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WTP- Chapter 12 Congress

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How is a chair chosen for each of the committees in Congress?

-by party leadership appointment by allies
-by size and importance or district or state
-by seniority, with occasional exceptions based on policies
-by merit, with occasional exceptions for special conditions

-by seniority, with occasional exceptions based on policies

Which of the following are external sources of influence on Congressional policies?

-leadership PAC proposals
-Supreme Court review
-presidential proposals
interest-group coalitions

-interest-group coalitions -presidential proposals

Which of the following was a new restriction on lobbying, enacted in 2007?

-Lobbyist will no longer be able to make gift to lawmakers
-The individual contributors to a "bundled" donation to lobbyist will now have to be disclosed
-The identity of donors to Super PACs must now be disclosed
-Member of Congress are prohibited from lobbying indefinitely after they leave Congress

-The individual contributors to a "bundled" donation to a lobbyist will now have to be disclosed

Which type of bills can be introduced only in the House of Representative?

-bills involving the spending or raising of revenues
-bills involving expansion or retraction of the military
-bills that approve or deny international treaties
-bills that decide on the shape of redistricting

-bills involving the spending or raising of revenues

Why are positions on the Senate and House Appropriations Committees so desirable to members of Congress?

-They provide the opportunity for credit claiming as members bring projects to their own districts
-Positions on these committees give control over major entitlement programs such as Social Security
-They are one of the only committees that receive proposals for legislation and process them into official bills
-They control the priority of legislation introduced by other committees

-They provide the opportunity for credit claiming as member bring projects to their own districts -Positions on these committees give control over major entitlement programs such as Social Security

Why is it so rare for a bill to be defeated in the floor vote in the House or Senate?

-Leadership makes sure that they have enough votes for passage before bringing it to a vote
-Bills that have been through the committee process have usually been altered enough to be agreeable to most memebers
-Bills that reach a floor vote almost always have the support of the president
-Only bills that are important and urgent reach a floor vote

-Leadership makes sure that have enough votes for passage before bringing it to a vote

Match the following statements to the appropriate congressional chamber.

-Organized body
-encourages specialization
-deliberative body
-gives leadership control over process

-Senate
-House

Senate: deliberative body House: Organized body, encourages specialization, gives leadership control over process

Which of the following is a power granted to the Senate but not to the House?

-the power to approve treaties
-the power to judge abuses of power
-the power to pass appropriations bills
-the power to subpoena witness

-the power to approve treaties

On which of the following issue is the average senator or House member most likely to operate as a trustee rather than a delegate?

-foreign policy
-immigration
-welfare
-income tax

-foreign policy

How are each congressional party’s leader chosen?

-they are appointed by the national committees
-they are chosen based on seniority in the chamber
-they are based on fundraising totals
-they are selected by the party’s members

-they are selected by the party’s members

Page 488: Party Unit Vote by Chamber

-Party unit votes reached a 60-year high in 2010 in the__(1)__.
-The years after 1990 were characterized by a much greater degree of __(2)__ than were the years prior to 1970.
-The year 1970 was marked by relatively weak _(3)__.

-roll call votes
-interest-group influence
-partisan polarization
-Senate
-party leadership
-House

1. Senate 2. partisan polarization 3. party leadership

Which of the following statements about Congress’s oversight capacity is accurate?

-Most investigations are concerned with a specific bill
-Congressional Committees may investigate a program and choose to change or eliminate it
-Committees can compel testimony from witnesses, but they do not have the power to bring criminal charges for contempt
-Most programs undergo near constant oversight by Congress

-Congressional committees may investigate a program and choose to change or eliminate it

Which of the following statements about the nature of party unity in voting are accurate?

-The capacity for party unity is generally higher in the Senate than in the House.
-Party unity is generally based on members sharing ideological preferences.
-By 2005, party unity had reached the highest levels in over a decade.
-Party unity reached an all-time high in the 1960s

-Party unity is generally based on members sharing ideological preferences -By 2005, party unity had reached the highest levels in over a decade

Which of the following statements about the committee deliberation of a bill is accurate?

-Full committees may use the recommendations resulting from subcommittee hearing or hold their own hearing
-The Constitution assures that both parties have adequate time to study a bill before markup
-Committees are requires to hold a hearing over each bill referred to them.
Roughly half of all bills sent to committee never reached the floor of their respective chambers.

-Full committees may use the recommendations resulting from subcommittee hearing or hold their own hearing

Page 474; Diagram:
Identify which of the following positions are elected by the members of the majority party in the House of Representatives

-Majority Leader
-Agriculture Committee members
-Speaker of the House
-Budget Committee members

-Majority Leader -Speaker of the House -Budget Committee member

Which of the following statements best describes a case of sociological representation?

-A representative votes her conscience on a major social issue, even though most of her constituents support the opposite
-A voter is pleased with his representative, who has consistently mad choices with which the voter agrees.
-An African-American woman votes for an African-American congressional candidate of similar age, who is then elected
-A voter is unhappy with the performance of his congressman and chooses to vote for a different congressional candidate in the next election

-An African-American woman votes for an African-American congressional candidate of similar age, who is then elected

Page 481; How a Bill Becomes a Law:
Review the process of passing a bill, and complete the statement below.

In either chamber, after the bill passes committee, it goes to __(1)__. Later, after a Hearings Committee markup, in the House it goes to the __(2)__, and in the Senate it goes to the __(3)__. On the Senate side, after the bill passes the Senate floor the first time, it goes to the __(4)__.

-joint committees of both chambers
-Speaker of the House
-Ways and Means Committee
-conference committee
-majority leader
-Rules Committee
-White House
-subcommittee

1. subcommittee 2. Rules Committee 3. Majority Leader 4. Speaker of the House

Page 459; Differences b/n the House and the Senate

Match the character to its appropriate type of representative, HOUSE or SENATE.

-variable # representing each state
-both local and statewide constituency
-at least 9 years of citizenship is required
-minimum age of member is 25 years
-length of term is 6 years

House: minimum age of member is 25 years, variable # representing each state Senate: both local and statewide constituency, at least 9 years of citizenship is required, length term is 6 years

Page 475; Permanent Committees of Congress:
Match the name of the committee to its congressional chamber: SENATE, HOUSE

-Ethics
-Commerce, Science, and Transportation
-Ways and Means
-Environment and Public Works

SENATE: Commerce, Science, and Transportation/ Environment and Public Works HOUSE: Ethics/ Ways and Means

Choose all of the following ways in which the operation of the House differs from the operations of the Senate.

-House members are more likely to specialize in specific legislative fields
-House leadership has more power over its members than does the Senate leadership
-New ideas or the goals of new interest are more likely to thrive in the House
-The House is more deliberative, giving air a wider variety of discussions
-Local interest groups have greater influence with House members
-House members are more capable of taking the long view and developing legislative or policies over years at a time.

-Local interest groups have greater influence with House members -House members are more likely to specialize in specific legislative fields -House leadership has more power over its members than does the Senate leadership

Match the following actions to whether a legislator is following a TRUSTEE or DELEGATE model of representation:

– (1) Although she knows it will be very unpopular at home, a representative votes to close a defense industry factory in her district.
-(2) A representative is petitioned by a vocal minority of her constituents to vote in a certain way; though the majority opinion in the district is unknown, the representatives votes as the minority wants.
-(3) A representative is aware that most of his constituents supports rules allowing school vouchers; he votes for those rules despite his own reservations
-(4) A representative pays fairly little attention to polling or the requests of members in his district and votes his personal preferences on most bills.

Trustee: 1 & 4 Delegate: 2 & 3

Complete the following statement to accurately describe aspects of congressional oversight.

The _(1.)__ alone has the right to approve or deny the president’s appointments of __(2.)__. Approval for these nominees requires __(3.)__.

-a 3/4ths majority
-Senate
-state judges
-a simple majority
-unanimous consent
-House of Represenatives
-federal judges
-Senate vacancies

1. Senate 2. Federal judges 3. a simple majority

Match the hypothetical instance of patronage to the appropriate category: PRIVATE BILL/ PORK BARREL

– several representatives earmark money in an economic stimulus bill for projects in their districts
-a congressman inserts language into a bill that builds a bridge with federal money
-a member of congress writes a bill that exempts a constituent from Medicaid limits for one year
-a representative introduces a bill that grants citizenship to an immigrant so that she can attend a state university

PRIVATE BILL: a representative introduces a bill that grants citizenship to an immigrant/ a member of congress writes a bill that exempts a constituent from Medicaid limits for one years PORK BARREL: Several representatives earmark money in an economic stimulus bill for projects in their districts/ a congressman inserts language into a bill that builds a bridge with federal money

If a member of Congress chooses to vote against his or her party, what can the party do to sanction that member?

-remove the member from office
-take away access to speak on the floor
-remove favorable committee assignments
-take away access to leadership PAC funds

all of the above EXCEPT remove the member from office

Which of the following are accurate regarding the leadership positions in the Senate and the House?

-the majority leader in the Senate holds a position of power than does the majority leader in the house
-the Speaker of the House’s counterpart in the Senate is the presidents pro tempore
-the House has more party leadership positions than does the Senate
the House elects its leadership every two years, and the Senate every 6 years

-The House has more party leadership positions than does the Senate -The majority leader in the Senate holds a higher position of power than does the majority leader in the House

Choose all of the following ways in which party unity in the House differs from party unity in the Senate.

-Party unity is typically greater in the House
-The Speaker of the House has the power of recognition, but the Senate majority leader lacks this incentive for members
-Whip action in the House plays a more crucial role than the Senate
-Logrolling is a much easier arrangement to accomplish in the Senate than in the House
-Senate leadership has fewer tools to gain loyalty from members than does House leadership

-Whip action in the House plays a more crucial role than in the Senate -Party Unity is typically greater in the House -Senate leadership has fewer formal tools to gain loyalty from members than does House leadership

Choose all of the following ways in which the House Ways and Means Committee, a standing committee, is comparable to the joint committee that deals with taxation.

-they are both permanent committees
-they both convene to deal with special, timely issues
-both have chairpersons usually chosen based on seniority
-they both have the power to report legislation
-they each contain members from both chambers

-they are both permanent committees -both have chairpersons usually chosen based on seniority

Contrast the roles that the HOUSE and SENATE play in the impeachment and conviction process by matching the action proper chamber.

-involves a vote requiring a simple majority
-initiates the impeachment process
-charges an individual with "Treason, Bribery, or other high crimes and Misdemeanors"
-involves a vote requiring a two-thirds majority
-convicts or acquits the individual charged

HOUSE: involves a vote requiring a simple majority/ initiates the impeachment process/ charges an individual with "Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors SENATE: involves a vote requiring a two-thirds majority/ convicts or acquits the individual charges

Match the institutional action to the number of senators necessary to carry it out.

-60
-51
-1
-67

-submit a hold
-invoke cloture
-overturn presidential veto
-pass a bill

60- invoke cloture 51- pass a bill 1- submit a hold 67- overturn presidential veto

When House Republicans summoned former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton to testify about Benghazi in 2015, they were using Congress’s oversight power to do which of the following?

-determining funding levels for the Department of State
-ensuring that governmental procedures are properly implemented
-helping in their own reelection goals
-embarrassing Clinton and/or Obama

-embarrassing Clinton and/or Obama -ensuring that governmental procedures are properly implemented -helping in their own reelection goals

Why might earmarks be a useful thing for Congress?

-they help promote compromising among members of Congress
-they often support legitimate district projects
-they help reduce governmental spending
-earmarks help prevent scandals in Congress

-they often support legitimate district projects -they help promote compromise among members of Congress

Executive agreements are often used by presidents as an alternative to __(1)__, which require Senate approval. However, perceived presidential abuse of this tactic led to the __(2)__, which requires that the president inform Congress of an executive agreement within __(3)__ of its creation.

-treaties
-60 days
-vetoes
-Case Act
-executive appointments
-one year
-120 days
-Honest Leadership and Open Government Act
-signing statements

1. treaties 2. Case Act 3. 60 days

The process of apportionment occurs every __(1) years and may grant additional seats to those states with __(2)__.
The process of redistricting is controlled by the majority party in the __(3)__.
The process of __(4) occurs as part of redistricting and may intentionally give power to a specific political or demographic group.

-five
-Senate
-ten
-filibustering
-gerrymandering
-eight
-growth in per capita income
-House of Representatives
state legislature
-popular growth

1. ten 2. population growth 3. state legislature 4. gerrymandering

How has impeachment been influences by constitutional language in US history?

-The vague "high Crimes and Misdemeanors" clause has allowed the process to be used for political reasons.
-The lack of a "double jeopardy" clause has led to individual presidents being impeached several times.
-Congress has been unwilling to impeach presidents because of ambiguity about its effects.
-The greater emphasis on treason and bribery has kept the use of impeachment focused on major crimes.

-The vague "high crimes and Misdemeanors" clause has allowed the process to be used for political reasons

Match each of the following procedural steps to its appropriate chamber, indicating whether it occurs exclusively in the HOUSE, the SENATE, or BOTH.

-filibuster
-bill dies in committee
-undergoes debate in subcommittee
-debate time allocated by bill sponsor
-cloture vote
-processing by Rules Committee

SENATE: filibuster/ cloture vote HOUSE: processing by Rules Committee/ debate time allocated by bill sponsor BOTH: undergoes debate in subcommittee/ bill dies in committee

Match the characteristics to its appropriate committee type: STANDING/ CONFERENCE/ SELECT/ JOINT

-temporary; designed to investigate a particular issue
-contains four permanent committees that cannot report legislation
-source of most important congressional policymaking
-members appointed by the Speaker of the House and the presiding officer of the Senate
-typically match issue focus of an executive branch agency

STANDING: source of most important congressional policy making/ typically match issues focus of an executive branch agency CONFERENCE: members appointed by the Speaker of the House and the presiding officer of the Senate SELECT: temporary; designed to investigate a particular issue JOINT: contains four permanent committees that cannot report legislation

Which statements about the power to provide "advice and consent" are accurate?

-the Senate regularly rejects the president’s treaties and appointments
-the rejection rate us lower when the same party controls the Senate and White House
-the rejection rate is higher when the same party controls the Senate and White House
the Senate rarely rejects the president’s treaties and appointments

– the Senate rarely rejects the president’s treaties and appointments -the rejection rate is lower when the same party controls the Senate and White House

What makes the House Rules Committee so unique?

-The Rules Committee focuses on procedural, rather than substantive, matters
-membership in the Rules Committee is chosen by the speaker
-the Rules Committee does not process proposed legislation into official bills
-there is no Senate counterpart committee

-the Rules Committee focuses on procedural, rather than substantive, matters -there is no Senate counterpart committee -the Rules Committee does not process proposed legislation into official bills

How does the leadership’s control of floor debate in the House differ from the leadership’s control of floor debate in the Senate?

-The House leadership gives time in floor debate to members based on whether the bill influences their constituents. In the Senate, members whose committee jurisdictions are affected by the bill have priority.
-The House minority leader on a committee grants a member 30 minutes to speak on the bill. In the Senate, the leadership could not limit the speaker’s time to 30 minutes.
-The House ends a representative’s filibuster with a two-thirds vote. In the Senate, filibusters cannot be ended with a vote.
-In the House, a bill can be amended on the House floor; in the Senate, bills can only be amended in committee.

-the House minority leader on a committee grants a member 30 minutes to speak on the bill. In the Senate, the leadership could not limit the speaker’s time to 30 minutes

Page 499; Who elects Congress

Which of the following statements about the congressional electorate and the US population are accurate?

-Latino voters turned out about the same rate as white voters
-the female share of the electorate matched the female share of the US population
-the wealthy turned out at higher levels than the poor did
-the congressional electorate was younger than the US population

-the female share of the electorate matched the female share of the US population -the wealthy turned out at higher levels than the poor did

Which of the following statements regarding conference committees is accurate?

-Successful conference committee reports are generally true compromises
-congress elects new members of the conference committee at the beginning of each session
-conference committee reports are binding and not subject to a floor vote
-a conference committee serves as an alternative way for a bill to become law without sending it to the president

-Successful conference committee reports are generally true compromises

In Shelby County v. Holder, the _(1)_ was weakened when it was decided that the _(2)_ no longer had to validate a state’s redistricting plan if the state had a history of racial discrimination.

-Voting Rights Act
-Senate
-Civil Rights Act
-president
-Department of Justice
-Eighteenth Amendment

1. Voting Rights Act 2. Department of Justice

page 463; Who are the member of Congress

Which group has the most accurate proportional relationship between its share of the US population and its share of representatives in the US House?

-Native Americans
-white
-black
-Asian
-HIspanic

-Native American

Political polarization in Congress seemed to reach a new high-water mark with the 113th Congress. Which of the following are consequences of this polarization?

-government shutdown over budget battles
-an impasse over the Affordable Care Act
-a new record for the single least productive congressional years
-lowest record level of public confidence in Congress

ALL OF THE ABOVE

Why is party unity voting in the House typically higher than party unity voting in the Senate?

-Senators have an obligation to be more bipartisan than do House members
the House party leadership has control over access to the floor, but Senate party leadership does not.
-House leadership PACs are far more powerful than Senate leadership PACs
-Senate party leadership does not have much influence over its members as does House leadership

-Senate party leadership does not have as much influence over its members as does House leadership -The House party leadership has control over access to the floor, but the Senate party leadership does not.

Which of the following, according to the new rules of 2013, are free from the threat of filibuster?

-national security related bills
-executive branch nominees
-entitlement funding bills
-federal court nominees
-Supreme Court nominees

-executive branch nominees -federal court nominees

Page 472; How members of Congress Represents their Districts

Match the type of constituent service to the type of constituency for which it is most likely undertaken. DISTRICT AS A WHOLE/ INDIVIDUAL CONSTITUENTS/ ORGANIZED INTEREST

-helping secure favorable tax status
-making promotional speeches
-solving problems with government agencies
-obtaining federal projects
-answering complaints

DISTRICT AS A WHOLE: obtaining federal projects INDIVIDUAL CONSTITUENTS: solving problems with government agencies/ answering complaints ORGANIZED INTEREST: making promotional speeches/ helping secure favorable tax status

What is the difference between a public bill and a private bill?

-public bills provide relief or exemptions
-private bills are illegal under the Government Transparency Act of 1974
-public bills are a form of patronage; private bills are not
public bills apply to everyone in a jurisdiction

-public bills apply to everyone in a jurisdiction

Choose all of the major reasons for why Congress has become more politically polarized in recent years.

-presidential intervention
-mobilization of liberal interest groups
-population clustering
-gerrymandering
-mobilization of conservative interest groups
-strengthening of party leadership in Congress

-population clustering -gerrymandering -mobilization of conservative interest groups

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