WSU PSY 3910 Ch. 7

Total Word Count: 2030
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The case of Sara in the opening vignette makes the point that

a. pain is a valuable source of information to the body.

Humans can detect sound pressure waves that cycle between ________ and ________ times per second.

c. 30; 20,000

Sound can best be thought of as

b. changes in air pressure produced by the vibration of an object.

The pitch of a sound stimulus is related to the physical characteristic of

d. frequency of vibration.

The complexity of a sound wave determines the psychological dimension known as

e. timbre

The loudness of a sound is related to

a. the amplitude of sound vibration.

Which of the following is a physical dimension of sound perception?

c. amplitude

The ear is considered to be a(n) ________ organ.

c. analytical

Sound is funneled into the auditory canal via the

e. pinna.

Another name for the eardrum is the

tympanic membrane.

The ossicles are found within the

e. middle ear.

The cochlea is located within the

b. inner ear.

The ossicles are

d. tiny bones located within the middle ear.

The middle chamber of organ of Corti is the

scala media.

The mechanical stimulus that induces movements of the hair cells is the

a. movement of the stapes against the oval window.

Movement of the basilar membrane farthest away from the oval window is maximal for a

a. very low pitch.

Which of the following transforms sound into action potentials?
a. hair-cell cilia

a. hair-cell cilia

Deafness caused by blockage of the ________ can be treated ________.

b. round window; by drilling a tiny hole to create a new round window

The hair-like appendages that extend from the ends of the auditory receptors are known as

a. cilia.

The ratio of inner to outer hair cells in the human cochlea is approximately

c. 1:4.

Adjacent cilia on a hair cell are joined together by
a. strands of actin.

c. tip links.

The receptor potential of a hair cell is triggered by cilia movements that

b. open a channel to potassium in the insertional plaque.

Whether ion channels open or close within the hair cell cilia

d. reflects tension exerted by the tip links on the insertional plaques.

The branch of the eighth cranial nerve that conducts auditory signals to the brain is called the

e. cochlear nerve.

Which of the following is true of the neurons of the cochlear nerve?

a. The neurons of this nerve are of the bipolar type.

Which of the following is true of hair cells?

b. Damage to the inner hair cells impairs hearing.

The fact that adjacent regions of the basilar membrane and of the primary auditory cortex appear to respond best to different sound ________ can be displayed in a ________ map.

d. frequencies; tonotopic

The posterior auditory stream starts in the ________ and is involved in ________.

e. posterior parietal cortex; sound localization

Higher-frequency sounds produce maximal distortion of the basilar membrane

a. near the stapes.

Low-pitched sounds are detected by the use of ________ by the cochlea.

b. rate coding

Which of the following outcomes strongly supports the notion that a place code is involved in detecting medium to high-pitched sounds?

a. Antibiotics can kill hair cells in a basal to apical direction and produce corresponding deficits in pitch perception.

The precise localization of sound vibration along the basilar membrane reflects

d. the contractile capacity of outer hair cells.

Which of the following is true of rate coding along the basilar membrane?

c. Frequencies lower than 200 Hz are coded by a rate of firing that is cued to the movement of the apical end of the basilar membrane.

The minimum movement of the hair-cell tips that will generate a perceptible sound is

d. 1-100 picometers.

The lowest and usually most intense frequency of a complex sound is its

e. fundamental frequency.

A sound source that is located directly in front of a person
a. can be easily detected.

a. can be easily detected.

Neurons that use binaural differences in loudness as a cue to the source of a sound are located within the

a. lateral superior olivary complex.

The capacity to detect whether a high-frequency sound comes from the left or right of a person reflects an analysis of

b. a sonic shadow that reflects differences in loudness.

The ability to estimate the elevation of a sound
a. is a genetic trait.

is a function of experience.

The recognition of auditory patterns is accomplished by

d. circuits within the auditory cortex.

The anterior stream of the human auditory system performs analyses of ________, while the posterior stream provides analyses of ________.

c. complex sounds; perception of form

In the human auditory system, the analysis of "what" corresponds to ________, whereas the analysis of "where" corresponds to ________.

a. sound identity; location of a sound

Functional imaging studies of human association cortex indicate that judgments of sound ________ activate the ________.

b. identity; posterior stream

Damage to the auditory association cortex can
a. induce deafness.

c. impair the understanding of sound meaning but not hearing.

Match up the auditory system structure with the correct music analysis function:

b. perception of harmony; inferior frontal cortex

A unique aspect of the loss of function shown by Patient I.R. after aneurysm surgery involved her

e. inability to read sheet music.

Congenital amusia is found in about ________ percent of the population.

4

The labyrinths of the inner ear are comprised of the cochlea, the ________, and the ________.

a. vestibular sacs; semicircular canals

Low-frequency stimulation of the vestibular sacs would be expected to produce

e. nausea.

The utricle and saccule are components of the
a. middle ear.

c. vestibular sacs.

The ________ sense sudden changes in the rotation of the head.

b. semicircular canals

The ________ sense sudden rotation of the head.

a. semicircular canals

Hair cells within the semicircular canals are activated by
a. traveling sine waves.

d. movement of the cupula.

Hair cells within the vestibular sacs are activated by
a. movements of the otoconia.

a. movements of the otoconia.

Which of the following is a similarity between hair cells of the cochlea and those of the vestibular sacs?

c. Each hair cell is activated by a shearing force exerted on the cilia.

The connection of the vestibular system with the third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerves allows the vestibular system to

a. adjust eye movements to compensate for head movements.

The kinesthesia system provides information about

c. body movement and position.

________ are a component of the somatosenses.

a. Free nerve endings in the skin

Cutaneous receptors signal information regarding

c. events that damage the skin.

Cutaneous receptors signal information about stimuli that interact with

a. the external surface of the skin.

Glabrous ________ skin is usually found on the ________.

e. non-hairy; palm of the hand

The term "glabrous," as it pertains to skin, means

a. smooth.

________ are the largest sensory organs of the skin.

d. Pacinian corpuscles

________ detect changes in temperature and pain.

b. free nerve endings

Which of the receptors below are used by the body to detect vibration?

d. Pacinian corpuscles

The primary function of the Meissner corpuscle is to detect

a. edge contours.

Patient G.L. suffered damage to large-diameter myelinated axons that serve her face; we would expect that she would have difficulty in detecting a(n)

c. tickle of her forehead.

Which of the following is true of receptors involved in the detection of warm and cold?

e. The six known thermal receptors are members of the TRP family.

Damage to fibers containing the TRPM8 receptor would be expected to

a. impair sensing of extreme cold.

The function of a nociceptor is to detect

pain

The presence of chemicals that induce inflammation is uniquely detected by

b. TRPA1 receptors.

The pain associated with bone cancer is partly caused by activation of

b. TRPV1 receptors.

High-threshold free nerve endings are sensitive to

c. angina or migraine.

The ________ nuclei are the relay nuclei for somatosensation.

d. ventral posterior thalamic

After damage to her somatosensory association cortex, Patient E.C.
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experienced

e. difficulty in recognizing common objects by touch.

Which of the following would be expected to induce pain?
a. consumption of a placebo pill

c: activation of the insular cortex

Which of the following is true of the functions of pain?

b. Pain can be triggered by tissue damage within the body.

Imaging studies suggest that the unpleasant aspect of pain involves the

c. anterior cingulate cortex.

The long-term emotional component of chronic pain is mediated by pathways that

d. project to the prefrontal cortex.

Electrical stimulation of the ________ in humans produces painful burning and tingling sensations.

e. insular cortex

Imagine that you are suffering chronic pain from a medical condition that cannot be treated. In order to minimize the long-term emotional response to your pain, you would choose a modification of your

b. prefrontal cortex.

Imaging studies indicate that the ________ plays a key role in the perceived intensity of pain, while the activity of the ________ is related to the unpleasantness of pain.

b. somatosensory cortex; anterior cingulate cortex

Melzak argues that phantom limb sensation in an amputee occurs because

c. the parietal cortex is programmed to perceive activity from each of four limbs.

The most effective site for the induction of analgesia in rats using electrical stimulation is the

d. periaqueductal gray matter.

The process of vaginal self-stimulation in human women induces analgesia through

e. endogenous opiate release.

The possible painful aspect of ________ is offset by the release of endogenous opiates

a. copulation

A person is administered a placebo "pain-relieving" skin cream just before receiving a painful electric shock. Imaging studies suggest that the placebo analgesic effect is due to

c. increased activity within the prefrontal cortex and PAG.

Tigers and cats are unable to sense which of the following taste qualities?

b. sweetness

The taste known as ________ allows us to detect glutamate in proteins.

b. umami

Sodium channels play a key role in the perception of

c. salts.

The detection of ________ involves the detection of fatty acids on the tongue.

e. fat

________ is the neurotransmitter released by the taste receptor cells.

d. ATP

Which of the following is a correct match between a taste receptor and the chemical sensed by that receptor?

e. sourness; presence of an acid

The first relay station for gustatory information en route to the cortex is the

d. nucleus of the solitary tract.

The stimulus for olfaction is

a. a volatile substance.

Olfactory receptors are located in the
a. turbinate bones.

b. olfactory epithelium.

Recent studies indicate that humans may possess as many as ________ different olfactory receptor genes.

c. 300-350

Which of the following is true of the neural coding of gustation?

d. Each odorant produces a different pattern of activity in the glomeruli.

The ________ of a sound stimulus is related to the intensity of the sound.

loudness

The ________ of a sound stimulus is related to the physical characteristic of frequency of vibration.

pitch

Another name for the eardrum is the ________.

tympanic membrane

The hair-like appendages that extend from the ends of the auditory receptors are known as ________.

cilia

Damage to the ________ hair cells results in deafness in mice.

inner

Primary auditory cortex is said to be organized in a(n) ________ fashion.

tonotopic

Hearing loss due to hair cell damage can be restored by a(n) ________ implant.

cochlear

Determination of sound ________ is carried out by the posterior auditory stream.

identity

The semicircular canals respond best to _______ of the head.

angular acceleration

________ skin is also known as glabrous skin.

Smooth

_______ detect skin vibration.

Mechanoreceptors

Tickle, thermal activation, and noxious stimuli are detected by ________ in the skin.

free nerve endings

The TRPM8 receptor is key for our ability to sense ________.

cold

The pain associated with bone cancer is partly caused by activation of ________ receptors.

TRPV1

The sensory experience of pain involves activation of the ________ cortex.

somatosensory

Imaging studies indicate that the activity of the ________ is related to the unpleasantness of pain.

anterior cingulate cortex

The long-term emotional component of chronic pain is mediated by pathways that project to the ________ cortex.

prefrontal

An example of a survival behavior that is accompanied by the release of endogenous opiates would be ________.

copulation

The first relay station for gustatory information en route to the cortex is the ________.

nucleus of the solitary tract

Odorants are ________ molecules.

Volatile

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