World History Chapter 4

Total Word Count: 925
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What was the first Greek state?

Mycenae

The western shores of Asia Minor, where many Greeks settled, came to be called __?

Ionia

Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey were __?

Stories of the Trojan War

The capture of Troy by the Greeks, according to Homer, was accomplished by a trick using the Trojan __?

Horse

Who was the Greek hero from Iliad?

Achilles

Explain Homer’s influence on Green civilization.

These masterpieces gave the Greeks and ideal past with a cast of heroes. The epics came to be used as basic texts for the education of generations of Greek males.

The excellence of courage and honor was what the Greeks called __?

Arete

By 750 B.C., the __ or city-state, became the central focus of Greek life.

Polis

In ancient Greece, what was a fortified place and religious center?

Acropolis

In ancient Greece, what was an open area used as a market and meeting place?

Agora

The Greek rulers who seized power by force from the aristocracy were called __?

Tyrants

The government of Sparta was an oligarchy, which means that it was __?

Rule by a few

When the hoplites, or infantry soldiers, went into battle, they marched shoulder to shoulder in formation called a __?

Phalanx

In Sparta, the five elected officials who were responsible for the education of youth and the conduct of all citizens were __?

ephors

The government of Athens after Cleisthenes became __?

democracy

Who brought democracy to Athens?

Cleisthenes and Pericles

Describe the growth of democracy in Athens?

Cleisthenes started the growth in Cleisthenes, with the creation of a 500 person council. Under Pericles, a direct democracy was established

What happened at Thermoplyae?

9,000 Greeks held off the Persian army of 150,000 for two days

At Thermoplyae Pass, the Spartan troops __?

were especially brave even though they were severely outnumbered

Who was an Athenian who ran from Marathon to Athens?

Pheldippides

The period of history which saw the height of Athenian power and brilliance was called the Age of __?

Pericles

According to Pericles, a democracy is best defined as __?

power in the hands of all people

Who made up the largest part of the population of classical Athens?

citizens

Which group had nearly three times the number of people as there were foreigners in classical Athens?

slaves

According to Greek religion, the gods lived __?

Mount Olympus

The chief god and father of the Gods was __?

Zeus

Which Greek playwright wrote Oedipus Rex?

Sophocles

The argument that it is beyond the reach of the human mind to understand the universe was made by __?

Sophists

Who said that "the unexamined life is not worth living?"

Socreties

What were Plato’s ideas about reality and government?

There is a higher world of eternal, unchanging forms that has always existed. These forms make up reality and only a trained mind can understand them. What we see is but a reflection of that reality, a shadow of the true form. Government works best when divided into three groups. At the top are philosopher-kings who must rule with wisdom and inspiration. Warriors encompass the second groups, and the third includes everyone else. Finally, men and women should have equal access to positions.

According to Plato, individuals could not achieve a good life unless __

they lived in a just and rational state.

Herodotus wrote __, a work commonly regarded as the first real history in Western civilization.

History of the Persian Wars

__ is considered by many historians to be the greatest historian of the ancient world.

Thucydides

The building which is regarded as the greatest example of a Greek temple is the __?

Parthenon

According to the time line, how long after Phillip II came to power did Macedonia crush the Greeks?

359 BC

How old was Alexander the Great when he died?

32 years old

Who was ruled by Phillip II?

Macedonia

Which army crushed the Greeks at the battle of Chaeronea?

Macedonian army

Who was the father of Alexander The Great?

Philip II

What was the result of Alexander the Great’s conquests?

Greek language, architecture, literature, and art spread throughout SW Asia and the near E

The conquests of Alexander the Great created what?

Hellenistic Era

What means "to imitate Greeks?

Hellenistic

Which four kingdoms emerged following Alexander’s death/

Macedonia, Syria, Pergamum, and Egypt

Explain the spread of Greek culture into Southwest Asia during the Hellenistic Era.

"Hellenistic" means to "imitate the Greeks." After Alexander died, the empires- Syria, Macedonia, Pergamum, and Egypt= soon fell apart. Hellenistic rulers encouraged a massive spread of Greek colonists to Southwest Asia in order to gain new recruits for the army and as

What Hellenistic astronomer developed the theory that the sun is at the center of the universe while the Earth rotates around the sun?

Aristarchus of Samos

The astronomer Eratosthenes determined what?

that Earth was round

The mathematician Euclid wrote the Elements, which was a __?

a textbook on plane geometry

Who shouted "Eureka!" after discovering specific gravity?

Archimedes

What were some of the beliefs of the philosopher Epicurus?

That human beings were free to follow self- interest as a basic motivating force. Happiness was the goal to/ of life

What philosophy was taught by Zero?

Stoicism

Explain the philosophy of Stoicism?

Happiness can only be found with inner-peace by living with harmony with the word of God

What battle ended the Persian War?

Platea

The goddess of wisdom and crafts was __?

Athena

The god of the sun and poetry was __?

Apollo

The god of war was __?

Ares

The brother of Zeus and god of the seas and earthquakes was __?

Poseidon

The goddess of love was __?

Aphrodite

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