World History Chapter 1

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Although the date varies by location when did the shift to agriculture first occur?

9000 B.C.E

Animal domestication led to humans becoming able to digest which of the following?

Milk

As Neolithic religious structures became more hierarchical, what was the purpose of the most important religious practice?

Ensuring fertility

Beginning in the sixth millennium B.C.E., people attacked wooden sticks to frames and pack animals to use as a simple version of what developing technology?

Plows

Between 1 and 4 percent of the DNA in modern humans is shared with what early hominid?

Neanderthals

Beginning about 9000 B.C.E., people in the Fertile Crescent began to domesticate what crop?

Wheat

The burial sites of Paleolithic humans reveal that they believed that all things and natural occurrences had which of the following?

Spirits

By 4000 B.C.E., how far north of the Fertile Crescent had horticulture spread?

To Britain

By what time was the Bronze Age well under way?

2500 B.C.E.

During which of the following periods did the ancestor common to both chimpanzees and humans probably live?

5 to 7 million years ago

Every society that has left a written record was organized around what important hierarchical system?

Patriarchy

For what did Neolithic peoples use obsidian?

It was used to make knives and blades.

Horticulture refers to the growing of plants using what tool?

Digging sticks

How did Homo erectus differ from modern humans?

Homo erectus had a slightly smaller brain size than modern humans.

How did Paleolithic people obtain mating partners?

Through group travels of foraging for food, the people exchanged sexual partners and seeking mates outside of their own groups, they formed kinship bonds.

How did the amount of labor required for horticulture compare to that for foraging?

Horticulture required more time and labor than foraging.

How did the moldboard plow aid early farmers?

It turned over soil, breaking it up for easier planting.

How did women’s work change as a result of settled agriculture?

Women likely began to spend more time tending to household needs.

How did Homo erectus migrate from China about 1.5 million years ago to settle on Java?

By walking over land.

How is the term species generally defined?

A group of organisms that can mate and produce fertile offspring of both sexes.

How many hours a week did early foragers generally spend gathering food?

Ten to twenty hours.

How was the theory of the Caucasian race developed by Johann Blumenbach?

Based on skull judgments, he presumed they were the most attractive and he classified them as light-skinned people of Europe and Western Asia believing that their home was most likely the Caucus Mountains.

In Paleolithic society, who is responsible for hunting?

Typically men, however, in modern Agta culture of the Philippines, women hunt for game, and in numerous other, women are involved in certain types of hunting.

In most Neolithic communities, which group of people were the first to work out written codes of law?

Priests

The natural herding instinct of what animal paved the way for pastoralism?

Sheep

The Neanderthals of Europe were a branch of what hominid group?

Homo erectus

Paleolithic humans may have encouraged the growth of new plants by doing what?

Setting fires

Potatoes and quinoa were domesticated by 3000 B.C.E. in what region?

Andes Mountains

Scientists used which of the following to label the first periods of human history?

The material used for tools

The story of Jacob in the book of Genesis is an example of what?

Selective Breeding

The tem forager is now used by historians instead of what traditional term?

Hunter-gatherer

What alloy is created by mixing copper with another metal such as arsenic?

Bronze

What characteristics did the god of polytheistic Neolithic societies develop?

They took on social hierarchies and had specific labor responsibilities.

What did Paleolithic people believe about dead members of their kinship groups?

That deceased family members were still with them.

What discovery marks the transition from Paleolithic to Neolithic?

Agriculture

What is depicted in the earliest Egyptian hieroglyph for weaving?

A woman in a shuttle

What major climate change occurred about 15,000 years ago?

Temperatures warmed and glaciers melted.

What species of animal did humans domesticate around 15,000 years ago?

Dogs

What term describes a crop that has been modified by selective breeding?

Domesticated

What term is used for the first fully bipedal hominid known to paleontologist?

Australopithecus

What was one of the results of endogamy?

Differences in physical features and spoken language

What was one of the shaman’s primary duties?

Healing the sick

What was the isotope C14 utilized for?

The isotope was used to date the age of fossils and artifacts by measuring the amount of C14 left in objects.

Where did Homo sapiens first evolve?

East Africa

Where have the majority of Australopithecus skeletal remains been found?

The Great Rift Valley

Which of the following allowed Homo sapiens to migrate to Australia and New Guinea?

Simple Rafts

Which of the following foods dominated the diet of Paleolithic foragers?

Plants

Which of the following is evidence that Neanderthals understood death to have a symbolic meaning?

They buried the dead with symbolic objects

Which of the following is true of Paleolithic mating patterns?

Most Paleolithic humans sought mates from outside their kinship groups.

Which of the following skills did Homo sapiens acquire around 25,000 years ago?

The capacity to weave cloth

Which of the following was an important feature of the houses of Catal Huyuk?

They were made of mud brick

Which of the following was a consequence of humans living in close proximity with animals?

They were exposed to more pathogens

Who in Paleolithic society was believed to regularly receive messages from the spirit world?

The Shaman

Why did the Neolithic peoples build circular structures?

Circular structures were believed to predict the movements of the star.

Why were better social skills especially important for early human females?

They needed help attracting a mate.

Why won’t llamas and alpacas carry heavy loads?

They are not domesticated beasts of burden

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