World History- Unit 4

Total Word Count: 1515
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autocratic

form of government where one person has absolute rule

eunuch

a castrated human male used as an advisor or servant of a king

inflation

an increase in supply of currency or credit relative to the availability of goods, resulting in higher prices

tetrarch

the ruler of a quarter of a country or empire

manorialism

the system where land was rented to tenants by a lord

Which emperor’s assassination set off the Crisis of the Third Century.

Severus

This city’s name was changed to Constantinople in honor of Constantine.

Byzantium

The Third Century Crisis came as a result of what three things?

internal civil wars economic disaster foreign invasions

Emperor ______________ realized the Roman Empire was too large for one person to govern.

Diocletian

The three rival political foes that caused such division in China were:

the eunuchs the royal clans Confucian scholars

After the long series of civil wars in China, there came an era called the _____.

Three Kingdoms Period

REVIEW1a:ROME

REVIEW1a:ROME

The Third Century Crisis (A.D. 235-284) nearly caused the Roman Empire to collapse, due to three reasons:

-Civil war came about as more than twenty men laid claim to the position of emperor. -Repeated invasions from all directions resulted in the loss of much of the empire for a time. -The economy collapsed as a result of high inflation and the loss of foreign trade.

Emperor Diocletian (A.D. 284-305) saved the day by:

-Realizing the empire was too large for one man to govern; -Splitting the empire into two pieces-the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire; -Forming a Tetrarchy, which allowed for Roman rule by four people; -Taking back much of the land that had been lost.

The Western Roman Empire eventually fell to Germanic invaders in 476.

The Western Roman Empire eventually fell to Germanic invaders in 476.

The Eastern Roman Empire was ruled by the first Christian emperor, Constantine (306-337) who halted the persecution of Christians and strengthened the empire enough to ensure its survival until 1453.

The Eastern Roman Empire was ruled by the first Christian emperor, Constantine (306-337) who halted the persecution of Christians and strengthened the empire enough to ensure its survival until 1453.

Review1b:THE HAN DYNASTY

Review1b:THE HAN DYNASTY

-The Han was the most important dynasty in Chinese history.
-It was splintered by internal division between the royal clans, eunuchs, and Confucian scholars.
-A long series of bitters wars erupted between rival clans. Eventually, Cao Cao was able to gain the upper hand.
-The final outcome of the many war was the emergence of three groups called the Three Kingdoms.
-The economy of China would suffer terribly from the many battles, which resulted in numerous peasant uprisings.

-The Han was the most important dynasty in Chinese history. -It was splintered by internal division between the royal clans, eunuchs, and Confucian scholars. -A long series of bitters wars erupted between rival clans. Eventually, Cao Cao was able to gain the upper hand. -The final outcome of the many war was the emergence of three groups called the Three Kingdoms. -The economy of China would suffer terribly from the many battles, which resulted in numerous peasant uprisings.

Roman Empire

Territory: Included lands from Spain to Persia, England, and Egypt

Political Leaders:
-Caesar Augustus
-Severus
-Diocletian
-Constantine
-Maximus

Economic Problems: Inflation

Political Problems:
-civil war
-foreign invasion

Han China Territory: Included areas of Vietnam, Korea, and Japan Political Leaders: -Emperor Ling -Empress He -Liu Bian -Yuan Shao -Cao Cao Economic Problems: neglected farmland Political Problems: -fighting among the royal clans, Confucian scholars, and eunuchs -peasant rebellions -foreign invasions

ASSIGNMENT#2

ASSIGNMENT#2

caste

the Hindu system of organizing society into hereditary classes

fresco

the method of painting on fresh plaster

metaphysics

the philosophical study of the nature of being and beings

monastery

a place where monks live together

The Gupta Empire resisted invasions by these people for a long time.

The Hunas

Who discovered Earth was round by observing lunar eclipses and that Earth is round and revolves on axis?

Gupta

Order of Gupta caste system
(Hinduism practice)

Brahmins (scholars&priests) Kshatriyas(kings&warriors) Vaishyas(merchants) Shudras(farmers&services) Parjanya (untouchables)

Metallurgy was well known by the Guptas, as can be attested to by the ____________ pillar of Delhi.

Iron

The Guptas figured out the earth was round by observing lunar eclipses.

True

The ancient Indian language was called _____.

Sanskrit

This kingdom was known for its Dravidian architecture.

Pallava

The Kingdom was overrun by Muslim invaders who wanted its pearl fisheries.

Pandyan

History of the Gupta Empire (320-550)

•The origin of the Gupta is unknown. •Its first ruler was Chandragupta (320-335). •The "golden age" of India took place during the reign of Chandragupta II (380-413). •The Gupta Empire resisted invasions by the White Huns, or Hunas, on numerous occasions. •The empire was weakened and finally fell after the death of its last emperor, Vishnugupta (540-550).

Notable achievements of the empire

•They developed the decimal system, with zero as a placeholder. •Based on observations made during lunar eclipses, their astronomers decided that the world was round and spun on an axis. •They were experts at iron metallurgy, as can be attested to by the pillar of Delhi. •The literary style of the ancient Indian language, Sanskrit, reached its peak. •Hinduism was the dominate religion although all religions were tolerated. •The Gupta had a strong educational system. •The caste system was in place, which placed every person in a particular social class.

The Pallava Dynasty (275-901)

•It may have been started by a people that migrated from Iran. •The Pallava stayed in constant conflict with neighbors on the north and south. •They were known for beautiful Dravidian architecture.

The Pandyan Kingdom (560-1345)

•This was a smaller kingdom located on the southern tip of India. •The kingdom expanded to include Sri Lanka. •It was eventually overrun by Muslim invaders. •It operated pearl fisheries.

ASSIGNMENT#3

ASSIGNMENT#3

karma

the quality of a person’s current and future life as determined by his behavior in this and previous lives

mantra

a word or sound that is repeated during meditation

nirvana

the attainment of enlightenment and freeing of the spiritual self from attachment to worldly things

persecution

subjecting a group of people to cruel treatment because of their religious beliefs

The Mongols, White Huns, and Mughals severely persecuted _____.

Buddhists

Home to both Hinduism and Buddhism was _____.

India

Hinduism experienced its greatest growth during the _________ Empire.

Gupta

Buddhism and Christianity both used _________ to greatly expand.

Trade

The _____________ became the stabilizing force in Europe after the fall of Rome.

Catholic Church

What two events made it possible for Christianity to grow rapidly?

Edict of Milan; Theodosius I made it official religion of Rome

The world’s oldest known religion is _____.

Hinduism

Buddhism

•Its birthplace was India. •The Mauryan king, Ashoka, helped spread it. •It was the official religion of the Gupta Empire for a time. •The White Huns, Mongols, and Mughals severely persecuted Buddhists in India. •Buddhism grew in Southeast Asia.

Hinduism and Buddhism

•They have similar beliefs. •Each incorporate the other’s beliefs into their own religion.

Hinduism

•It also flourished during the Gupta Empire. •It operated a social caste system. •Magnificent temples and shrines were built. •It also grew in Southeast Asia.

Buddhism and Christianity

•Buddhism expanded via trade routes, especially the Silk Road. •At first, Christianity grew during times of severe persecution. Later, it expanded to other nations via trade routes.

Christianity

•The growth of Christianity was also made possible by the Edict of Milan and Emperor Theodosius I, who made it the official religion. •After the fall of Rome, the Catholic Church became the stabilizing force in Europe and soon, a dominant political force.

caliph

a title taken by Muslim rulers that assert religious authority

caliphate

the territory a caliph rules over

schism

the division of a group into antagonistic factions

infidel

someone who has no belief in one particular religion

polity

a particular form of government that exists within a state

pagan

someone who does not follow one of the world’s main religions

mosque

a Muslim house of worship

The last great Roman Emperor was _____.

Justinian I

Justinian I was famous for rewriting the ____ legal code.

Roman

Greek fire was used by the _____.

Byzantines

Rank the social classes of the Sassanid society in their order of importance.

Priests Warriors Secretaries Peasants

What are three things that Khosrau I accomplished as ruler of the Sassanid Empire?

He rebuilt canals. He established new cities. He set up a good taxation system.

The first dynasty of the Muslim caliphate was the _____.

Umayyad

The Abbasid Empire was defeated by the _____ in 1258.

Mongols

The ________believe the caliph should always be elected, not conferred by heredity.

Sunni

The ____ created the office of the "Imam" or leader/guide

Shiite

ASSIGNMENT#6

ASSIGNMENT#6

Conversion

adoption of new religious opinions or beliefs

Orthodox

following the established or traditional rules of faith

Schism

the division of a group into antagonistic factions

Liturgy

form and arrangement of public worship laid down by a church

The event that made the Great Schism forever permanent was the _____.

Fourth Crusade.

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