciative

D. empathetic

E. impartial

B. comprehensive

Which of the following is not a suggestion that may help you be a good listener?

A. Memorize the details.

B. Ask questions.

C. Summarize remarks.

D. Judge content, not delivery.

E. Give a fair hearing.

A. Memorize the details.

Speed reading works well for material that is

A. jargon-laden.

B. unfamiliar.

C. easy.

D. dense.

E. complicated.

C. easy.

Top-down reading strategies include which of the following?

A. Read everything you can that is related to your industry.

B. Formulate specific questions you want the reading to answer.

C. Summarize findings for your subordinates.

D. Get deeply into the details, where the meat of most writing is.

E. Test yourself on what you've read.

B. Formulate specific questions you want the reading to answer.

When you want your reader to take a logical and fairly nonpolitical action, you should order ideas in your writing from

A. least controversial to most controversial.

B. least important to most important.

C. negative to positive.

D. positive to negative.

E. most important to least important.

E. most important to least important.

If you want your writing to establish a common ground with the reader and make your overall argument stronger, you should order your arguments from

A. negative to positive.

B. most important to least important.

C. least controversial to most controversial.

D. least important to most important.

E. positive to negative.

A. negative to positive.

Galen wants to change the CEO's mind about seeking an outside firm to which they could outsource the customer service phone center. He decides to write a proposal, including a variety of arguments to support of his idea. Here, Galen should order his ideas from

A. most important to least important.

B. least controversial to most controversial.

C. negative to positive.

D. positive to negative.

E. least important to most important.

B. least controversial to most controversial.

Which of the following is a tip for writing more effectively for business purposes?

A. Use passive voice.

B. Construct interesting, complex sentences.

C. Don't use italics or bolding in business writing.

D. Start by telling what you expect of the reader.

E. Use narrow margins and minimal white space.

D. Start by telling what you expect of the reader.

A study conducted by AT&T and Stanford University found that the top predictor of success and professional upward mobility was

A. intelligence.

B. writing ability.

C. integrity.

D. interpersonal skills.

E. public speaking ability.

E. public speaking ability.

The introduction to a business speech should

A. contain at least one joke.

B. get right to the point.

C. contain a phrase like, "I'm honored to be here."

D. contain significant details of the presentation.

E. contain an unrelated story to catch the interest of the audience.

B. get right to the point.

Which of the following is not appropriate to include in the conclusion of a speech?

A. A signal phrase to cue listeners about the wind-up.

B. Details you forgot from earlier.

C. A call to action.

D. "Thank you."

E. A little upbeat story.

B. Details you forgot from earlier.

Describe the elements of the communication process. Illustrate it with a simple example

The sender is the person wanting to share information called a message, and the receiver is the person for whom the message is intended. Encoding is translating a message into understandable symbols or language. Decoding is interpreting and trying to make sense of the message. Feedback occurs when the receiver expresses his or her reaction to the sender's message. The entire communication process can be disrupted at several different points by what is called noise, which is any disturbance that interferes with the transmission of a message. The student should provide an example of the process including each element (see Figure 15.1).

Define the concept of media richness. Which forms of media are more rich and which are less? Explain why this is so, and provide example situations in which the two ends of the spectrum are most appropriate.

Media richness is how well a particular medium conveys information and promotes learning. More rich media (such as face-to-face conversations) are richer in that they convey both verbal and visual information (multiple cues), and feedback is provided to the sender. Less rich media (such as newsletters) are poorer in that they lack multiple channels, and create no opportunity for feedback. Richer media are appropriate for nonroutine, ambiguous situations, and less rich media are more appropriate for routine, clear situations. The student should then give an example of the use of the both high and low levels of media richness.

Identify and explain the three types of barriers to communication. Give examples of each from your own life, and describe how those barriers could have been removed

The three types are physical, semantic, and personal. Physical barriers include sound, time, and space. Semantic barriers include unclear use of words and jargon. Personal barriers include variations in communication skills, trustworthiness and credibility, stereotypes and prejudices, and faulty listening skills. The student should then give an example of each type from his or her life and explain how these may have been removed.

What is formal communication in organizations? Describe the various types and provide an example of how each might be used in the workplace

Formal communication follows the chain of command and includes official communications. It can be: Vertical (upward or downward), where bosses communicate with subordinates and vice versa Horizontal, meaning laterally (sideways), where communication flows within and between work units and whose main purpose is coordination, or External, meaning communication flowing between people inside and outside the organization, such as to customers, shareholders, etc. The student should then give an example of each type.

What are informal communication channels? Explain two types of informal channels and the aspects of each that are useful for managers to understand

Informal communications channels are those that develop outside the formal structure and do not follow the chain of command. The two types are the grapevine and MBWA. The grapevine is the unofficial communication system of the informal organization, a network of gossip and rumor of what is called "employee language." Managers should be aware that this is the major way that many employees acquire their information, and that it can be a morale reducer. MBWA (Management by Wandering Around) is where a manager literally wanders around his or her organization and talks with people across lines of authority. It gives the manager access to less distorted information about what is going on at lower levels, allows managers to learn more about their people, and to express to employees the values and goals that are important.

Define the concept of security in the digital age. Name at least three specific measures that one could take to prevent security breaches on the Internet

Security is a system of safeguards for protecting information technology against disasters, system failures, and unauthorized access that result in damage or loss. Security is a continuing challenge, with computer and cell-phone users constantly having to deal with threats ranging from malicious software (malware) that tries to trick people into yielding passwords, Social Security numbers, and financial information to deviant programs (viruses) that can destroy or corrupt data. Prevention tips include: pick strong passwords, using a mix of letters, symbols, and numbers, use different passwords for different Web services, don't reveal sensitive information, not even in "private" areas of services such as Facebook, don't share files on services that offer optional sharing, such as Google Docs, keep data whose disclosure would create legal liability or embarrassment on your personal hard drives and storage devices, avoid file-sharing services such as Lime Wire that distribute pirated files, and apply the latest security updates to all your software, including operating systems, browsers, and antivirus programs

Provide at least three suggestions to help a person become a good listener. Give an example from your own experience of times when either you or your listener violated these suggestions

To become a good listener, don't think about what you're going to say until the other person has finished talking. Judge content, not delivery. Don't tune out someone because of his or her accent, clothing, mannerisms, personality, or speaking style. Ask questions, and summarize remarks. Ask questions to make sure you understand. Recap what the speaker said. Listen for ideas. Don't get diverted by the details; concentrate on the main ideas. Resist distractions and show interest. Don't get distracted by things other people are doing, paperwork on your desk, things happening outside the window, television or radio, and the like. Show the speaker you're listening, periodically restating in your own words what you've heard. Give a fair hearing. Don't shut out unfavorable information when you hear a term that suggests ideas you're not comfortable with. Try to correct for your biases. The student should then give examples from his or her own experience

Describe the five steps of the top-down reading method

The top-down system has five steps: Rate reasons to read. Rate your reasons for reading ("Why should I read this? Will reading it contribute to my goals?"). Question and predict answers. Formulate specific questions you want the reading to answer. This gives you reasons for reading—to get answers to your questions. Survey the big picture. Survey the material to be read so you can get a sense of the whole. Take a few minutes to get an overview so you can read with purpose. Skim for main ideas. Skimming the material is similar to surveying, except it's on a smaller scale. You look for the essence of each subsection or paragraph. Summarize. Summarize as you skim. Verbally restate or write notes of the main points, using your own words. Visualize or sketch the main points. Answer your initial questions as you skim the material.

MGT 3100 Chapter 15 - Subjecto.com

MGT 3100 Chapter 15

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If you are nervous in a job interview, it is best that you admit it

FALSE

Poor communication between staff and managers has a financial cost to organizations

TRUE

Communication is the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another

TRUE

You are an efficient communicator when your intended message is accurately understood by the other person.

FALSE

Encoding is defined as an attempt to disguise a message so that only the desired recipient can interpret it

FALSE

Bret had many spelling and grammar mistakes in his report, some of which made the content difficult to understand. This is an example of poor decoding

FALSE

The pathway by which a message travels is called the medium

TRUE

Eli shut his eyes and dropped his head into his hands when his boss announced the holiday schedule. This is an example of feedback

TRUE

Noise is defined as any physical sound that interferes with accurate communication between two people

FALSE

The sun was right in Sienna’s eyes, so she looked away and missed the coach’s demonstration of a defensive technique. In this case, the sun acts as noise in the communication process

TRUE

Noise can affect written and spoken messages, and even nonverbal ones

TRUE

The communication process begins with the transmission of a message through a medium

FALSE

Media richness indicates how well a particular medium conveys information and promotes learning

TRUE

Face-to-face communication is the leanest form of communication

FALSE

A rich medium of communication is best for nonroutine situations and to avoid oversimplification

TRUE

If you must tell your subordinate that he is facing a sexual harassment investigation, you should use a lean medium of communication

FALSE

The danger of using a lean medium for nonroutine matters is overloading; the medium typically provides more information than is necessary

FALSE

A telephone call is a richer medium than a personal letter

TRUE

A speaker that isn’t working properly at a fast-food drive-through is an example of a communication barrier

TRUE

Neha did not receive an important e-mail from a client because, unbeknownst to her, her company’s e-mail server was down. This is an example of a receiver barrier

FALSE

Time-zone differences can be a physical barrier to communication

TRUE

When a supervisor tells you, "We need to get this done right away," the supervisor has created a semantic barrier to the communication process

TRUE

The study of the meaning of words is called semantics

TRUE

Jargon is the use of foreign language terms to represent concepts in American business

FALSE

Jargon is an example of a physical barrier to communication

FALSE

Trust between parties is an important element in preventing communication problems

TRUE

One’s ego can affect how receptive that person is to being influenced by others

TRUE

Effective communication begins with challenging, at least mentally, what you have heard

FALSE

A stereotype consists of harmful beliefs that suppress minority groups of people

FALSE

Nonverbal communication consists of messages sent using written rather than spoken media

FALSE

Eye contact signals the beginning of conversation; people typically tend to look at others when beginning to speak

FALSE

A smile does not convey the same emotions in different countries

TRUE

Folding one’s arms can be interpreted as defensiveness

TRUE

According to research, touching is typically detrimental to teamwork

FALSE

One of the ways to improve communication is to show animation

TRUE

Women are slightly more likely than men to negotiate their starting pay

FALSE

Among gender difference in communication is the idea that men are more likely than women to ask questions

FALSE

According to Deborah Tannen, women are more tactful than men when it comes to giving feedback.

TRUE

More often than not, a male executive who wants the advice of an executive coach will turn to a woman

TRUE

Vertical communication refers solely to the flow of messages down the hierarchy, or in other words, bosses communicating with subordinates

FALSE

When a subordinate recommends to her manager that their department get additional help for the inventory process, it is considered vertical communication

TRUE

The main purpose of horizontal communication is coordination between and within work units

TRUE

Vertical communication is impeded by rivalry between work units

FALSE

Management by wandering around is an example of a formal communication channel

FALSE

The grapevine is faster than formal channels of communication

TRUE

Management by wandering around helps reduce the distortion that occurs with formal communication flowing up a hierarchy

TRUE

Foregoing the use of an agenda for a work meeting makes it harder for participants to add excessive items and thus helps streamline the meeting

FALSE

Multicommunicating represents the use of technology to participate in several interactions at the same time

TRUE

Texting and checking one’s e-mail during group meetings has become commonplace and accepted in the workplace

FALSE

Compensation is the most important factor for Millennials in choosing employment

FALSE

Research finds that reducing an organization’s travel budget also reduces its revenue and profitability

TRUE

High-definition videoconference systems that simulate face-to-face meetings between users are known as virtual conference technology

FALSE

Telecommuting is more common for jobs that involve brain work requiring concentration and limited interruptions

TRUE

Telework is a broad term than encompasses not just working from home but working from anywhere

TRUE

A system of safeguards for protecting information technology from threats is known as cyber-defense.

FALSE

The right of people not to reveal information about themselves is known as privacy

TRUE

Among users of social networks, the older the user, the more likely that person carefully monitors the content of the profile and who has access to it

FALSE

The average worker receives 200 e-mails a day

TRUE

The greater the use of e-mail within an organization, the more connected coworkers feel

FALSE

Most people would rather give up their TVs or the Internet than their mobile phones

TRUE

Today, problems with smartphones are mere annoyances

FALSE

Internet-based and mobile technologies used to generate interactive dialogue with members of a network are collectively known as social media

TRUE

Diminished ethics by businesspeople is one of the drawbacks commonly associated with the use of social media

FALSE

People comprehend less than half of a typical verbal message

TRUE

The main purpose of those with an evaluative listening style is to try to determine the speaker’s main message and important points

FALSE

To be a better listener, you should not distract the speaker with questions

FALSE

By and large, speed reading isn’t effective because it does not work well for difficult or unfamiliar material

TRUE

Advice to help streamline your reading includes asking subordinates to screen, scan, or summarize it for you

TRUE

Top-down reading requires managers to summarize important information in reading and to share it with subordinates

FALSE

When your reader is attached to a solution other than the one you propose, your writing should order points from most controversial to least

FALSE

One study found that the top predictor of success and upward mobility is how much a person enjoys public speaking and how effective the person is at it

TRUE

An audience is unlikely to remember more than a few points from a speech

TRUE

If you have little experience, the top selling points about yourself in a job interview should be

A. related to your level of education.

B. about your parents and their accomplishments.

C. your personal qualities.

D. predictions you have made for your future.

E. extracurricular activities in which you’ve taken part.

C. your personal qualities.

Communication is

A. speaking or writing so that another is able to comprehend the meaning.

B. interpretation of messages sent via any media.

C. the combined activities of speaking and listening.

D. the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another.

E. a process involving only the sender, message, and receiver.

D. the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another.

When your intended message is sent accurately in the least amount of time, you are a(n)

A. economical communicator.

B. efficient communicator.

C. formal communicator.

D. collaborative communicator.

E. effective communicator.

B. efficient communicator.

Which of the following is not an element of the communication model?

A. Sender

B. Feedback

C. Decoder

D. Noise

E. Message

C. Decoder

The process of translating a message into understandable symbols or language is called

A. encoding.

B. transforming.

C. mediating.

D. decoding.

E. enriching.

A. encoding.

When the band came out on stage and the lead singer shouted, "Hello, San Antonio!" the crowd roared with applause. The crowd’s response is an example of

A. decoding.

B. medium selection.

C. noise.

D. encoding.

E. feedback.

E. feedback.

Which of the following is not an example of noise in the communication process in a typical classroom?

A. A student in the back of the classroom texting a friend.

B. Groundskeepers mowing the lawn outside the classroom window.

C. A student responding to a professor’s request for questions.

D. Uncomfortable classroom desks.

E. An attractive person walking by the open classroom door.

C. A student responding to a professor’s request for questions.

Which of the following is a step in the communication process?

A. Noise is eliminated from the message.

B. The sender decodes the message.

C. Possible receivers are considered.

D. The message is transmitted through a medium.

E. The receiver selects the medium.

D. The message is transmitted through a medium.

A(n) ______ form of media allows receivers to observe multiple cues, such as body language and tone of voice, and allows senders to get feedback.

A. encoded

B. rich

C. dense

D. complex

E. formal

B. rich

Which of the following is the most appropriate media for a manager advising employees of a revision to the company’s bonus structure?

A. E-mail to all those affected.

B. Telephone call to each.

C. Posting an announcement near the office coffee machine.

D. Face-to-face meeting.

E. Personal note to each.

D. Face-to-face meeting.

Of the following, which medium is the richest?

A. Company newsletter

B. Telephone

C. E-mail

D. Memos

E. Videoconferencing

E. Videoconferencing

Of the following, which medium is the least rich?

A. Flier on a bulletin board.

B. Instant messaging on the Internet.

C. E-mail.

D. Handwritten notes.

E. Conference telephone calls.

A. Flier on a bulletin board.

A manager wants to tell employees that the quarterly project management training will start on April 12, about two months from now. Generally, which of the following should the manager use?

A. Videoconferencing

B. Telephone

C. Personal notes

D. Face-to-face meeting

E. Newsletter

E. Newsletter

Executives at Davidson Engineering want to let middle managers know that the company is going to be acquired by its largest competitor. Assuming any of the following are possible, how should executives communicate this?

A. Send a memo to all managers.

B. Call a meeting of managers.

C. Post a notice on all bulletin boards.

D. Send an e-mail to all managers.

E. Schedule a conference phone call.

B. Call a meeting of managers.

Claire wanted to tell her employee about the seminar, but she put the flier in a stack of papers and forgot about it until after the deadline to sign up. This is an example of what type of barrier to communication?

A. Sender barrier

B. Encoding barrier

C. Medium barrier

D. Feedback barrier

E. Receiver barrier

A. Sender barrier

Yue worked on a global team for an American company, and all her work had to be completed in her second language, English. Sometimes her teammates misinterpreted her meaning. This is an example of a(n) ______ barrier to communication.

A. decoding

B. sender

C. feedback

D. receiver

E. encoding

E. encoding

Rodrigo was in meetings all day and didn’t get a chance to check his e-mail before he had to pick up his children from daycare, so he missed an important message from a client. This is an example of what type of barrier to communication?

A. Medium barrier

B. Decoding barrier

C. Feedback barrier

D. Receiver barrier

E. Encoding barrier

D. Receiver barrier

Sunjata works part time in a coffee shop. Some of the equipment is so noisy it prevents him from correctly hearing the customer orders. This is an example of a(n) ______ barrier to communication.

A. feedback

B. semantic

C. personal

D. encoding

E. physical

E. physical

Tricia, working at a research facility in North Carolina, needs to communicate with Romain, who is in Grenoble, France, about a project they are working on. Romain has perfect command of English, but they are still facing a(n) ______ barrier to communication.

A. semantic

B. personal

C. encoding

D. medium

E. physical

E. physical

The study of the meaning of words is called

A. jargon.

B. lexicography.

C. rhetoric.

D. semantics.

E. cartology.

D. semantics.

______ is likely to cause a semantic barrier to communication.

A. Jargon

B. Technology

C. Gossip

D. The grapevine

E. Rhetoric

A. Jargon

Which of the following is not a personal barrier to communication?

A. A small vocabulary

B. Obsolete technology

C. Lack of credibility

D. Different frame of reference

E. Large ego

B. Obsolete technology

Kelly was recently promoted to manager. Though he used to take advice from his peers, he seems no longer willing to listen to even his superiors and is really running the project how he thinks best. This is an example of which personal barrier to communication?

A. Tendency to judge others’ messages.

B. Variable skills in communicating effectively.

C. Oversized ego.

D. Inability to listen with understanding.

E. Variation in interpreting information.

C. Oversized ego.

The statement, "Single old ladies are cat people," reflects a(n)

A. accepted generalization.

B. stereotype.

C. finding of the grapevine.

D. type of jargon.

E. statement of fact.

B. stereotype.

Which of the following is not a way in which nonverbal communication is expressed?

A. Writing a thank-you note.

B. Making someone wait an hour in the lobby.

C. Looking away while talking to someone.

D. Grimacing.

E. Touching someone’s shoulder.

A. Writing a thank-you note.

Most people tend to ______ when conveying bad news or negative feedback.

A. smile

B. avoid eye contact

C. nod their heads

D. lean forward

E. yawn

B. avoid eye contact

Which of the following is a "don’t" when attempting to improve communication?

A. Occasionally nod in agreement.

B. Lean toward the speaker.

C. Speak in a quiet, reassuring tone.

D. Smile and show animation.

E. Close your eyes.

E. Close your eyes.

Which of the following is a "do" when attempting to improve communication?

A. Close your eyes.

B. Smile.

C. Look away from the speaker.

D. Speak very slowly.

E. Turn away from the speaker.

B. Smile.

Compared to women, men tend to

A. give more tactful feedback.

B. indicate their uncertainties.

C. be indirect when admitting fault.

D. pay more compliments.

E. make more apologies.

C. be indirect when admitting fault.

According to Deborah Tannen, men are more likely than women to

A. pay more compliments.

B. temper criticism with praise.

C. ask more questions.

D. apologize frequently.

E. boast about achievements.

E. boast about achievements.

Ginger, a marketing manager, uses a sports car metaphor to explain a concept to her male counterpart in accounting. She is said to be

A. emasculating.

B. wordsmithing.

C. genderflexing.

D. miscommunicating.

E. ingratiating.

C. genderflexing.

A person’s characteristic speaking patterns, such as the use of pacing, pausing, questions, and stories, is known as a

A. linguistics style.

B. communication device.

C. nonverbal model.

D. horizontal communication.

E. multicommunication.

A. linguistics style.

Channels of communications that follow the chain of command and are considered as official are termed

A. formal.

B. prescribed.

C. vertical.

D. horizontal.

E. external.

A. formal.

Which of the following indicates how official communications should be routed?

A. Grapevine

B. Organization chart

C. Lateral networks

D. Corporate culture

E. Personnel files

B. Organization chart

A manager who is directing her subordinate about work tasks is communicating

A. vertically.

B. horizontally.

C. externally.

D. through the grapevine.

E. informally.

A. vertically.

The more management levels through which a message passes

A. the more important the message is.

B. the higher the chance the message will become external.

C. the more informal the organization.

D. the more distorted the message may become.

E. the more disorganized the organization.

D. the more distorted the message may become.

The dean at Corbin Business College disseminated a new five-year strategic plan to department chairs. This is an example of

A. external communication.

B. downward communication.

C. corporate communication.

D. horizontal communication.

E. informal communication.

B. downward communication

Xiangcong, a marketing manager, shares some of the market research her department has analyzed with the research and development group. Xiangcong is communicating

A. by wandering around.

B. upward.

C. horizontally.

D. through the grapevine.

E. externally.

C. horizontally.

Shortly after the end of the fiscal year, Stavanger Investments released an earnings report to clients. This is an example of communicating

A. vertically.

B. upward.

C. horizontally.

D. downward.

E. externally.

E. externally.

______ communication channels develop outside the organizational structure and do not follow the chain of command.

A. Customary

B. Vertical

C. Horizontal

D. Informal

E. External

D. Informal

Gossip and rumor in an organization are part of the _____, which itself is a type of ______ communication channel.

A. organization chart; horizontal

B. culture; horizontal

C. organization chart; informal

D. grapevine; horizontal

E. grapevine; informal

E. grapevine; informal

The grapevine is

A. a horizontal communication channel.

B. almost wholly inaccurate.

C. slower than formal channels.

D. used by employees when threatened or insecure.

E. a morale enhancer.

D. used by employees when threatened or insecure.

A manager who literally wanders around her organization and talks with people across all lines of authority is doing

A. COO.

B. MBWA.

C. MBO.

D. TQM.

E. JIT.

B. MBWA.

Which of the following is not a norm of the Millennial generation?

A. Desire to accept facts and authority at face value.

B. Desire to experience new and different things.

C. Desire to have personalized products and choice.

D. Desire to keep things moving and interesting.

E. Desire to have instant feedback.

A. Desire to accept facts and authority at face value.

Using video and audio links along with computers to allow people at different locations to see, hear, and talk with each other is called

A. telecommuting.

B. collaborative computing.

C. videoconferencing.

D. telecollaborating.

E. using the extranet.

C. videoconferencing.

______ can be quite expensive, requiring a specially designed room with multiple cameras and high-definition video screens.

A. Telepresence technology

B. Telecommuting

C. Videoconferencing

D. Teleworking

E. Netconferencing

A. Telepresence technology

Which of the following is characteristic of telecommuting?

A. Increased capital costs.

B. Attractive to people with high social needs.

C. More difficult recruiting.

D. Increased turnover.

E. Increased ability to hire certain workers, such as disabled people.

E. Increased ability to hire certain workers, such as disabled people.

The key to protecting digital communication systems against fraud, hackers, identity theft, and other threats is

A. using file-sharing services.

B. hiring ethical employees.

C. creating a well-funded IT department.

D. using prevention techniques like strong passwords.

E. minimizing turnover.

D. using prevention techniques like strong passwords.

When thieves use your name and good credit rating to get cash or buy things, it is known as

A. personal data theft.

B. credit mishandling.

C. identity theft.

D. credit exploitation.

E. misuse of standing.

C. identity theft.

Which of the following is not a disadvantage of e-mail?

A. The sheer number that must be handled by the average worker.

B. Decrease in other forms of communication, like greetings.

C. Emotions are often poorly communicated.

D. Considered rude to use in crowded places.

E. The greater the use of e-mail, the less connected coworkers feel.

D. Considered rude to use in crowded places.

Which of the following is appropriate for workplace e-mail?

A. Trimming the sender’s e-mail when replying.

B. Complicated topics.

C. Jokes.

D. Informality and grammar errors.

E. Sensitive personal issues.

A. Trimming the sender’s e-mail when replying.

The source for crowdsourcing is most often

A. executive advisory councils.

B. professional associations.

C. boards of directors.

D. the online community.

E. competitors.

D. the online community.

Generally, people comprehend about ______ of a typical verbal message.

A. 5%

B. a third

C. half

D. two-thirds

E. all

B. a third

The average speaker communicates about ______ as many words as the average listener can process.

A. one-fourth

B. half

C. just

D. twice

E. four times

A. one-fourth

What do good listeners do during the information gap between what someone says and how fast we process?

A. Daydream.

B. Decide what they will say next.

C. Think about other things.

D. Mentally summarize what’s been said.

E. Make a convincing argument against what is being said.

D. Mentally summarize what’s been said.

The process of actively decoding and interpreting verbal messages, which requires full attention and processing, is known as active

A. empathizing.

B. comprehension.

C. listening.

D. hearing.

E. evaluation.

C. listening.

A(n) ________ listener tries to determine the rationale of the speaker’s argument, preferring logical presentations without interruptions, focusing on relationships among ideas, and waiting until all information is available before expressing opinions.

A. evaluative

B. comprehensive

C. appreciative

D. empathetic

E. impartial

B. comprehensive

Which of the following is not a suggestion that may help you be a good listener?

A. Memorize the details.

B. Ask questions.

C. Summarize remarks.

D. Judge content, not delivery.

E. Give a fair hearing.

A. Memorize the details.

Speed reading works well for material that is

A. jargon-laden.

B. unfamiliar.

C. easy.

D. dense.

E. complicated.

C. easy.

Top-down reading strategies include which of the following?

A. Read everything you can that is related to your industry.

B. Formulate specific questions you want the reading to answer.

C. Summarize findings for your subordinates.

D. Get deeply into the details, where the meat of most writing is.

E. Test yourself on what you’ve read.

B. Formulate specific questions you want the reading to answer.

When you want your reader to take a logical and fairly nonpolitical action, you should order ideas in your writing from

A. least controversial to most controversial.

B. least important to most important.

C. negative to positive.

D. positive to negative.

E. most important to least important.

E. most important to least important.

If you want your writing to establish a common ground with the reader and make your overall argument stronger, you should order your arguments from

A. negative to positive.

B. most important to least important.

C. least controversial to most controversial.

D. least important to most important.

E. positive to negative.

A. negative to positive.

Galen wants to change the CEO’s mind about seeking an outside firm to which they could outsource the customer service phone center. He decides to write a proposal, including a variety of arguments to support of his idea. Here, Galen should order his ideas from

A. most important to least important.

B. least controversial to most controversial.

C. negative to positive.

D. positive to negative.

E. least important to most important.

B. least controversial to most controversial.

Which of the following is a tip for writing more effectively for business purposes?

A. Use passive voice.

B. Construct interesting, complex sentences.

C. Don’t use italics or bolding in business writing.

D. Start by telling what you expect of the reader.

E. Use narrow margins and minimal white space.

D. Start by telling what you expect of the reader.

A study conducted by AT&T and Stanford University found that the top predictor of success and professional upward mobility was

A. intelligence.

B. writing ability.

C. integrity.

D. interpersonal skills.

E. public speaking ability.

E. public speaking ability.

The introduction to a business speech should

A. contain at least one joke.

B. get right to the point.

C. contain a phrase like, "I’m honored to be here."

D. contain significant details of the presentation.

E. contain an unrelated story to catch the interest of the audience.

B. get right to the point.

Which of the following is not appropriate to include in the conclusion of a speech?

A. A signal phrase to cue listeners about the wind-up.

B. Details you forgot from earlier.

C. A call to action.

D. "Thank you."

E. A little upbeat story.

B. Details you forgot from earlier.

Describe the elements of the communication process. Illustrate it with a simple example

The sender is the person wanting to share information called a message, and the receiver is the person for whom the message is intended. Encoding is translating a message into understandable symbols or language. Decoding is interpreting and trying to make sense of the message. Feedback occurs when the receiver expresses his or her reaction to the sender’s message. The entire communication process can be disrupted at several different points by what is called noise, which is any disturbance that interferes with the transmission of a message. The student should provide an example of the process including each element (see Figure 15.1).

Define the concept of media richness. Which forms of media are more rich and which are less? Explain why this is so, and provide example situations in which the two ends of the spectrum are most appropriate.

Media richness is how well a particular medium conveys information and promotes learning. More rich media (such as face-to-face conversations) are richer in that they convey both verbal and visual information (multiple cues), and feedback is provided to the sender. Less rich media (such as newsletters) are poorer in that they lack multiple channels, and create no opportunity for feedback. Richer media are appropriate for nonroutine, ambiguous situations, and less rich media are more appropriate for routine, clear situations. The student should then give an example of the use of the both high and low levels of media richness.

Identify and explain the three types of barriers to communication. Give examples of each from your own life, and describe how those barriers could have been removed

The three types are physical, semantic, and personal. Physical barriers include sound, time, and space. Semantic barriers include unclear use of words and jargon. Personal barriers include variations in communication skills, trustworthiness and credibility, stereotypes and prejudices, and faulty listening skills. The student should then give an example of each type from his or her life and explain how these may have been removed.

What is formal communication in organizations? Describe the various types and provide an example of how each might be used in the workplace

Formal communication follows the chain of command and includes official communications. It can be: Vertical (upward or downward), where bosses communicate with subordinates and vice versa Horizontal, meaning laterally (sideways), where communication flows within and between work units and whose main purpose is coordination, or External, meaning communication flowing between people inside and outside the organization, such as to customers, shareholders, etc. The student should then give an example of each type.

What are informal communication channels? Explain two types of informal channels and the aspects of each that are useful for managers to understand

Informal communications channels are those that develop outside the formal structure and do not follow the chain of command. The two types are the grapevine and MBWA. The grapevine is the unofficial communication system of the informal organization, a network of gossip and rumor of what is called "employee language." Managers should be aware that this is the major way that many employees acquire their information, and that it can be a morale reducer. MBWA (Management by Wandering Around) is where a manager literally wanders around his or her organization and talks with people across lines of authority. It gives the manager access to less distorted information about what is going on at lower levels, allows managers to learn more about their people, and to express to employees the values and goals that are important.

Define the concept of security in the digital age. Name at least three specific measures that one could take to prevent security breaches on the Internet

Security is a system of safeguards for protecting information technology against disasters, system failures, and unauthorized access that result in damage or loss. Security is a continuing challenge, with computer and cell-phone users constantly having to deal with threats ranging from malicious software (malware) that tries to trick people into yielding passwords, Social Security numbers, and financial information to deviant programs (viruses) that can destroy or corrupt data. Prevention tips include: pick strong passwords, using a mix of letters, symbols, and numbers, use different passwords for different Web services, don’t reveal sensitive information, not even in "private" areas of services such as Facebook, don’t share files on services that offer optional sharing, such as Google Docs, keep data whose disclosure would create legal liability or embarrassment on your personal hard drives and storage devices, avoid file-sharing services such as Lime Wire that distribute pirated files, and apply the latest security updates to all your software, including operating systems, browsers, and antivirus programs

Provide at least three suggestions to help a person become a good listener. Give an example from your own experience of times when either you or your listener violated these suggestions

To become a good listener, don’t think about what you’re going to say until the other person has finished talking. Judge content, not delivery. Don’t tune out someone because of his or her accent, clothing, mannerisms, personality, or speaking style. Ask questions, and summarize remarks. Ask questions to make sure you understand. Recap what the speaker said. Listen for ideas. Don’t get diverted by the details; concentrate on the main ideas. Resist distractions and show interest. Don’t get distracted by things other people are doing, paperwork on your desk, things happening outside the window, television or radio, and the like. Show the speaker you’re listening, periodically restating in your own words what you’ve heard. Give a fair hearing. Don’t shut out unfavorable information when you hear a term that suggests ideas you’re not comfortable with. Try to correct for your biases. The student should then give examples from his or her own experience

Describe the five steps of the top-down reading method

The top-down system has five steps: Rate reasons to read. Rate your reasons for reading ("Why should I read this? Will reading it contribute to my goals?"). Question and predict answers. Formulate specific questions you want the reading to answer. This gives you reasons for reading—to get answers to your questions. Survey the big picture. Survey the material to be read so you can get a sense of the whole. Take a few minutes to get an overview so you can read with purpose. Skim for main ideas. Skimming the material is similar to surveying, except it’s on a smaller scale. You look for the essence of each subsection or paragraph. Summarize. Summarize as you skim. Verbally restate or write notes of the main points, using your own words. Visualize or sketch the main points. Answer your initial questions as you skim the material.

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