Psychology

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Introduction It is obvious that human undergo lots of changes such as biological, cognitive, psychological and in behaviour since the time of conception till they attain their complete adult age. These changes are said to be under any of the influences like nature, nurture, environment, and social. We also know that based on these aspects,…

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Intorduction The depth of processing theory states that information is processed at different levels, which influences cognitive performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of depth of processing on memory recall. Past research investigating the depth of processing theory suggests that words processed at a deeper level are more likely to…

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While psychodynamic and behavioural approaches are the two major approaches to personality, they view personality from different perspective. Psychodynamic approach argues personality is caused by forces in the unconscious but not learnt. Individuals have little control over their behaviour as it is predetermined, and early childhood plays a crucial part in shaping one’s personality. Behavioural…

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Introduction   Ruffin (2009) defines development as change or growth that occurs in a child during the life span from birth to adolescence. He elaborated that this change occurs in an orderly sequence, involving physical, cognitive, and emotional development. These three main areas of child development involve developmental changes which take place in a predictable…

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Introduction The Bowenian theory was developed by Murray Bowen. The Bowenian theory is based on two goals to helping clients resolve their clinical problems. The goal of this theory is to help clients reduce the anxiety and help clients find a relief. Another goal of this theory is to increase each member of the family’s…

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Introduction The study of human behavior is diverse and many studies have been done trying to find more about human behavior. Many researchers have concluded that human behavior is complex and sometimes unpredictable. The environment is one of the major factors in the development of human behavior. The unpredictability of human behavior tries to show…

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Introduction   Below is a list of common symptoms of anxiety. Please carefully read each item in the list. Indicate how much you have been bothered by that symptom during the past month, including today, by circling the number in the corresponding space in the column next to each symptom. Not At All Mildly but…

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Introduction   According to Martin and Pear (2007), a token economy is a system of behavior modification based on the principles of operant conditioning. The original proposal for such a system emphasized reinforcing positive behavior by awarding “tokens” for meeting positive behavioral goals. Token economies have also been implemented to decrease disruptive behaviors and increase…

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Introduction   In classical conditioning, an unconditioned stimulus (something that will always lead to a reaction of some type) leads to an unconditioned response (a natural reaction to the UCS). A neutral stimulus (NS) becomes paired with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). This is also called the Pavlovian conditioning because Ivan Pavlov discovered classical conditioning in…

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Introduction Research Methodology This chapter aims to describe the research methodology used in this study. The discussion initially focuses on some of the academic aspects relevant to research and its types, whereas, subsequently, pertinent research methodology used in this study will be discussed in detail. 3.1 Meanings of Research and Types of Research Methodologies Research…

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